Tipu Sultan known as Tipu Sahab or the Tiger of Mysore, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore and a pioneer of rocket artillery. He introduced a number of administrative innovations during his rule, including a new coinage system and calendar, a new land revenue system which initiated the growth of the Mysore silk industry, he commissioned the military manual Fathul Mujahidin. He deployed the rockets against advances of British forces and their allies during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, including the Battle of Pollilur and Siege of Seringapatam, he embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century. Napoleon Bonaparte, the French commander-in-chief, sought an alliance with Tipu Sultan. Both Tipu Sultan and his father used their French-trained army in alliance with the French in their struggle with the British, in Mysore's struggles with other surrounding powers, against the Marathas and rulers of Malabar, Bednore and Travancore.
Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, rose to power capturing Mysore, Tipu succeeded him as the ruler of Mysore upon his father's death in 1782. He won important victories against the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore with them after his father died from cancer in December 1782 during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. Tipu's conflicts with his neighbours included the Maratha–Mysore War which ended with the signing of the Treaty of Gajendragad The treaty required that Tipu Sultan pay 4.8 million rupees as a one-time war cost to the Marathas, an annual tribute of 1.2 million rupees in addition to returning all the territory captured by Hyder Ali. Tipu remained an implacable enemy of the British East India Company, sparking conflict with his attack on British-allied Travancore in 1789. In the Third Anglo-Mysore War, he was forced into the Treaty of Seringapatam, losing a number of conquered territories, including Malabar and Mangalore, he sent emissaries to foreign states, including the Ottoman Empire and France, in an attempt to rally opposition to the British.
In the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, the imperial forces of the British East India Company were supported by the Marathas. They defeated Tipu, he was killed on 4 May 1799 while defending his fort of Seringapatam. In post-colonial Indian subcontinent, Tipu Sultan is celebrated as a hero of colonial resistance. However, he has been criticized for his repression of Hindus and Muslims for both religious and political reasons. Tipu Sultan was born on 20 November 1750 at Devanahalli, in present-day Bangalore Rural district, about 33 km north of Bangalore city, he was named "Tipu Sultan" after the saint Tipu Mastan Aulia of Arcot. Being illiterate, Hyder was particular in giving his eldest son a prince's education and a early exposure to military and political affairs. From the age of 17 Tipu was given independent charge of important military missions, he was his father's right arm in the wars from which Hyder emerged as the most powerful ruler of southern India. Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, was a military officer in service to the Kingdom of Mysore who had become the de facto ruler of Mysore in 1761 while his mother Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa was the daughter of Mir Muin-ud-Din, the governor of the fort of Kadapa.
Hyder Ali appointed able teachers to give Tipu an early education in subjects like Urdu, Arabic, Quran, Islamic jurisprudence, riding and fencing. Tipu Sultan was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father. At age 15, he accompanied his father against the British in the First Mysore War in 1766, he commanded a corps of cavalry in the invasion of Carnatic in 1767 at age 16. He distinguished himself in the First Anglo-Maratha War of 1775–1779. Alexander Beatson, who published a volume on the Fourth Mysore War entitled View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun, described Tipu Sultan as follows: "His stature was about five feet eight inches. In 1779, the British captured the French-controlled port of Mahé, which Tipu had placed under his protection, providing some troops for its defence. In response, Hyder launched an invasion of the Carnatic, with the aim of driving the British out of Madras. During this campaign in September 1780, Tipu Sultan was dispatched by Hyder Ali with 10,000 men and 18 guns to intercept Colonel Baillie, on his way to join Sir Hector Munro.
In the Battle of Pollilur, Tipu decisively defeated Baillie. Out of 360 Europeans, about 200 were captured alive, the sepoys, who were about 3800 men, suffered high casualties. Munro was moving south with a separate force to join Baillie, but on hearing the news of the defeat he was forced to retreat to Madras, abandoning his artillery in a water tank at Kanchipuram. Tipu Sultan defeated Colonel Braithwaite at Annagudi near Tanjore on 18 February 1782. Braithwaite's forces, consisting of 100 Europeans, 300 cavalry, 1400 sepoys and 10 field pieces, was the standard size of the colonial armies. Tipu Sultan took the entire detachment prisoner. In December 1781 Tipu Sultan seized Chittur from the British. Tipu Sultan had thus gained sufficient military experience by the time Hyder Ali died on Friday, 6 Dec
James Hamilton Speirs was a Scottish footballer who represented his country on one occasion, scored the winning goal in the 1911 FA Cup Final, received the Military Medal during the First World War. Born in Glasgow, he worked as a clerk, he started his adult football career with local junior team Maryhill, where he played for less than a season, before he moved to Rangers in 1905. He spent three years with the club, but won only the Glasgow Merchants' Charity Cup, before he joined a third Glasgow side Clyde. After one season, he left Clyde and Scotland, joined Bradford City for their second season in the First Division, his greatest success came in his second season with Bradford, when he was the club's captain and goalscorer in their FA Cup Final victory of 1911, in a team featuring eight Scottish-born players. He spent another two seasons with Bradford City, before he joined Leeds City, but after two seasons, the First World War broke out. League football continued for one more season, at the end.
