Lucius Manlius Torquatus (Praetor 49 BC)
Lucius Manlius Torquatus was a Roman politician and military commander. He was active during the Crisis of the Roman Caesar's Civil War, he commanded troops at the battles of Oricum and Thapsus. The last of these ended the war, in a defeat for the faction Torquatus supported, he is portrayed by Cicero in De Finibus as a spokesman advocating Epicurean ethics. Torquatus was the son of Lucius Manlius Torquatus, belonged to the patrician Manlii gens, one of the oldest Roman houses. In 69 BC he was elected a member of the Quindecimviri sacris faciundis, a senior religious collegium. In 66 BC he was the first to accuse newly elected consuls Publius Cornelius Sulla and Publius Autronius Paetus, the consul designates for the following year, of bribery in connection with the elections, thereby securing the election of his father in 65. Torquatus was aligned with Cicero, both strong supporters of the self described boni; the boni were the traditionalist senatorial majority of the Roman Republic, politicians who believed that the role of the Senate was being usurped by the legislative people's assemblies for the benefit of a few power hungry individuals.
The boni were against anyone. As a fellow senator Torquatus supported Cicero during his praetorship in 66 BC and his tumultuous consulship in 63. After Cicero had beaten him to the consulship, the distinguished ex-general and military governor Lucius Sergius Catilina led a conspiracy centered on assassinating Cicero and overthrowing the Republic with the help of foreign armed forces. Three years earlier, Torquatus' father and Cicero had publicly supported Catilina when he was unsuccessfully prosecuted for corruption and abuse of office. Despite this, Torquatus vigorously supported the Senate's efforts, which resulted in them unmasking the conspirators and executing several; the following year Catilina, with what was left of his army, was cornered by three legions and killed. By this time and Cicero were on opposite sides. Torquatus accused Publius Cornelius Sulla of being a part of Catilina’s conspiracies. Sulla had been an enemy for the four years since Torquatus had accused him of bribery, resulting in his being tried, convicted and, under the Lex Acilia Calpurnia, deprived of the consulship, being replaced by Torquatus' father, expelled from the Senate.
Torquatus prosecuted Sulla for plotting the revenge killing of his father, while Cicero defended the accused. Torquatus accused Sulla of raising a force of armed men in 66 to secure the consulship for Catilina and murder the ruling consuls Lucius Manlius Torquatus, Torquatus' father, Lucius Aurelius Cotta, he accused Cicero of manufacturing evidence. This was the occasion for Cicero delivering his Pro Sulla speech. Sulla was acquitted, it being believed due to Cicero's skills of oratory. Sulla's brother, was not so fortunate, as Cicero refused his similar request to defend him. In 50 the Senate, led by Pompey, ordered populist politician and general Julius Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome because his term as governor had ended. Caesar thought he would be prosecuted if he entered Rome without the immunity enjoyed by a magistrate. Torquatus was elected given command of six cohorts. On 10 January 49 Caesar crossed the Rubicon river, the boundary of Italy, ignited Caesar's Civil War, he marched on Rome and captured it.
Pompey, the boni and most of the Senate fled to Greece. Torquatus' soldiers went over to Caesar; the following year was appointed propraetor. Pompey put him in charge of the defence of Oricum. In January 48 Caesar landed nearby with six legions and marched on the port, which he urgently needed in order to supply his troops and to land reinforcements. Torquatus manned the walls with the town's Greek civilians; the locals and the garrison, afraid of the legions, allowed Caesar entry. Two of Pompey's lieutenants who were guarding merchant ships loaded with grain for Pompey's troops sank them with their warships to prevent them from falling into Caesar's hands. Torquatus surrendered to Caesar. Caesar moved on Dyrrachium. Pompey arrived first, he built a fortified camp south of the city, so Caesar started to build a circumvallation to besiege it. Six attempts to break through by Pompey were repulsed. Caesar's troops suffered food shortages. However, Pompey held this created shortages of fodder for his animals.
