Kozukumi-jima is an island located in Ise Bay off the east coast of central Honshu, Japan. It is administered as part of the city of Toba in Mie Prefecture. Kozukumi-jima is uninhabited, it has been regarded as a sacred island to the Shinto religion since ancient times, commercial fishing in its adjacent waters is prohibited. Archaeologists have found the remains of stone sanctuaries, designated as a Hachiman Shrine by local fishermen, who hold a ceremony on the island annually on July 11. Other than this occasion, landing on the island is forbidden. Toba City homepage
The Toba Line is a railway line operated by the Japanese private railway company Kintetsu Railway, connecting Ujiyamada Station in Ise, Mie with Toba Station in Toba, Mie. The line runs parallel to JR Central's Sangū Line; the line connects with the Yamada Line at the Shima Line at Toba Station. The Yamada Line, Toba Line, Shima Line form a single train line that begins at Ise-Nakagawa Station and serves the Ise-Shima tourist region. LO Local For Ise-Nakagawa For Toba, Kashikojima EX Express For Osaka Uehommachi; the decision to build the line was based on Kintetsu wanting to attract visitors from among the many people attending the 1970 World's Fair in Osaka to the Ise-Shima region where Kintetsu runs a variety of tourism business enterprises, direct rail service would improve the bus system, in place at that time, thereby making it more convenient to travel there. What are now the Osaka Line and the Yamada Line were completed in the late 1920s / early 1930s by two separate companies, but both lines came under the control of Kintetsu in the 1940s.
This made possible direct rail service from Osaka to Ise used by tourists and pilgrims going to Ise Grand Shrine. Completed in the late 1920s was what is now the Shima Line which runs from Toba to Kashikojima; this line was built by a third independent railway company and went through the ownership of various companies over the years falling under the umbrella of Kintetsu in 1965. Kintetsu now owned train lines that stretched from both Osaka and Nagoya as far as Ise as well as a small disconnected line running between Toba and Shima, however there was no Kintetsu rail link between Ise and Toba, meaning Kintetsu passengers bound for Shima had to switch from train to a bus in Ise back to another train in Toba to complete the journey; the first solution, implemented in the 1960s, was building a bus ramp right up to the train platform of Ujiyamada Station and running buses that were timed to match up with the arriving limited expresses from Osaka and Nagoya, allowing passengers on those trains to switch to the bus without leaving the station or waiting long.
However, in preparation for the 1970 World's Fair, Kintetsu decided it was a good time to implement the ideal solution, direct rail access all the way to Kashikojima. Construction commenced in 1968 and a single track, connecting the Yamada Line and the Shima Line, was completed in 1970 just two weeks before the World's Fair began. Trains on this single-track Toba Line waited for each other to pass at a signal station located between Asama Station and Ikenoura Station near the line's midpoint; the line was completed when a second track was finished in 1975, thereby allowing bi-directional travel at all times. May 1, 1968 - Construction begins. December 15, 1969 - First track opens on Ujiyamada ~ Isuzugawa section. March 1, 1970 - First track opens on Isuzugawa ~ Toba section. Direct service from both Osaka and Nagoya to Kashikojima begins. December 25, 1971 - Second track opens on Ujiyamada ~ Isuzugawa section. April 11, 1975 - Second track opens on Isuzugawa ~ Asama section. December 20, 1975 - Second track opens on Asama ~ Toba section.
Bi-directional service begins. May 30, 2001: Wanman driver-only train service begins. Kintetsu railway network map - Osaka Line Yamada Line Toba Line Shima Line Japan Guide - Shima Peninsula Travel - Toba Aquarium Japan Guide - Shima Peninsula Travel - Mikimoto Pearl Island
The Sengoku period is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict. Japanese historians named it after the otherwise unrelated Warring States period in China, it was initiated by the Ōnin War, which collapsed the Japanese feudal system under the Ashikaga shogunate, came to an end when the system was re-established under the Tokugawa shogunate by Tokugawa Ieyasu. During this period, although the Emperor of Japan was the ruler of his nation and every lord swore loyalty to him, he was a marginalized and religious figure who delegated power to the shōgun, a noble, equivalent to a generalissimo. In the years preceding this era the Shogunate lost influence and control over the daimyōs. Although the Ashikaga shogunate had retained the structure of the Kamakura shogunate and instituted a warrior government based on the same social economic rights and obligations established by the Hōjō with the Jōei Code in 1232, it failed to win the loyalty of many daimyōs those whose domains were far from the capital, Kyoto.
