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Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging and overturning. Examples of human-powered tilling methods using hand tools include shoveling, mattock work and raking. Examples of draft-animal-powered or mechanized work include ploughing, rolling with cultipackers or other rollers and cultivating with cultivator shanks. Small-scale gardening and farming, for household food production or small business production, tends to use the smaller-scale methods, whereas medium- to large-scale farming tends to use the larger-scale methods. Tillage, deeper and more thorough is classified as primary, tillage, shallower and sometimes more selective of location is secondary. Primary tillage such as ploughing tends to produce a rough surface finish, whereas secondary tillage tends to produce a smoother surface finish, such as that required to make a good seedbed for many crops. Harrowing and rototilling combine primary and secondary tillage into one operation.

"Tillage" can mean the land, tilled. The word "cultivation" has several senses that overlap with those of "tillage". In a general context, both can refer to agriculture. Within agriculture, both can refer to any kind of soil agitation. Additionally, "cultivation" or "cultivating" may refer to an narrower sense of shallow, selective secondary tillage of row crop fields that kills weeds while sparing the crop plants. Tilling was first performed via human labor. Hoofed animals could be used to till soil by trampling, in addition to pigs, whose natural instincts are to root the ground if allowed to; the wooden plow was invented. It could be pulled with human labor, or by mule, ox, water buffalo, or similar sturdy animal. Horses are unsuitable, though breeds such as the Clydesdale were bred as draft animals; the steel plow allowed farming in the American Midwest, where tough prairie grasses and rocks caused trouble. Soon after 1900, the farm tractor was introduced, which made modern large-scale agriculture possible.

Primary tillage is conducted after the last harvest, when the soil is wet enough to allow plowing but allows good traction. Some soil types can be plowed dry; the objective of primary tillage is to attain a reasonable depth of soft soil, incorporate crop residues, kill weeds, to aerate the soil. Secondary tillage is any subsequent tillage, in order to incorporate fertilizers, reduce the soil to a finer tilth, level the surface, or control weeds. Reduced tillage leaves between 15 and 30% crop residue cover on the soil or 500 to 1000 pounds per acre of small grain residue during the critical erosion period; this may involve the use of field cultivators, or other implements. See the general comments below to see how they can affect the amount of residue. Intensive tillage leaves less than 15% crop residue cover or less than 500 pounds per acre of small grain residue; this type of tillage is referred to as conventional tillage, but as conservational tillage is now more used than intensive tillage, it is not appropriate to refer to this type of tillage as conventional.

Intensive tillage involves multiple operations with implements such as a mold board, and/or chisel plow. After this, a finisher with a harrow, rolling basket, cutter can be used to prepare the seed bed. There are many variations. Conservation tillage leaves at least 30% of crop residue on the soil surface, or at least 1,000 lb/ac of small grain residue on the surface during the critical soil erosion period; this slows water movement. Additionally, conservation tillage has been found to benefit predatory arthropods that can enhance pest control. Conservation tillage benefits farmers by reducing fuel consumption and soil compaction. By reducing the number of times the farmer travels over the field, farmers realize significant savings in fuel and labor. Conservation tillage is used on over 370 million acres in South America and North America. In most years since 1997, conservation tillage was used in US cropland more than intensive or reduced tillage. However, conservation tillage delays warming of the soil due to the reduction of dark earth exposure to the warmth of the spring sun, thus delaying the planting of the next year's spring crop of corn.

No-till – Never use a plow, etc. again. Aims for 100% ground cover. Strip-Till – Narrow strips are tilled where seeds will be planted, leaving the soil in between the rows untilled. Mulch-till Rotational Tillage – Tilling the soil every two years or less often. Ridge-Till Zone tillage is a form of modified deep tillage in which only narrow strips are tilled, leaving soil in between the rows untilled; this type of tillage agitates the soil to help reduce soil compaction problems and to improve internal soil drainage. It is designed to only disrupt the soil in a narrow strip directly below the crop row. In comparison to no-till, which relies on the previous year's plant residue to protect the soil and aides in postponement of the warming of the soil and crop growth in Northern climates, zone tillage creates a strip five inches wide that breaks up plow pans, assists in warming the soil and helps to prepare a seedbed; when combined with cover crops, zone tillage helps replace lost organic matter, slows the deterioration of the soil, improves soil drainage, increases soil water and nutrient holding capacity, allows necessary soil orga