Water was scarce because Caesar had diverted the local streams. Pompey needed to break the siege. Torquatus led part of Pompey's army in an attack on a weak spot in Caesar's fortifications and broke through. Mark Antony and Caesar pushed him back. However, this weakened other parts of Caesar's line and after heavy fighting his troops fled. Pompey did not pursue. After much manoeuvring the two armies clashed at Pharsalus. Torquatus' role, if any, in this defeat is not known. Retaining his imperium, or power to command, Torquatus was in Africa in 47. There the surviving boni raised an army which included 40,000 men, a powerful cavalry force led by Caesar's former right-hand man, the talented Titus Labienus, forces of allied local kings and 60 war elephants; the two armies engaged in small skirmishes to gauge the strength of the opposing force, d
Titus Livius – rendered as Livy in English – was a Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own lifetime, he was on familiar terms with members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and in friendship with Augustus, whose young grandnephew, the future emperor Claudius, he exhorted to take up the writing of history. Livy was born in Patavium in northern Italy, now modern Padua. There is a debate about the year of his birth- either in 64 BC, or more in 59 BC. At the time of his birth, his home city of Patavium was the second wealthiest on the Italian peninsula, the largest in the province of Cisalpine Gaul. Cisalpine Gaul was merged in Italia during his lifetime and its inhabitants were given Roman citizenship by Julius Caesar. In his works, Livy expressed his deep affection and pride for Patavium, the city was well known for its conservative values in morality and politics.
"He was by nature a recluse, mild in averse to violence. The governor of Cisalpine Gaul at the time, Asinius Pollio, tried to sway Patavium into supporting Marcus Antonius, the leader of one of the warring factions; the wealthy citizens of Patavium refused to contribute money and arms to Asinius Pollio, went into hiding. Pollio attempted to bribe the slaves of those wealthy citizens to expose the whereabouts of their masters, it is therefore that the Roman civil wars prevented Livy from pursuing a higher education in Rome or going on a tour of Greece, common for adolescent males of the nobility at the time. Many years Asinius Pollio derisively commented on Livy's "patavinity", saying that Livy's Latin showed certain "provincialisms" frowned on at Rome. Pollio's dig may have been the result of bad feelings he harboured toward the city of Patavium from his experiences there during the civil wars. Livy went to Rome in the 30s BC, it is that he spent a large amount of time in the city after this, although it may not have been his primary home.
During his time in Rome, he held a government position. His writings contain elementary mistakes on military matters, indicating that he never served in the Roman army. However, he was educated in rhetoric, it seems that Livy had the financial resources and means to live an independent life, though the origin of that wealth is unknown. He devoted a large part of his life to his writings, which he was able to do because of his financial freedom. Livy was known to give recitations to small audiences, but he was not heard of to engage in declamation a common pastime, he was familiar with the imperial family. Augustus was considered by Romans to have been the greatest Roman emperor, benefiting Livy's reputation long after his death. Suetonius described how Livy encouraged the future emperor Claudius, born in 10 BC, to write historiographical works during his childhood. Livy's most famous work was his history of Rome. In it he narrates a complete history of the city of Rome, from its foundation to the death of Augustus.
Because he was writing under the reign of Augustus, Livy's history emphasizes the great triumphs of Rome. He wrote his history with embellished accounts of Roman heroism in order to promote the new type of government implemented by Augustus when he became emperor. In Livy's preface to his history, he said that he did not care whether his personal fame remained in darkness, as long as his work helped to "preserve the memory of the deeds of the world’s preeminent nation"; because Livy was writing about events that had occurred hundreds of years earlier, the historical value of his work was questionable, although many Romans came to believe his account to be true. Livy had at least one daughter and one son, he produced other works, including an essay in the form of a letter to his son, numerous dialogues, most modelled on similar works by Cicero. Titus Livius died in his home city of Patavium in either AD 12 or 17. Livy's only surviving work is the "History of Rome", his career from his mid-life 32, until he left Rome for Padua in old age in the reign of Tiberius after the death of Augustus.