Many of these Lords began to fight uncontrollably with each other for control over land and influence over the shogunate. As trade with Ming China grew, the economy developed, the use of money became widespread as markets and commercial cities appeared. This, combined with developments in agriculture and small-scale trading, led to the desire for greater local autonomy throughout all levels of the social hierarchy; as early as the beginning of the 15th century, the suffering caused by earthquakes and famines served to trigger armed uprisings by farmers weary of debt and taxes. The Ōnin War, a conflict rooted in economic distress and brought on by a dispute over shogunal succession, is regarded as the onset of the Sengoku period; the "eastern" army of the Hosokawa family and its allies clashed with the "western" army of the Yamana. Fighting in and around Kyoto lasted for nearly 11 years, leaving the city completely destroyed; the conflict in Kyoto spread to outlying provinces. The period culminated with a series of three warlords, Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu, who unified Japan.
After Tokugawa Ieyasu's final victory at the siege of Osaka in 1615, Japan settled down into several centuries of peace under the Tokugawa shogunate. The Ōnin War in 1467 is considered the starting point of the Sengoku period. There are several events which could be considered the end of it: Nobunaga's entry to Kyoto or abolition of the Muromachi shogunate, the Siege of Odawara, the Battle of Sekigahara, the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate, or the Siege of Osaka; the upheaval resulted in the further weakening of central authority, throughout Japan regional lords, called daimyōs, rose to fill the vacuum. In the course of this power shift, well-established clans such as the Takeda and the Imagawa, who had ruled under the authority of both the Kamakura and Muromachi bakufu, were able to expand their spheres of influence. There were many, whose positions eroded and were usurped by more capable underlings; this phenomenon of social meritocracy, in which capable subordinates rejected the status quo and forcefully overthrew an emancipated aristocracy, became known as gekokujō, which means "low conquers high".
One of the earliest instances of this was Hōjō Sōun, who rose from humble origins and seized power in Izu Province in 1493. Building on the accomplishments of Sōun, the Late Hōjō clan remained a major power in the Kantō region until its subjugation by Toyotomi Hideyoshi late in the Sengoku period. Other notable examples include the supplanting of the Hosokawa clan by the Miyoshi, the Toki by the Saitō, the Shiba clan by the Oda clan, in turn replaced by its underling, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a son of a peasant with no family name. Well-organized religious groups gained political power at this time by uniting farmers in resistance and rebellion against the rule of the daimyōs; the monks of the Buddhist True Pure Land sect formed numerous Ikkō-ikki, the most successful of which, in Kaga Province, remained independent for nearly 100 years. After nearly a century of political instability and warfare, Japan was on the verge of unification by Oda Nobunaga, who had emerged from obscurity in the province of Owari to dominate central Japan, when in 1582 Oda was assassinated by one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhide.
This in turn provided Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who had risen through the ranks from ashigaru to become one of Oda's most trusted generals, with the opportunity to establish himself as Oda's successor. Toyotomi consolidated his control over the remaining daimyōs and, although he was ineligible for the title of Sei-i Taishōgun because of his common birth, ruled as Kampaku. During his short reign as Kampaku, Toyotomi attempted two invasions of Korea; the first spanning from 1592 to 1596 was successful but suffered setbacks to end in stalemate. When Toyotomi died in 1598 without leaving a capable successor, the country was once again thrust into political turmoil, this time Tokugawa Ieyasu took advantage of the opportunity. Toyotomi had on his deathbed appointed a group of the most powerful lords in Japan—Tokugawa, Maeda Toshiie, Ukita Hideie, Uesugi Kagekatsu, Mōri Terumoto—to govern as the Council of
Ōzukumi-jima is an island located in Ise Bay off the east coast of central Honshu, Japan. It is administered as part of the city of Toba in Mie Prefecture. Ōzukumi-jima is mentioned in the Heian period Wamyō Ruijushō. Archaeologists have found shell middens and the remains mid-Yayoi period pit houses and ceramics on the islands, indicating that it was inhabited in antiquity, but the island is not known to have been inhabited in historic times; the waters surrounding Ōzukumi-jima are noted for the commercial fishing of shrimp and octopus. Local fishermen hold a Shinto ceremony on the island annually in July
Wokou were pirates who raided the coastlines of China and Korea from the 4th century to the 16th century. The wokou came from Japanese and Chinese ethnicities which varied over time and raided the mainland from islands in the Sea of Japan and East China Sea. Wokou activity in Korea declined after the Gihae Eastern Expedition of the Joseon in 1419, but continued in Ming China and peaked during the Jiajing wokou raids in the mid-1500s, but Chinese reprisals and strong clamp downs on pirates by Japanese authorities saw the wokou disappear by the 1600s. There are two distinct eras of wokou piracy; the early wokou set up camp on the outlying islands of the Japanese archipelago in the Sea of Japan, as opposed to the 16th century wokou who were non-Japanese. The early wokou raided the Japanese themselves as well as China and Korea; the first recorded use of the term wokou is on the Gwanggaeto Stele, a stone monument erected in modern Ji'an, China, to celebrate the exploits of Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo.