Married with two young children, Speirs would have been exempt from conscription, but he volunteered to join the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders in 1915. He was promoted to lance corporal and sergeant, won the Military Medal for bravery in the field, but was killed during the Battle of Passchendaele in August 1917, at the age of 31. Speirs was born on 22 March 1886 in the Govan area of Glasgow, the fifth of six children of James Hamilton Speirs and Janet Shields Speirs. By 1901, the family had moved to nearby Govanhill and Jimmy worked as a clerk, it was in Govanhill that Speirs' football ability was first shown, when he played in the junior football circuit on the black ash pitches of Glasgow, for Annandale, during summer tournaments. An inside forward, Speirs moved to Maryhill in the Glasgow Junior League in 1905. Maryhill, whose Lochburn Park ground was five miles north of Speirs' home, were among the top sides in the junior leagues, lifted 13 trophies in eight seasons at the turn of the 20th century.
The 1904–05 team contained six junior internationals, the side won three titles that season. Speirs' first recorded scoring appearance was on 29 April 1905, when his two goals helped Maryhill beat Parkhead 2–0. Speirs scored again in a 3–3 draw against Ashfield in the Glasgow Junior Cup final and scored the only goal of the replay to help Maryhill win the competition. Maryhill won the Glasgow Merchants Charity Cup and the league title although it is unknown if Speirs played in the cup final or picked up a league winners medal. At the end of the season and junior international John McFie both moved across Glasgow to First Division side Rangers, who had finished second to city rivals Celtic after losing out in a title play-off. Speirs did not make his full debut until 25 September 1905, when Rangers lost 5–0 to Heart of Midlothian at Ibrox. Speirs scored his first Rangers goal two weeks during the next league game in a 4–1 win away to Port Glasgow. In his first season, Speirs scored a hat-trick in a 7–1 Scottish Cup first round victory over Second Division Arthurlie and won the Glasgow Merchants' Charity Cup, during which he scored twice in both the semi-final and final.
However, Rangers could only finish fourth in the league, with Celtic retaining the title. Rangers improved to third place the following season as Speirs finished joint top scorer with 13 goals, but Celtic again were league winners. Celtic defeated Rangers 3–0 in the Scottish Cup in front of 60,000 fans. Rangers' only trophy that season was the successful defence of the Merchants' Charity Cup, but Speirs did not play. In 1907–08, Celtic once again finished top, with Rangers in third, knocked their rivals out of the Scottish Cup; the two teams met in the final of the Glasgow Cup, with Celtic winning in the second replay. Speirs was limited to 13 games, none of which Rangers lost, he left after playing 62 matches, from which he scored 29 goals. During his final days with Rangers, he won his only cap for Scotland, in a 2–1 win over Wales on 7 March 1908. Speirs won a representative cap 11 days when he played and scored for Glasgow during an inter-city fixture with Sheffield; the game finished 2–2. In the summer of 1908, after three years with Rangers, Speirs moved to another Glasgow-based club, which played in the First Division.
Clyde's Shawfield Park ground was three miles from Speirs' home in Govanhill, in the Rutherglen area of the city, where Speirs' grandparents and father lived. Clyde had finished 17th in 1907–08, one point ahead of bottom side Port Glasgow. Speirs played only 14 league games for Clyde but helped them to their highest league position of third, three points behind winners Celtic. Clyde lost to Celtic following a replay, it was Speirs' only season with Clyde, during which he scored a total of 10 goals from 20 appearances. Speirs left his native Scotland during the summer of 1909, to head for Yorkshire and sign for Bradford City, under the management of his countryman Peter O'Rourke, it would be City's second season in the First Division following their promotion in 1907–08, O'Rourke wanted to strengthen his side after they narrowly avoided relegation in their first season in the top flight. He assembled a team which contained several Scottish players, brought in England international outside right Dicky Bond.
Speirs made his debut on the opening day of the 1909–10 season, as City lost 1–0 to Manchester United. His first goal came three months in a 3–1 victory over Sunderland, during the middle of a 10-game undefeated spell. Speirs played in all 38 games during his first season, scoring six times, he played in bo
Nanostray is a vertical scrolling shooter video game for the Nintendo DS. The user takes control of a futuristic spacecraft against a horde of enemies. A sequel, Nanostray 2, was released in 2008. Basic gameplay consists of first defeating waves of many small enemies and greater, stronger enemies; when all enemies in a wave are destroyed, a blue powerup that restores the power weapon bar is released. Enemies can release coins when destroyed, worth some points. At the end of each level there is a boss; the game has three difficulty settings. Each progressive level diminishes the lives, energy and smart bombs replenished after the player loses a life; the Nintendo DS touch screen is used for boss scanning and weapon management. There are four different types of weapons; the weapons range in projectile type from a basic forward-shooting laser, to a weapon that only shoots to the side, to a forcefield generator. Additionally, each weapon has a limited-use special attack, which, in essence, is a mightier version of the weapon's attack.
There are four game modes to play: Adventure, Arcade and Multiplayer. Adventure: To unlock other features, the player must first play through adventure mode; each level cleared in the Adventure mode is made available in the Arcade mode, one or more challenges are added to the Challenge mode. The game allows the player to play the first three stages in any order. After these three stages are cleared, the player can do the same with the following three stages; the player must clear Chuuroh City to reach the final stage, Zenshoh Station. Arcade: The objective is to score as many points as possible in advanced difficulty; when a stage is cleared, a passcode is generated, which can be entered in the official site to create an account and be ranked. Challenge: A total of 22 challenges are presented. Challenges force the player to end the stages with different conditions, in example, a minimum score, without smart bombs, without using the sub weapon, with only one life, etc; each beaten challenge adds a new "extra".
Extras include concept art, etc.. Multiplayer: Two players can compete in four different modes: 120s, 60s, 25k and Bonus Race. Since Nanostray supports wireless single card download, only one cartridge is needed to play. Most reviews focused on the impressive quality of the graphics. Nanostray has an average Metacritic score of 71. Official site Shin'en's Nanostray website