Mendeleyev Glacier

Mendeleyev Glacier is a glacier, 10 nautical miles long, draining northeast through the northern outcrops of the Payer Mountains, in Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. It was mapped from air photos and surveys by the Soviet Antarctic Expedition, 1960–61, named after Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev, whose surname may be transliterated as "Mendeleyev". List of glaciers in the Antarctic Glaciology This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Mendeleyev Glacier"


Noon is 12 o'clock in the daytime, as opposed to midnight. It is written as 12 p.m. or 12 pm. Solar noon is the time; this is when the Sun reaches its highest point in the sky, at 12 noon apparent solar time and can be observed using a sundial. The local or clock time of solar noon depends on the date; the word noon is derived from Latin nona hora, the ninth hour of the day, is related to the liturgical term none. The Roman and Western European medieval monastic day began at 6:00 a.m. at the equinox by modern timekeeping, so the ninth hour started at what is now 3:00 p.m. at the equinox. In English, the meaning of the word shifted to midday and the time moved back to 12:00 local time; the change was fixed by the 14th century. Solar noon is the moment when the Sun contacts the observer's meridian, reaching its highest position above the horizon on that day and leaving the shortest shadow; this is the origin of the terms ante meridiem and post meridiem, as noted below. The Sun is directly overhead at solar noon at the Equator on the equinoxes, at the Tropic of Cancer on the June solstice and at the Tropic of Capricorn on the December solstice.

In the Northern Hemisphere, north of the Tropic of Cancer, the Sun is due south of the observer at solar noon. The elapsed time from the local solar noon of one day to the next is 24 hours on only four instances in any given year; this occurs when the effects of Earth’s obliquity of ecliptic and its orbital speed around the Sun offset each other. These four days for the current epoch are centered on 11 February, 13 May, 25 July, 3 November, it occurs at only one particular line of longitude each event. This line varies year to year; this event time and location varies due to Earth's orbit being gravitationally perturbed by the planets. These four 24-hour days occur in both hemispheres simultaneously; the precise UTC times for these four days mark when the opposite line of longitude, 180° away, experiences 24 hours from local midnight to local midnight the next day. Thus, four varying great circles of longitude define from year to year; the two longest time spans from noon to noon occur around 20 June and 21 December.

The shortest time spans occur around 25 March and 13 September. For the same reasons, solar noon and "clock noon" are not the same; the equation of time shows that the reading of a clock at solar noon will be higher or lower than 12:00 by as much as 16 minutes. In the US, noon is indicated by 12 p.m. and midnight by 12 a.m. While some argue that such usage is "improper" based on the Latin meaning, digital clocks are unable to display anything else, an arbitrary decision must be made. An earlier standard of indicating noon as "12M" or "12m", specified in the U. S. GPO Government Style Manual, has fallen into relative obscurity. However, due to the lack of an international standard, the use of 12 a.m. and 12 p.m. can be confusing. Common alternative methods of representing these times are: to use a 24-hour clock to use "12 noon" or "12 midnight" to specify midnight as between two successive days or dates to avoid those specific times and to use "11:59 p.m." or "12:01 a.m." instead. Dipleidoscope Hour angle Solar azimuth angle Media related to Noon at Wikimedia Commons Generate a solar noon calendar for your location U.

S. Government Printing Office Style Manual, 30th edition Shows the hour and angle of sunrise and sunset drawn over a map. Real Sun Time - gives you an exact unique time to the sun, with yours GPS coordinates position

Mao Fujita

Mao Fujita is a Japanese pianist. Fujita was born in Tokyo and began studying the piano at the age of three and has been learning Piano under Ms. Yuka Matsuyama and Prof. Gen Matsuyama since the age of 9, until at least 2016, he is a graduate of Tokyo College of Music High School. He is studying as a special scholarship student in the Piano Performance for Talented Student Division at the Tokyo College of Music, his first appearance on the major international competitions was in 2010, where he received the 1st prize in the Junior Section of The World Classic in Taiwan. He won numerous piano competitions over the following years, such as Rosario Marciano International Piano Competition in Vienna in 2013, the 27th Clara Haskil International Piano Competition in Switzerland in 2017, he participated in the Gina Bachauer International Young Artists Piano Competition in 2016 and won the 3rd prize. Fujita won the Second Prize and Silver Medal at the XVI International Tchaikovsky Competition piano category in 2019.