The stele states that "wokou" crossed the sea and were defeated by him in the year 404. The term wokou is a combination of the Chinese terms Wō, referring to either dwarfs or pejoratively to the Japanese, kòu "bandit". Records report that the main camps of the early wokou were the island of Tsushima, Iki Island, the Gotō Islands. Jeong Mong-ju was dispatched to Japan to deal with the problem, during his visit Kyushu governor Imagawa Sadayo suppressed the early wokou returning their captured property and people to Korea. In 1405 Ashikaga Yoshimitsu sent twenty captured pirates to China, where they were boiled in a cauldron in Ningbo. According to Korean records, wako pirates were rampant from 1350. After annual invasions of the southern provinces of Jeolla and Gyeongsang, they migrated northwards to the Chungcheong and Gyeonggi areas; the History of Goryeo has a record of sea battles in 1380 whereby one hundred warships were sent to Jinpo to rout Japanese pirates there, releasing 334 captives, Japanese sorties decreasing after.
The wako pirates were expelled through the use of gunpowder technology, which the wako lacked, after Goryeo founded the Office of Gunpowder Weapons in 1377. Korea launched attacks on pirate bases on Tsushima in 1419 with the Gihae Eastern Expedition. General Yi Jongmu's fleet of 227 ships and 17,285 soldiers set off from Geoje Island toward Tsushima on June 19, 1419; the routes of the Korean attack were guided by captured Japanese pirates. After landing, General Yi Jongmu first sent captured Japanese pirates as emissaries to ask for surrender; when he received no reply, he sent out his forces and the soldiers proceeded to raid the pirates and destroy their settlements. The Korean army destroyed 129 boats and 1939 houses, killed or enslaved 135 coastal residents as well as rescuing 131 Chinese and Korean captives of the pirates and 21 slaves on the island; the number of Wokou raids dropped after the Korean expedition. Some of the coastal forts built for defense against Wokou can still be found in Fujian.
Among them are the well-restored Pucheng Fortress and Chongwu Fortress, as well as the ruins of the Liu'ao Fortress in Liu'ao, Zhangpu County. According to the History of Ming, thirty percent of the 16th century wokou were Japanese, seventy percent were ethnic Chinese. In attempts to centralize political control the Ming Dynasty enacted trade bans, the consensus being that "unrestricted trade would lead to chaos". With maritime trade outlawed, China's navy was reduced, as a result was unable to combat increased smuggling and wokou took over the southeastern coast. Although wokou means "Japanese pirates", major wokou groups in the 16th century were led by Chinese traders whose livelihoods were halted by the Ming trade bans; because of the extent of corruption in the Ming court, many Chinese officials had relations with the pirates and benefited from the piracy, making it difficult for central authorities to control. Two well known Chinese military figures involved in the combating of Wokou are Qi Jiguang and Yu Dayou.
Yu Dayou was a general of the Ming dynasty, assigned to defend the coast against the Japanese pirates. In 1553, a young man named Qi Jiguang became Assistant Regional Military Commissioner of the Ming dynasty and was assigned to "punish the bandits and guard the people" which meant taking on the Japanese pirates attacking the Ming east coast. At the time he was only twenty-six years old. On the eve of the next year he was promoted to full Commissioner in Zhejiang because of his successes; the identity of the wokou is subject to some debate, with various theories about the ethnic makeup and national origin of the pirates. Professor Takeo Tanaka of University of Tokyo proposed in 1966 that the early wokou were Koreans living on these outlying islands. In the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, the compiled section for King Sejong relates that a vassal named Yi Sun-mong told his monarch "I hear that in the late Goryeo kingdom period, Wokou roaming and the peasants could not withstand them; however only 1 or 2 were caused by Japanese.
Some of our peasants imitatively wore Japanese clothing, formed a group and caused trouble... in order to stop all evils, there is nothing more urgent than the Hopae". However, Yi did not live during the Goryeo dynasty, was relating rumor or legend as opposed to solid documented evidence. Moreover, the thrust of Yi's speech concentrates on how national securi
Edo romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo. It was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868. During this period, it grew to become one of the largest cities in the world and home to an urban culture centered on the notion of a "floating world". From the establishment of the Tokugawa bakufu headquarters at Edo, the town became the de facto capital and center of political power, although Kyoto remained the formal capital of the country. Edo grew from what had been a small, little-known fishing village in 1457 into the largest metropolis in the world with an estimated population of 1,000,000 by 1721. Edo was devastated by fires, with the Great Fire of Meireki in 1657 being the most disastrous. An estimated 100,000 people died in the fire. During the Edo period, there were about 100 fires begun by accident and quickly escalating and spreading through neighborhoods of wooden machiya which were heated with charcoal fires. Between 1600 and 1945, Edo/Tokyo was leveled every 25 -- 50 years or so by fire, war.
