click links in text for more info


Tintagel or Trevena is a civil parish and village situated on the Atlantic coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. The village and nearby Tintagel Castle are associated with the legends surrounding King Arthur; the village has, in recent times, become attractive to day-trippers and tourists, is one of the most-visited places in Britain. Treknow is the largest of the other settlements in the parish, which include Bossiney, Trebarwith, Trenale, Treven and Trewarmett. Toponymists have had difficulty explaining the origin of'Tintagel': the probability is that it is Norman French, as the Cornish of the 13th century would have lacked the soft'g'. If it is Cornish then'Dun' would mean Fort. Oliver Padel proposes'Dun"-tagell' meaning narrow place in his book on place names. There is a possible cognate in the Channel Islands named Tente d'Agel, but that still leaves the question subject to doubt; the name first occurs in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae as Tintagol, implying pronunciation with a hard sound as in modern English girl.

But in Layamon's Brut, in early Middle English, the name is rendered as Tintaieol. The letter i in this spelling implies a soft consonant like modern English j. An oft-quoted Celtic etymology in the Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, accepts the view of Padel that the name is from Cornish *din meaning fort and *tagell meaning neck, constriction, narrow; the modern-day village of Tintagel was always known as Trevena until the Post Office started using'Tintagel' as the name in the mid-19th century. Until then,'Tintagel' had been restricted to the name of the headland and of the parish; the population of the parish was 1,727 at the 2011 census, down from 1,820 people at the 2001 census, the area of the parish is 4,281 acres. An electoral ward exists extending inland to Otterham; the population of this ward at the same census was 3,990. A small cliff castle was established at Bossiney in Norman times before the Domesday Survey of 1086. In Domesday Book, there are two manors in this parish. Bossiney and Trevena were established as a borough in 1253 by Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall.

Bossiney was held from the monks of Bodmin by the Earl of Cornwall: there was land for six ploughs and 30 acres of pasture. The monks of Bodmin held Treknow themselves: there was land for eight ploughs and 100 acres of pasture. Tintagel was one of the 17 Antiqua maneria of the Duchy of Cornwall; the parish feast traditionally celebrated at Tintagel was 19 October, the feast day of St Denys, patron of the chapel at Trevena. The market hall and the site of the fair were near the chapel; the Tithe Commissioners' survey was carried out in 1840–41 and recorded the area of the parish as 4,280 acres, of which arable and pasture land was 3,200 acres. The land owned by the largest landowner, Lord Wharncliffe, amounted to 1,814 acres, there was 125 acres of glebe land. Precise details of the size and tenure of every piece of land are given. Sidney Madge did research into the history of the parish and compiled a manuscript Records of Tintagel in 1945; the villages of Trevena and Bossiney were until the early 20th century separated by fields along Bossiney Road.

Trebarwith was the scene of the shipwreck of the Sarah Anderson in 1886, but the most famous of the wrecks happened on 20 December 1893, at Lye Rock when the barque Iota was driven against the cliff. The crew apart from a youth of 14 were saved by four men; the story is told in verse in Musings on Tintagel and its Heroes by Joseph Brown, 1897. On 6 July 1979, Tintagel was subject to national attention when an RAF Hawker Hunter fighter aircraft crashed into the village following an engine malfunction; the borough of Bossiney was given the right to send two MPs to Parliament c. 1552 and continued to do so until 1832 when its status as a borough was abolished. For the purposes of local government, Tintagel is a civil parish and councillors are elected every four years; the principal local authority in this area is Cornwall Council, but until March 2009 the parish was in the area of North Cornwall District Council. Parish council minutes can be found on Tintagel Web. From 1894 to 1974, the parish was in the Camelford Rural District.

In Geoffrey's Historia, Duke of Cornwall, puts his wife Igraine in Tintagol while he is at war. Merlin disguised Uther Pendragon as Gorlois so that Uther could enter Tintagel and impregnate Igraine while pretending to be Gorlois. Uther and Igraine's child was King Arthur; some events of the Tristan and Iseult legend are set at Tinta

Eugen Meindl

Eugen Meindl was a German paratroop general in the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany during World War II. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves. Born in 1892, Eugen Meindl enlisted in the army in 1912 and served during World War I. Meindl served with various artillery units in the Reichswehr, the post-war armed forces of the Weimar Republic, subsequently in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany. In November 1938, Meindl was named commander of the 112th Mountain Artillery Regiment in Graz. Promoted to Oberst, he led the "Meindl Group" and made his first parachute jump at Narvik, he transferred to the Luftwaffe in November 1940. During the airborne invasion of Crete, Meindl jumped near the Platanias Bridge, where he was shot in the chest and wounded. In February 1942, now a Generalmajor, became commander of the newly formed Luftwaffe Division Meindl in the Soviet Union. In September he took over the 13th Air Corps. In 1943, he was promoted to commanding general of the 2nd Parachute Corps, which he led in the west on the invasion front and at Cleves and in the Reichswald.