Beethoven - Rachmaninov - Miyoshi Naxos Crescendo NYCC-10001, 2013 Beethoven: Piano Sonata No. 14 - Wagner/Liszt: Tannhauser Overture - Prokofiev Piano Sonata Naxos Japan NYCC-27296, 2015 Passage Naxos Japan NYCC-27306, 2018 Paderewski: Piano Masterpieces Naxos Japan NYCC-27307, 2018 Mao Fujita Official Website Japan Arts Artist Page Naxos Japan Artist Page

Ecaterina Teodoroiu

Ecaterina Teodoroiu was a Romanian woman who fought and died in World War I, is regarded as a heroine of Romania. A Scouts' member, she had worked as a nurse but she subsequently decided to become a front-line soldier, being impressed by the patriotism of the wounded and the death of her brother Nicolae, Sergeant in the Romanian Army, it was an unusual decision for a woman of that epoch, so she was sent to the front rather reluctantly. However, with the support of the Romanian royal family, soon she proved her worthiness as a symbol and as a soldier, she is favourably compared to Queen Maria of Romania. She was born in the village of Vădeni, in the historical region of Oltenia, in the family of Elena and Vasile Toderoiu, both farmers. Cătălina had two sisters. After studying for 4 years in Vădeni and Târgu Jiu and graduating from the Girls' School in Bucharest, she was to become a teacher when the Romanian Kingdom entered World War I on the Allied side, in 1916. Working as a nurse, on 27 October 1916 Ecaterina joined the civilians and the reserve soldiers fighting to repulse the attack of a Bavarian company of the 9th German Army at the bridge over the Jiu River, in front of Târgu-Jiu.

Impressed by her bravery, the Royal Family invited Ecaterina to Bucharest on 6 November. On 13 November, she went to the frontline to see her brother Nicolae, Sergeant in the 18 Infantry Regiment, shortly killed afterwards, on 14 November, by a shell during fighting near Porceni. Wishing to avenge her brother's death, Ecaterina requested Colonel Obogeanu to be allowed to join the 18 Infantry Regiment as a volunteer, she would soon prove her military skills by using a ruse in order to avoid that her company, surrounded by the enemy, be taken prisoner: after announcing in German the decision of the regiment to surrender, Teodoroiu started shooting, killing several Germans and allowing most of the company to escape. She was captured during fighting on the Rășina-Tunși-Peșteana heights on the night of 16/17 November 1916, but managed to escape with light wounds by killing with a concealed revolver the German soldier, guarding her; the Germans shot the escaping Romanians through wounded Teodoroiu in her right leg.

However, she returned to the company that same evening. Teodoroiu killed at least two Germans during her escape. On 19 November, Ecaterina was involved in the skirmishes close to Țânțăreni. Soon the Germans reached the town of Filiași on 19 November. Fighting near Filiași on that same day, she was wounded in both legs by a mortar shell, evacuated to Craiova to Bucharest and hospitalized at the "King Ferdinand" Military Hospital in Iași. Teodoroiu recovered from her wounds within months, being discharged from hospital on 5 February 1917. On 23 March that year, she was decorated with the Military Virtue Medal for her courage, as well as the Military Virtue Medal one week later. Having met Second Lieutenant Gheorghe Mănoiu in hospital, she requested to be allowed to join his 43/59 Infantry Regiment as a voluntary nurse. For her bravery, she was awarded the "Scout Virtue" Medal and the Military Virtue Medal, 2nd Class, on March 10, 1917. On March 17, 1917, she was awarded the Military Virtue Medal, 1st Class, made honorary Second Lieutenant by King Ferdinand and given the command of a 25-man platoon in the 7th Company, commanded by Second Lieutenant Gheorghe Mănoiu.

Thus, she became the first female Romanian Army officer. Starting with 8 May 1917, the regiment was quartered in Vaslui County. On 17 August, the 43/59 Regiment, part of the reserve of the 1st Army led by General Eremia Grigorescu, prepared to join the upcoming offensive. On 18 August the regiment left Vaslui for Tecuci, crossed the Siret and camped in the Malta Seacă forest, close to the frontline. On 30 August, the commander of the 11th Division, General Ernest Broșteanu, kindly asked her to stay at the mobile hospital behind the front, but Second Lieutenant Teodoroiu refused him, requesting to be allowed to join her platoon in the upcoming battle. On 2 September, the 43/59 Regiment dug in in the Muncelu-Varnița area. On 3 September 1917, the Romanian lines were attacked in force by the German 40th Reserve Regiment of the 115th Infantry Division. While leading her platoon in a counterattack, she was hit by machine gun fire in the chest, or in the head. According to the General Order No. 1 issued the next day by Colonel Constantin Pomponiu, the commanding officer of the 43/59 Regiment, her last words before dying were: "Forward, don't give up, I'm still with you!"