In 1868, when the shogunate came to an end, the city was renamed Tokyo. The emperor moved his residence to Tokyo, making the city the formal capital of Japan: Keiō 4: On the 17th day of the 7th month, Edo was renamed Tokyo. Keiō 4: On the 27th day of the 8th month, Emperor Meiji was crowned in the Shishin-den in Kyoto. Keiō 4: On the eighth day of the ninth month, the nengō was formally changed from Keiō to Meiji and a general amnesty was granted. Meiji 2: On the 23rd day of the 10th month, the emperor went to Tokyo and Edo castle became an imperial palace. Ishimaru Sadatsuga was the magistrate of Edo in 1661. During the Edo period, Roju were senior officials. Machi-bugyō were in charge of protecting the citizens and merchants of Edo, Kanjō-bugyō were responsible for the financial matters of the Shogunate; the city was laid out as a castle town around Edo Castle. The area surrounding the castle known as Yamanote consisted of daimyō mansions, whose families lived in Edo as part of the sankin kōtai system.
It was this extensive samurai class which defined the character of Edo in contrast to the two major cities of Kyoto and Osaka neither of which were ruled by a daimyō or had a significant samurai population. Kyoto's character was defined by the Imperial Court, the court nobles, its Buddhist temples and its history. Areas further from the center were the domain of the chōnin; the area known as Shitamachi, northeast of the castle, was a center of urban culture. The ancient Buddhist temple of Sensō-ji still stands in Asakusa, marking the center of an area of traditional Shitamachi culture; some shops in the streets near the temple have existed continuously in the same location since the Edo period. The Sumida River called the Great River, ran along the eastern edge of the city; the shogunate's official rice-storage warehouses, other official buildings and some of the city's best-known restaurants were located here. The "Japan Bridge" marked the center of the city's commercial center, an area known as Kuramae.
Fishermen and other producers and retailers operated here. Shippers managed ships known as tarubune to and from Osaka and other cities, bringing goods into the city or transferring them from sea routes to river barges or land routes such as the Tōkaidō; this area remains the center of Tokyo's financial and business district. The northeastern corner of the city was considered a dangerous direction in traditional onmyōdō, is protected from evil by a number of temples including Sensō-ji and Kan'ei-ji. Beyond this were the districts of the eta or outcasts, who performed "unclean" work and were separated from the main parts of the city. A path and a canal, a short distance north of the eta districts, extended west from the riverbank leading along the northern edge of the city to the Yoshiwara pleasure districts. Located near Ningyocho, the districts were rebuilt in this more-remote location after the Great Fire of Meireki in 1657, as the city expanded. See Tokyo for photographs of the modern city.
Edo period Edo society Fires in Edo 1703 Genroku earthquake Edokko History of Tokyo Iki Asakusa Forbes, Andrew. 100 Famous Views of Edo. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B00HR3RHUY Gordon, Andrew.. A Modern History of Japan from Tokugawa Times to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511060-9/ISBN 978-0-19-511060-9. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. Kyoto: the Old Capital, 794–1869. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. Sansom, George.. A History of Japan: 1615–1867. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0527-5/ISBN 978-0-8047-0527-1. Akira Naito, Kazuo Hozumi. Edo, the City that Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History. Kodansha International, Tokyo. ISBN 4-7700-2757-5 Alternate spelling from 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article. A Trip to Old Edo Fukagawa Edo Museum Map of Bushū Toshima District, Edo from 1682
Toba Station is a railway station in Toba, Japan, jointly operated by Central Japan Railway Company and the private railway operator Kintetsu Railway. The station is 29.1 rail kilometers from the terminus of the Sangū Line at Taki Station. It is 13.2 rail kilometers from the terminus of the Kintetsu Toba Line at Ujiyamada Station and 41.5 rail kilometers from the terminus of the Yamada Line at Ise-Nakagawa Station. JR Central Sangū Line Kintetsu Toba Line Shima Line Toba Station consists of two bay platforms for use by JR Central, two island platforms for use by the Kintetsu Lines. Toba Station opened on July 1911 as a station on the Japanese Government Railways Sangū Line; the Shima Electric Railway connected to the station on July 23, 1929. JGR became the Japanese National Railways after World War II. Through a series of mergers, the Shima Electric Railway became the part of the Kintetsu Group by April 1, 1965; the Kintetsu portion of the station was rebuilt in March 1970. The JNR portion of the station burned down in a fire on January 6, 1974 and rebuilt by October 14, 1975.
The Kintetsu portion of the station was rebuilt again in July 23, 1999. Mikimoto Pearl Island Toba Aquarium Toba Port and ferries to outlying islands Toba International Hotel JR Central: Toba Station Kintetsu: Toba Station Kintetsu: Layout of Toba Station