His unit participated in the Battle of Nijmegen during Operation Market Garden, but was halted on the Groesbeek Heights by dug-in American paratroopers, thus unable to stop the Allies from taking the city and the strategically important bridges across the river Waal. Meindl’s corps fought at Goch and in the Wesel bridgehead, where he was made commander on 5 March 1945. Meindl advised High Command that the bridgehead ought to be evacuated, but was unable to secure Hitler's agreement to this until the evening of 9 March. In the intervening four days Meindl had organized the evacuation of the bridgehead, was therefore able to bring away the remains of seven divisions and two panzer units with most of their equipment. Meindl continued to command the 2nd Parachute Corps until its eventual surrender at Grossbrekendorf near Schleswig in early May, he died in 1951. Iron Cross 1st Class and 2nd Class Clasp to the Iron Cross 1st Class and 2nd Class Narvik Shield Wound Badge in Black Eastern Front Medal German Cross in Gold on 27 July 1942 as Generalmajor in the Luftwaffen-Division "Meindl" Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords Knight's Cross on 14 June 1941 as Generalmajor and commander Fallschirmjäger-Sturm-Regiment 564th Oak Leaves on 31 August 1944 as General der Fallschirmtruppe and commanding general of the II.

Fallschirmkorps In April 1945, Meindl was nominated for Swords to the Knight's Cross. However the nomination contains no final remark on the proceedings. Oberst Nicolaus von Below, Hitler's Luftwaffe adjutant, had sent a teleprinter message to the commanding general of the Fallschirmarmee Generaloberst Kurt Student, requesting a statement for this nomination; the copy of the teleprinter contains a note: resubmission "23 April 1945". It seems; the paperwork was not finalized by the end of the war. The Association of Knight's Cross Recipients claims that the award was presented in accordance with the Dönitz-decree; this is illegal according to lacks legal justification. Fellgiebel assigned the presentation date. Meindl is mentioned on a list of the Oberbefehlshaber Nordwest for "Nominations and Bestowal of War Awards" from May 1945; this list, intended to be presented to Karl Dönitz, contained twelve names of pending nominations, submitted via the chain of command. Dönitz has never signed this list, most he has never seen this list.

The responsible personnel offices awarded or declined eight nominations from this list by the end of the war by, two remained unprocessed by the Heerespersonalamt and Luftwaffenpersonalamt and two further were left ready for signing at the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht/Wehrmacht-Führungsstab. Citations Bibliography

Need to Believe

Need To Believe is the ninth studio album released by the hard rock band Gotthard. It was released on 4 September 2009, it is the last album with singer Steve Lee before his death. In an interview, singer Steve Lee explains "We want to encourage. In these times that are full of crisis it is important to believe in something. There is a wonderful saying, that'will can move mountains'. If you are positively thinking and never give up, you will win in the end; that has always been Gotthard's belief". The album art, as Lee explains, "shows the philosophy of Gotthard:'believe in yourself and do your own thing if you think it is impossible sometimes. Like it seems impossible to press water out of a stone. „Need To Believe“ because faith is essential.“ A high quality box version was released including a special gimmick and the bonus track "Ain't Enough". The band contributed one new song to the film Max Schmeling, a biopic by Uwe Boll about boxer Max Schmeling; the title track, "Need to Believe", was the album's lead single, made available for download 14 August 2009.