When he began this work he was past his youth. Seneca the Younger gives brief mention that he was known as an orator and philosopher and had written some treatises in those fields from a historical point of view. Livy's History of Rome was in high demand from the time it was published and remained so during the early years of the empire. Pliny the Younger reported that Livy's celebrity was so widespread, a man from Cadiz travelled to Rome and back for the sole purpose of meeting him. Livy's work was a source for the works of Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, Florus, Granius Licinianus and Orosius. Julius Obsequens used Livy, or a source with access to Livy, to compose his De Prodigiis, an account of supernatural e
Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX
Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX by Valerius Maximus was written around CE 30 or 31. It is a collection of a thousand short stories that Valerius wrote during the reign of Tiberius; the stories are a variety of anecdotes illustrating. While the majority of the stories are of Roman life, he does have some foreign stories at the end of some chapters. Most of these are of Greek life and most of those are about Greek philosophers or famous kings. Several of the stories relate to moral subjects that parallel those in the Old Testament and New Testament. Valerius refers to his moral stories as "examples". Valerius' work on the preservation of moral values of the Roman Republic of the past was popular through the Age of Enlightenment, a literary life-span of some 1,700 years. People read Valerius' work for practical guidance in their everyday tasks for living a moral life; this work was used as a reference by writers and professional orators. It is estimated, he obtained material from Cicero, from Livy, Pompeius Trogus, Marcus Terentius Varro and other ancient historians.
Each of the nine books has several chapters. Each chapter is outlined and grouped thematically and contains several stories illustrating that theme; this work is the earliest known use of a hierarchical organization system for topics of a book. There are a total of 91 chapters covering a wide variety of subjects drawn from Roman life. Valerius arranges his chapters focused on particular virtues and immoral habits, religious practices and ancient traditions. There is a thematic guide at the end of the work. One example of Valerius' balanced subject themes covered is, he notes that the observations of omens had a connection to religion in ancient Rome since many people of that time believed that omens were from divine providence. Valerius records that omens had played an important role when Rome had been demolished by the Gauls in 390 BCE; the Senate was debating whether they should move Rome to Veii or rebuild the city walls. While they were deciding some cohorts had just returned from guard duty.
Their centurion just happened to shout in the assembly place, "Standard-bearer, set up the standard. The city was rebuilt in the same place since they interpreted these words as an omen. One of the subject themes that Valerius wrote about was the superstition of auspices in Book 1 Chapter 4. Auspices means "bird observations." It is from the Latin words of avis and spicere. Before doing anything of great importance, the Romans would "take the auspices" in order to determine what the gods approved; this was an examination of the behavior of birds in eating. It was interpreted by an augur as to the will of the gods from this behavior. A Roman story that Valerius writes about is the founding of Rome by Remus, he records. Remus was the first to "take the auspices" by seeing six vultures. Romulus however saw twelve vultures. Romulus claimed he had a stronger claim because he saw a larger quantity though Remus was the first to spot vultures. Another "foreign" story Valerius writes on this theme for a comparison is on the founding of the city of Alexandria in Egypt.
It was founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BCE. The architect was Deinocrates, he records that when Deinocrates was going to design a great city in Egypt, he had no chalk to use for writing. Instead he used a large quantity of barley, drew out the plans on the ground. A group of birds came from a nearby lake and ate the barley; the Egyptian augur interpreted this to mean that there would be plenty of food for a large city there. Valerius writes on the theme of modesty in Book 4 Chapter 5 about the fact that there was no separate seating for the Conscript Fathers at the theater; this was from the beginnings of Rome in the 8th century BCE until the time of the consulship of Scipio Africanus and Tiberius Sempronius Longus in 194 BCE. In spite of this no member of the plebs sat in front of the Conscript Fathers, their respect for this tradition was shown when one day Lucius Quinctius Flamininus was to stand in the back of the theater. He was placed there because he had been removed from the Roman Senate by Cato the Censor and Lucius Valerius Flaccus.