After the war, Ecaterina Teodoroiu was elevated to the status of a heroine of the Romanian people. Henri Berthelot named her the "Joan of Arc of Romania" for her outstanding bravery and self-sacrifice. Buried close to the front, in Fitioneşti, her remains were interred in June 1921 in a crypt in the city center of Târgu Jiu, her grave is honored by a monument erected in 1936 by Milița Petrașcu. In 1921, the Regiment 43/59 Infantry became the honorary

Jim Noir

Jim Noir is the stage name of Alan Roberts, an English singer-songwriter from Davyhulme, Greater Manchester. He has released four albums to date, 2005's Tower of Love, 2008's self-titled LP Jim Noir, 2012's Jimmy's Show and 2014's Finnish Line, as well as a number of EPs. Noir's stage name is in homage to Vic Reeves, his early releases, including Tower of Love as well as all of the preceding EPs, were self-recorded at his parents' home in Davyhulme, Manchester. Noir's music has been described as psychedelic pop electronica with simple repetitive lyrics. Noir is a multi-instrumentalist, he uses a band at performances. He played at the 2006 and 2008 South by Southwest music festival in Austin, Texas and is signed to Seattle-based indie label Barsuk Records in the States, Manchester label My Dad Recordings in the UK. Noir released the single "My Patch" in the UK on 1 May 2006. Jim Noir's second album, Jim Noir was released on 14 April 2008, Noir announced via MySpace blog that his unnamed third album was complete as of 14 March 2009.

On 17 November 2010, Jim Noir released a new six-track EP titled Zooper Dooper. On 17 September 2012, Noir released his third full-length studio album Jimmy's Show, composed of the best songs taken from his members-only Noir Club releases spanning the years 2010-2012. On 21 December 2018, Noir announced via Facebook, that his new album would be named A. M. Jazz. Several of Noir's songs have been adapted for commercials. On the TV series Grey's Anatomy, the song "I Me You I'm Your" was featured on episode "Owner of a Lonely Heart" and was included on the Season 2 soundtrack; the show has featured the songs "My Patch" and "Tell Me What to Do" in other episodes. In 2006 Adidas used a remix of "Eanie Meany" for their World Cup advertising; the song begins, "If you don't give my football back, I'm gonna get my dad on you." Ginsters used "My Patch" for an ad campaign in the UK in 2006 and 2007. For the 2007 holiday season, Target featured a commercial in which an adaptation of Noir's song "My Patch" is playing while windows in a large Advent calendar open and close.

The original lyrics, "If you step on my patch / I'll bring you down, I'll bring you down" were modified. In the commercial, A different singer sings "Holidays are times of magic / We're counting down, we're counting down"; the BBC Radio 4 panel game The Unbelievable Truth uses the opening bars of "My Patch" as its theme song. "My Patch" was used in a trailer for the PlayStation 3 video game LittleBigPlanet, shown at the E3 games conference, as a main track in the full game. It can be heard in various levels. On the TV Series Life, the song "Don't You Worry" was used on episode 218 and "Happy Day Today" was used on 208. "Don't You Worry" was used in the movie The September Issue The opening bars of "My Patch" featured in an episode of Totally Jodie Marsh: Who'll Take Her Up the Aisle? In 2009, the song "Tell Me What to Do" was featured on Ugly Betty in the episode "The Courtship of Betty's Father". Tower of Love My Dad Recordings Jim Noir My Dad Recordings Jimmy's Show Finnish Line A. M Jazz Eanie Meany EP My Patch EP A Quiet Man EP The Key of C My Patch No.65 UK Eanie Meany No.67 UK All Right EP What U Gonna Do Zooper Dooper EP In Hell Single Every month, a new EP or demo album was given away for free through the official Jim Noir newsletter Noir Club.

Melody Junction Super Hooper Dookie Bay by The Dook Early Learnings 98 - 05 Part I Early Learnings 98 - 05 Part II Early Learnings 98 - 05 Part III' Pieces of Bob Rainbuns and Blank Ends Special Features Of A Camel The Cheese of Jims Command Intermission Timepiece Light End At The For Nearby Devil Jim and the Beep Seals Live At Electric Picnic 2006 Helicopters Left The End Official website Jim Noir at Barsuk Recordings My Dad Recordings