The album peaked at No. 1 on the Swiss charts and was certified as Platinum for exceeding 30,000 sales. "Shangri La" - 4:06 "Unspoken Words" - 4:16 "Need to Believe" - 3:57 "Unconditional Faith" - 3:36 "I Don't Mind" - 3:15 "Break Away" - 3:59 "Don't Let Me Down" - 4:16 "Right from Wrong" - 3:42 "I Know, You Know" - 5:17 "Rebel Soul" - 3:26 "Tears to Cry" - 4:21 "Ain't Enough" "Speed of Light" The Album peaked at No. 1 on the Swiss Charts and stayed for 34 weeks. Steve Lee – vocals Leo Leoni – guitars Freddy Scherer – guitars Marc Lynnbass guitar Hena Habegger – drums and percussion Richard Chycki – Producer and Engineer


Pikmin is a real-time strategy and puzzle video game series created by Shigeru Miyamoto and published by Nintendo. The games focus on directing a horde of plant-like creatures called Pikmin in order to collect items by destroying obstacles, avoiding hazards and fighting fauna that are hazardous to both the player character and the Pikmin; the series features four entries. The first two, released in 2001, Pikmin 2, released in 2004, were released for the GameCube and ported to the Wii as New Play Control! Games in 2008 and 2009, while Pikmin 2 was re-released as a Nintendo Selects title in 2012. A third installment, Pikmin 3, was released for the Wii U in 2013; the series' first handheld title, most recent entry, Hey! Pikmin, was released for the Nintendo 3DS in 2017. Another mainline entry in the series has been confirmed to be in development; the series' gameplay combines elements of action platformer with strategy gameplay. The Pikmin games focus on exploring an Earth-like planet named PNF-404, controlling a crowd of the titular Pikmin.

Pikmin are intelligent, plant-animal hybrids that follow the orders of their leader. There have been multiple leaders over the course of the series, with the first and most notable being Captain Olimar, a tiny alien from the planet Hocotate introduced in the original Pikmin. Pikmin 2 features Louie and The President, Olimar's co-worker and boss who are playable leaders. Pikmin 3 features leaders from a new alien species; the leaders are Alph and Charlie, who come from the planet Koppai and are similar to the Hocotatians. Pikmin are directed to perform a number of tasks, with the primary one being the retrieval of items integral to the mission of each game; the player must direct the Pikmin to overcome PNF-404's fauna. Because individual Pikmin are small and weak against most predators, some are best suited for certain tasks, it is the responsibility of the player to direct the Pikmin appropriately in order to ensure successful retrievals of any items, avoid any hazards, tend to any obstacles and predators.

Game time is divided into individual days, each of which consist of 13 minutes, in which the player is encouraged to accomplish as much as possible before sunset. Pikmin appear in a variety of colours, which signify the Pikmin's abilities and resistance to environmental hazards; the number of Pikmin and their abilities have shifted over the course of the franchise, with the first Pikmin title featuring three colours: Red and Blue. Red Pikmin can resist fire, Blue Pikmin can move underwater thanks to their gills, Yellow Pikmin can be thrown higher than other Pikmin, are able to carry bomb rocks. In Pikmin 2, Yellow Pikmin have lost their ability to carry bomb rocks in exchange for being immune to electrical hazards, while two new colors are introduced: White Pikmin and Purple Pikmin. White Pikmin are the fastest, resistant to poisonous gases, capable of poisoning enemies, capable of spotting objects buried underground. In comparison, Purple Pikmin are stronger and heavier than the other types, which makes them excellent at inflicting damage and carrying heavy items.

Pikmin 3 introduced two more types: the gray-colored Rock Pikmin, the pink-colored Winged Pikmin. Rock Pikmin can break crystalline materials, cannot be crushed or impaled, inflict the most damage out of all Pikmin types when thrown. In comparison, Winged Pikmin can fly which enables them to recover elevated items and attack airborne enemies with ease. In addition to making each type capable of carrying bomb rocks, Pikmin 3 adjusted the abilities of Yellow, Blue and Purple Pikmin. Yellow Pikmin are tied with Rock Pikmin for the fastest digging speed. Outside of coloration, all types of Pikmin share the same method of indicating their strength and swiftness: the stalk atop their heads will sport either a leaf, bud or flower, which develops when Pikmin are fed nectar or left planted in the ground for a certain amount of time. By extension, all types of Pikmin are stored in their respective motherships, referred to as "Onions", for safety after sunset, as they are vulnerable to nocturnal predators.