Flamininus held the office of consul and was the brother of Titus Flamininus, who had defeated Philip V of Macedon in 197 BCE. In spite of this he still was forced to go to the back of the theater by Cato the Elder. Out of respect however, the entire audience moved Flamininus to the front so that nobody was in front of him. Valerius illustrates another story of modesty. Varro devastated the Roman Republic when he started the Battle of Cannae, one of the worst battles of recorded history, his sense of shame would not allow him to accept dictatorship though it was offered to him. The people of the Republic attributed the great loss to the anger of the gods. On the inscription under his death mask shows his good character which brought him more honor that most men receive from the dictatorship position itself. Valerius records another story of modesty where king Hiero II of Syracuse hears of the disastrous defeat of the Romans at the Battle of Lake Trasimene, he sends as a gift to Rome 70,000 bushels of wheat, 50,000 bushels of barley, 240 pou
Titus Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus
Titus Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus was a famous politician and general of the Roman Republic. He had an outstanding career, being consul three times in 347, 344, 340 BC, dictator three times 353, 349, 320 BC, he was one of the early heroes of the Republic, alongside Cincinnatus, Cornelius Cossus, Furius Camillus, or Valerius Corvus. As a young military tribune, he defeated a giant Gaul in single combat in one of the most famous duels of the Republic, which earned him the cognomen Torquatus after the torque he took from the Gaul's body, he was known for his moral virtues his severity as he killed his own son after he had disobeyed his orders in a battle. His life was seen as a model for his descendants, who tried to emulate his heroic deeds centuries after his death, his father Lucius was appointed dictator in 363 BC in order to fulfil religious duties, but instead undertook preparations for war. This resulted in strong opposition from the plebeian tribunes and he was brought to trial at the beginning of the next year, after he had resigned the dictatorship.
Amongst the charges against him was that he had banished Titus from Rome on account of his speaking difficulties and made him work as a labourer. Upon hearing of these accusations against his father, Titus went to the home of the tribune Marcus Pomponius, where he was expected by the latter to provide further charges and was thus promptly admitted. However, once they were alone, he drew his hidden knife and threatened to stab the tribune unless he made a public oath not to hold an assembly to accuse Lucius Manlius, which Pomponius agreed to and duly performed. Titus Manlius' reputation grew on account of his filially pious actions, which helped him to be elected as a military tribune in the year. In 361 BC, Titus Manlius fought in the army of Titus Quinctius Poenus against the Gauls; when a Gaul of enormous size and strength challenged the Romans to single combat, Manlius accepted the challenge with the approval of Poenus after the rest of the army had held back from responding for a long period of time.
Despite being physically inferior, he killed the Gaul with blows to the belly and groin, after which he stripped the corpse of a torc and placed it around his own neck. From this, he gained the agnomen Torquatus, a title, passed down to his descendants. In 353 BC, he was named dictator and prepared to attack Caere, but they responded by sending envoys and were granted peace; the campaign was directed towards the Falisci, but the Roman army found on arrival that the Falisci had disappeared. They spared the cities before returning to Rome, he was appointed dictator again in 348 BC to oversee elections. A year he was elected to his first consulship, his second consulship came in 345 BC. In 340 BC, when Manlius was consul for the third time, Rome had leadership over the Latin League, it received a delegation from member states headed by Lucius Annius, demanding coequal status in Roman government, such as a place in the senate and a consulship, but Manlius, appealing to Jupiter, refused them. Roundly abusing the Roman Jupiter, Annius fell down the steps of senseless.
Manlius said. The Latin embassy required an escort of magistrates to leave Rome unmolested. Rome realigned itself with the Samnites against the Latins. During the conduct of the war and his co-consul, Publius Decius Mus, decided that the old military discipline would be reinstated, no man was allowed to leave his post, under penalty of death. Manlius's son, seeing an opportunity for glory, forgot this stricture, left his post with his friends, defeated several Latin skirmishers in battle. Having the spoils brought to him, the father cried out in a loud voice and called the legion to assemble. Berating his son, he handed him over for execution to the horror of all his men. Thus, "Manlian discipline."After Decius Mus sacrificed himself to achieve victory at the battle of Vesuvius, Manlius was able to crush the Latin allies and pursue them into Campania. He defeated them again at Trifanum, bringing the war to an end, returned to Rome, he was unable on account of ill health to conduct a further campaign against the Antiates and appointed Lucius Papirius Crassus as dictator to fulfil this role instead.
Sacrifice to the state was one of the favourite themes of French Neoclassical painters at the end of the 18th century and during the French Revolution. The story of Torquatus' execution of his son was logically used by several of them. Stemma taken from Münzer until "A. Manlius Torquatus, d. 208", Mitchell, with corrections. All dates are BC. Manlia Titus Livius, History of Rome. Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac Dictorum Memorabilium. T. Robert S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, American Philological Association, 1952–1986. Michael Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, Cambridge University Press, 1974–2001. Jane F. Mitchell, "The Torquati", in Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, vol. 15, part 1, pp. 23–31. Friedrich Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, translated by Thérèse Ridley, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. August Pauly, Georg Wissowa, et alii, Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft, J. B. Metzler, Stuttgart. Robert Rosenblum, Transformations in Late Eighteenth Century Art, Princeton University Press, 1967.
Lily Ross Taylor and T. Robert S. Broughton, "The Order of the Two Consuls' Names in the Yearly Lists", Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, 19, pp. 3-14. F. W. Walbank, A. E. Astin, M. W. Frederiksen, R. M. Ogilvie, The Cambridge Ancient Hist
Publius Decius Mus (consul 340 BC)
Publius Decius Mus, son of Quintus, of the plebeian gens Decia, was a Roman consul in 340 BC. He is noted for sacrificing himself in battle through the ritual of devotio, as recorded by the Augustan historian Livy. Decius Mus first enters history in 352 BC as an appointed official, one of the quinqueviri mensarii, public bankers charged with relieving citizen debts to some extent, he served with distinction in the First Samnite War under Marcus Valerius Corvus Arvina. In 343 BC, leading his army through the mountain fastnesses of Samnium, became trapped in a valley by the Samnites. Decius, taking 1,600 men, seized a strong point through which the Samnites were obliged to pass, held it against them until nightfall; the army swept into the Samnites, gaining a complete victory and the spoils of the enemy camp. For the rescue of the trapped army he was awarded the Grass Crown by both his own army and by the army he relieved. In 340 he was raised to the consular rank as co-consul with Titus Manlius Torquatus, the Romans allied themselves with their former enemies against the Latins in the Latin War.
When during his consulate, an oracle announced that an army and the opposite army's general both would go to their deaths, Mus devoted himself and his foes to the Dii Manes and mother Earth to give his army the victory in the Battle of Vesuvius, in which he was slain and the enemy annihilated. According to Livy, as the army marched near Capua, it was given to the two consuls in mutual dreams that the army whose general pledged himself and his foemen's host to the Dii Manes and Earth, would be victorious. Upon confirmation from the haruspices the two divulged a plan to their senior officers and their army, that they may not lose heart, for they intended that whosoever's wing should falter first, should so pledge his life to the gods of the underworld and the Earth. Once the battle was engaged, the left wing began to falter and Decius Mus called upon the Pontifex Maximus, M. Valerius, to tell him the means by which to save the army; the pontifex prescribed a prayer. After performing the ritual, the armored Decius Mus plunged his horse into the enemy with such supernatural vigor and violence that the awe-struck Latins soon refused to engage him bringing him down with darts.
The Latins avoided his body, leaving a large space around it. Manlius, conducting the right wing, held fast, allowing the Latins to use up their reserves, before crushing the enemy host between the renewed left and Samnite foederati at their flank, leaving only a quarter of the enemy to flee, he was the father of Publius Decius P.f. Mus, consul in 312 BC, 308 BC, 297 BC, 295 BC and the grandfather of Publius Decius P.f. Mus, consul in 279 BC. At the behest of Franco Cattaneo, a Genoese businessman, Peter Paul Rubens created a series of eight paintings, modelli for tapestry weavers to recreate, commemorating Decius Mus. In the 2016 United States Presidential election, Michael Anton wrote under the pseudonym Publius Decius Mus to put forward a conservative intellectual defence of the positions of candidate Donald Trump, his writings were aimed at Republicans that held Trump was not politically conservative enough to represent the party. He wrote that a risk of self-sacrifice was necessary to save the nation, maintaining that progressives had brought it to the brink of destruction.