The Onions play a vital role in Pikmin reproduction: when any food, such as prey or pellets, is delivered to an Onion, it propagates seeds, which grow and are plucked from the ground as developed Pikmin. An Onion serves as an incubator for all Pikmin of housing the Pikmin; the Onions travel alongside Olimar. Pikmin is the first game in the series, released in 2001; the game's plot focuses on Captain Olimar's predicament of having crash-landed on an unknown planet and befriending plant-animal creatures that he dubs as Pikmin. Olimar has to gather the missing pieces of his broken spaceship in order to escape, before his air supply runs out and he succumbs to the planet's oxygen-rich atmosphere, poisonous to his species. Pikmin features three endings. Reclaiming all thirty parts by the final day results in the best ending: Olimar waves goodbye to the Pikmin, who proceed to defend themselves on their own at nighttime, while Onions of various colours observe his departure off as he looks back on the unknown planet before returning home.

Reclaiming at least twenty-five parts by the final day results in the normal ending: Olimar departs, while one of each type of Pikmin run toward his ship to watch him depart. L

Grand Ages: Rome

Grand Ages: Rome is a 2009 city-building and real-time strategy game developed by Haemimont Games and published by Kalypso Media. It is the sequel to 2008's Imperium Romanum. A sequel, Grand Ages: Medieval, was released on September 25, 2015; the single player campaign takes place during the final years of the Roman Republic during the time of the First Triumvirate. The player undertakes missions for his/her family, establishing a reputation as a statesman and leader. Certain historical events are portrayed, such as slave uprising led by Spartacus and the crossing of the Rubicon. At one point the player must choose between siding with Julius Caesar or Pompey Magnus, with missions playing out to wiping out the Optimates or building armies against the Populares. Starting out, players create a character, choosing their name and portrait, they choose which family to associate their character with, selecting between the Flavii, Julii, Aemilii, or Lucii, each with unique traits that benefit the player in military, civic or economic ways.

The focus of the game is on macromanagement. Each mission involves building a Roman colony in various locations around the Roman Republic, with certain requirements and bonus objectives to complete the mission. A colony includes various food production buildings, such as wheat and pig farms and butchers. Emphasis is placed on efficiency and employment, ensuring that all buildings are staffed by the appropriate worker class. Resources are based on a "flow" economy, in which the player does not accumulate a stockpile of resources, but rather develops the infrastructure to construct and maintain buildings. To gain more resources, players may opt to build communities around the map, engage in trade, or purchase estates, which remain with the character for the duration of the campaign. Players must keep the citizens content through satisfactory levels of food and entertainment. Building benefits work on a radius system, with buildings providing their bonuses or needing other materials within a certain distance.

The player may construct significant monuments for large or global bonuses, such as the Colosseum, Circus Maximus, Pantheon. When players fail to satisfy the needs of their citizens and disease may spread and homes may be deserted, which may lead to a chain reaction in the shortage of goods and services. Missions will focus on military skirmishes, allowing the player to recruit and command groups of units such as hastati and auxilia. Battles occur on a small scale with a basic experience and morale system. Campaign maps will feature barbarian villages or war camps, which can be subjugated for additional resources or razed for money and slaves. An expansion pack titled Grand Ages: Rome - The Reign of Augustus was released on November 26, 2009 in Spain, December 1, 2009 in Italy and in January 2010 worldwide, it is sold in retail stores only in Italy and Spain. The Reign of Augustus is a mix of previous releases with a conquest mode, it is focused on politics and government in the time of Augustus.

The game was developed by Haemimont Games. Grand Ages: Rome received "average" reviews according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. IGN said that there was little difference from limited combat control. GameSpot said. Official website Official website at Haemimont Games Grand Ages: Rome at MobyGames Grand Ages: Rome - Reign of Augustus at MobyGames

Bag (unit)

Bags have been used as standard measures for a variety of commodities which were supplied in bags or sacks. These include: Cement is sold in bags of 94 pounds weight, because this is about 1 cubic foot of powdered cement. Agricultural produce in England was sold in bags which varied in capacity depending on the place and the commodity. Examples include:a bag of wheat in Staffordshire would contain 3 Winchester bushels while a bag of oats would contain 6 standard bushels. In the West Country, apples would be sold in bags of from 16 to 24 gallons. A measure of 24 gallons was known as the Cornish bushel. Bags are used as units by the National Agricultural Statistics Service of the United States Department of Agriculture for the following commodities:coffee = 60 kg flour = 100 pounds grapefruit = 40 pounds rice = 100 poundsThe Oxford English Dictionary has a definition of "bag" as "A measure of quantity for produce, varying according to the nature of the commodity" and has quotations illustrating its use for hops in 1679, almonds in 1728 and potatoes in 1845