He used the actions of the passengers on United Airlines Flight 93 as an analogy. Horatii Cincinnatus Marcus Atilius Regulus Cato the Elder
A torc spelled torq or torque, is a large rigid or stiff neck ring in metal, made either as a single piece or from strands twisted together. The great majority are open at the front, although some had hook and ring closures and a few had mortice and tenon locking catches to close them. Many would have been difficult to remove. Torcs are found in the Scythian, Thracian and other cultures of the European Iron Age from around the 8th century BC to the 3rd century AD. For the Iron Age Celts the gold torc seems to have been a key object, identifying the wearer as a person of high rank, many of the finest works of ancient Celtic art are torcs; the Celtic torc disappears in the Migration Period, but during the Viking Age torc-style metal necklaces, now in silver, came back into fashion. Torc styles of neck-ring are found as part of the jewellery styles of various other cultures and periods; the word comes from Latin torquis, from torqueo, "to twist", because of the twisted shape many of the rings have.
Neck-rings that open at the front when worn are called "torcs" and those that open at the back "collars". Smaller bracelets and armlets worn around the wrist or on the upper arm sometimes share similar forms. Torcs were made from "ropes" of twisted wire. Most of those that have been found are made from gold or bronze, less silver, iron or other metals. Elaborate examples, sometimes hollow, used a variety of techniques but complex decoration was begun by casting and worked by further techniques; the Ipswich Hoard includes unfinished torcs. Flat-ended terminals are called "buffers", in types like the "fused-buffer" shape, where what resemble two terminals are a single piece, the element is called a "muff". There are several types of rigid gold and sometimes bronze necklaces and collars of the European Bronze Age, from around 1200 BC, many of which are classed as "torcs", they are twisted in various conformations, including the "twisted ribbon" type, where a thin strip of gold is twisted into a spiral.
Other examples twist a bar with a square or X section, or just use round wire, with both types in the three 12th– or 11th-century BC specimens found at Tiers Cross, Wales. The Milton Keynes Hoard contained two large examples of thicker rounded forms, as used for bracelets; the terminals are not emphasized as in typical Iron Age torcs, though many can be closed by hooking the simple terminals together. Many of these "torcs" are too small to be worn round the neck of an adult, were either worn as bracelets or armlets, or by children or statues. Archaeologists find dating many torcs difficult, with some believing torcs were retained for periods of centuries as heirlooms, others believing there were two periods of production. Differing ratios of silver in the gold of other objects—typically up to 15% in the Bronze Age but up to 20% in the Iron Age—can help decide the question. There are several flared gold torcs with a C-shaped section in the huge Mooghaun North Hoard of Late Bronze Age gold from 800 to 700 BC found in County Clare in Ireland.
To the East, torcs appear in Scythian art from the Early Iron Age, include "classicizing" decoration drawing on styles from the east. Torcs are found in Thraco-Cimmerian art. Torcs are found in the Tolstaya burial and the Karagodeuashk kurgan, both dating to the 4th century BC. A torc is part of the Pereshchepina hoard dating to the 7th century AD. Thin torcs with animal head terminals, are found in the art of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, with some other elements derived from Scythian art. Depictions of the gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology sometimes show them wearing or carrying torcs, as in images of the god Cernunnos wearing one torc around his neck, with torcs hanging from his antlers or held in his hand, as on the Gundestrup cauldron; this may represent the deity as the source of power and riches, as the torc was a sign of nobility and high social status. The famous Roman copy of the original Greek sculpture The Dying Gaul depicts a wounded Gaulish warrior naked except for a torc, how Polybius described the gaesatae, Celtic warriors from modern northern Italy or the Alps, fighting at the Battle of Telamon in 225 BC, although other Celts there were clothed.
One of the earliest known depictions of a torc can be found on the Warrior of Hirschlanden, a high proportion of the few Celtic statues of human figures male, show them wearing torcs. Other possible functions that have been proposed for torcs include use as rattles in rituals or otherwise, as some have stones or metal pieces inside them, representations of figures thought to be deities carrying torcs in their hand may depict this; some are too heavy to wear for long, may have been made to place on cult statues. Few of these remain but they may well have been in wood and not survived. Torcs were valuable, found broken in pieces, so being a store of value may have been an important part of their use, it has been noted that the Iberian gold examples seem to be made at fixed weights that are multiples of the Phoenician shekel. With bracelets, torcs are "the most important category of Celtic gold", though armlets and anklets were worn; the earliest Celtic torcs are found buried with women, for example, the gold torc from the La Tène period chariot burial of a princess, found in the Waldalgesheim chariot burial in Germany, others found in female graves at Vix i
Falisci is the ancient Roman exonym for an Italic people who lived in what is now northern Lazio, on the Etruscan side of the Tiber River. They spoke an Italic language, Faliscan akin to Latin. A sovereign state and they supported the Etruscans, joining the Etruscan League; this conviction and affiliation led to their ultimate near destruction and total subjugation by Rome. Only one instance of their own endonym has been found to date: an inscription from Falerii Novi from the late 2nd century AD refers to the falesce quei in Sardinia sunt, "the Faliscans who are in Sardinia", where falesce is the nominative plural case. An Etruscan inscription calls them the feluskeś; the Latin cannot be far different from the original name. The -sc- suffix is "distinctive of the Italic ethnonyms"; the Falisci resided in a region called by the Romans the Ager Faliscus, "Faliscan Country", located on the right bank of the Tiber River between and including Grotta Porciosa in the north and Capena in the south. To the west, the corners of the square area were on the slopes of the Monti Sabatini in the south and the Monti Cimini in the north.
Pollen samples from Lake Bracciano, Lake Monterosi and Lake Vico reveal that the montane forests, formed by oaks, were dense until the 2nd century BC. The arable land was contained within an enclosure of the Tiber River; the northern border of the enclosure went along the ridge of the Monti Cimini, the southern along the ridge connecting the Monti Sabatini and Monte Soratte, the western along the highlands connecting the two large volcanic lakes. The inner slopes are drained by streams pointing at the Tiber, which collect into converging canyons and into the canyon of the Treia River, which empties into the Tiber; these streams required an extensive network of bridges. The Falisci lived in a natural stronghold surrounded by Etruscan cities, notably Veii to the south; this circumstance suggests that eastern Etruria was held by Latins, who were displaced by or incorporated into Etruscan civilization, but the Falisci were able to remain lodged in their highlands. Most of the through traffic went along the Via Tiburtina on the west bank of the river, which could only be crossed south of Capena or at Grotta Porciosa in the north.
There the Via Flaminia, earlier the Via Amerina, led inland into the country of the Sabines via the valley of the Nar River. On the western side, the Via Cassia or its predecessor led to the coast over Sutri gap; the Falisci therefore prospered by being on a protected crossroad. Their most important centre was Falerii, which became known as Falerii Veteres after the Romans moved them to a less defensible position, Falerii Novi. Both locations are near the modern Civita Castellana, they had Fescennium. Archaeologists have discovered other major municipalities, unmentioned by the ancient sources, at Corchiano, Vignanello and Grotta Porciosa. In spite of the Etruscan domination, the Faliscans preserved many traces of their Italic origin, such as the worship of the deities Juno Quiritis, the cult of the god Soranus by the Hirpi or fire-leaping priests on Mount Soracte, above all their language; the Falisci allied with the Etruscans, resisted Rome for a long time. They were allied with Veii when it was defeated in 396 BC.
In the aftermath, Falerii was occupied by the victorious Romans. When, in 358, Tarquinia rebelled, the Falisci again took arms against Rome, but were again crushed c. 351 BC. This time an alliance was signed between the contenders, a Roman garrison was settled in Falerii; the Falisci took advantage of the First Punic War to declare their independence, but their revolt ended in 241 BC with the death of 15,000 Falisci and the destruction of Falerii. Faliscan language Pelasgians Carlucci, Claudia. Villa Giulia Museum: The Antiquities of the Faliscans. Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 1998. De Lucia Brolli, Maria Anna and Jacopo Tabolli. “The Faliscans and the Etruscans.” In The Etruscan World, edited by Jean MacIntosh Turfa, 259-280. London: Routledge, 2013. Holland, Louise Adams; the Faliscans in Prehistoric Times. Rome: American Academy in Rome, 1925. Potter, T. W. A Faliscan Town in South Etruria: Excavations at Narce 1966-71. London: British School at Rome, 1976. Bakkum, Gabriël CLM; the Latin Dialect of the Ager Faliscus: 150 Years of Scholarship.
Thesis, University of Amsterdam. Part I. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Robert Seymour. "Falisci". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. P. 148