A turbocharger, colloquially known as a turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra compressed air into the combustion chamber. This improvement over a aspirated engine's power output is due to the fact that the compressor can force more air—and proportionately more fuel—into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone. Turbochargers were known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Today the term "supercharger" is applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices; the key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that a supercharger is mechanically driven by the engine through a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine driven by the engine's exhaust gas. Compared with a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive.
Twincharger refers to an engine with a turbocharger. Turbochargers are used on truck, train and construction equipment engines, they are most used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. Forced induction dates from the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a gear-driven pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885; the turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi, the head of diesel engine research at Gebrüder Sulzer, engine manufacturing company in Winterthur, who received a patent in 1905 for using a compressor driven by exhaust gases to force air into an internal combustion engine to increase power output, but it took another 20 years for the idea to come to fruition. The first use of turbocharging technology based on his design was for large marine engines, when the German Ministry of Transport commissioned the construction of the "Preussen" and "Hansestadt Danzig" passenger liners in 1923. Both ships featured twin ten-cylinder diesel engines with output boosted from 1750 to 2500 horsepower by turbochargers designed by Büchi and built under his supervision by Brown Boveri.
During World War I French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success. In 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Alexander Moss attached a turbocharger to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine; the engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14,000 ft to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power loss experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude. Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines such as the Napier Lioness in the 1920s, although they were less common than engine-driven centrifugal superchargers. Ships and locomotives equipped with turbocharged diesel engines began appearing in the 1920s. Turbochargers were used in aviation, most used by the United States. During World War II, notable examples of U. S. aircraft with turbochargers—which included mass-produced ones designed by General Electric for American aviation use—include the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, P-38 Lightning, P-47 Thunderbolt.
The technology was used in experimental fittings by a number of other manufacturers, notably a variety of experimental inline engine-powered Focke-Wulf Fw 190 prototype models, with some developments for their design coming from the DVL, a predecessor of today's DLR agency, but the need for advanced high-temperature metals in the turbine, that were not available for production purposes during wartime, kept them out of widespread use. Turbochargers are used in car and commercial vehicles because they allow smaller-capacity engines to have improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, higher power and higher torque. In contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. Belts, chains and gears are common methods of powering a supercharger, placing a mechanical load on the engine. For example, on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the supercharger uses about 150 horsepower, yet the benefits outweigh the costs. This is. Another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency when compared with turbochargers.
Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of a compressor's ability to compress air without adding excess heat to that air. Under ideal conditions, the compression process always results in elevated output temperature. Roots superchargers impart more heat to the air than turbochargers. Thus, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, as a result denser, containing more oxygen molecules, therefore more potential power than the supercharged air. In practical application the disparity between the two can be dramatic, with turbochargers producing 15% to 30% more power based on the differences in adiabatic efficiency. By comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine, although turbochargers place exhaust back pressure on engines, increasing pumping losses; this is more ef
Derek Stanley Arthur Warwick is a British former racing driver from England, who lives in Jersey. He raced for many years in Formula One, never winning a Grand Prix, he did, win the 1992 24 Hours of Le Mans and 1992 World Sportscar Championship. In 2005 and 2006 he raced in the inaugural season of the Grand Prix Masters formula for retired Formula One drivers, he has served as the fourth steward for three Grands Prix in 2010 and 2011. He is president of the British Racing Drivers Club. Warwick was born in Alresford, England, he began his career in British stock car racing under the Spedeworth organisation at tracks such as his local Aldershot Stadium. He won the Superstox English Championship in 1971 and the World Championship at Wimbledon Stadium in 1973, his younger brother Paul raced with some success in Superstox before progressing to Formula 3000, in which he was racing when killed in an accident in 1991. Derek won the 1978 British Formula 3 Championship. Warwick began his Formula One career with the fledgling F1 team Toleman for the 1981 season.
He managed to qualify for the season finale at Las Vegas. Warwick had dismal 1982 and 1983 seasons in the Toleman car, but bounced back, scoring points in the final four rounds of the 1983 championship, he joined Renault in 1984 after Alain Prost left them at the end of 1983. Warwick, expecting to have a race-winning car, led the Brazilian Grand Prix, his first drive for them, only to retire because of a suspension failure caused by an early race wheel banging duel with the McLaren of Niki Lauda, he finished in second place in both the Belgian and British Grands Prix in 1984 and placed seventh in the championship. 1984 would prove to be the beginning of the end for the factory Renault team, the pioneers of turbocharging in Formula One. Neither Warwick nor new teammate Patrick Tambay won a race in 1984, the first time since 1978 that the team did not win a Grand Prix; the turning point in Warwick's career was his decision to stay at Renault for 1985 and reject an offer to drive for Williams-Honda.
1985 was a poor one for Renault and the team withdrew from Formula One at the end of the year. Renault's withdrawal, Ayrton Senna's refusal to let Warwick join him as teammate at Lotus, left Warwick without a team for the 1986 season and he took up an offer to drive for Tom Walkinshaw's TWR Jaguar team in the World Sportscar Championship. Following the death of Elio de Angelis in a testing accident in May, Warwick was invited to take his place at Brabham. Unconfirmed rumours surfaced that Brabham owner Bernie Ecclestone had invited Warwick to take de Angelis's place as the Englishman was the only available top driver who had not contacted the team offering his services in the days following the Italian's untimely death. Warwick explained: "I got a phone call from Bernie, who said that he appreciated the fact that I didn't call him five minutes after Elio had died and would I like to drive for him."As no Grands Prix clashed with his Sportscar commitments, Warwick was able to race in both world championships.
In 1987, Warwick moved to the Arrows team alongside his Jaguar teammate Eddie Cheever, ending the season with 3 points scored. The 1988 season saw an improvement on the Arrows performance due to the powerful Megatron engine and Warwick finished 7 times in the top 6, earning him 17 points and a respectable 8th position in the championship, his best race of the season was 4th in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza where he finished only half a second behind Cheever. Italy was notable in that it was the first time since the beginning of 1987 that Arrows engine guru Heini Mader solved the problem with the FIA's mandatory pop-off valve which restricted turbo boost. For the first time this allowed both Warwick and Cheever to exploit the power of the 640 bhp Megatron engine and be much closer to the front than they had been previously. In 1989, victory eluded Warwick in two occasions; the first was in the Brazilian Grand Prix, when a disastrous pit-stop cost him more than the 17 seconds he finished behind winner Nigel Mansell.
But the real heartbreak came in the Canadian Grand Prix, when Warwick drove superbly and was leading the wet race, only to have his Cosworth engine fail on lap 40 while in second place. Ayrton Senna, who had passed Warwick for the lead on lap 38, would himself retire when his McLaren's Honda V10 blew 3 laps from the finish; as Warwick was lapping much quicker than those behind him, including the V10 Williams-Renault of eventual winner Thierry Boutsen, it is possible he could have scored his first Grand Prix win had he finished. Reliability issues plagued Warwick's season and cost him good finishes in other races as well, resulting in only 7 points for the season, the last of his 3 years at Arrows. For the 1990 season, 4 years after Senna's veto, Warwick drove for Lotus who in 1990 would be using the Lamborghini V12 engine, but the glory days of that team were over and the Lamborghini 3512 proved unreliable and Warwick ended the season with a meagre 3 points tally. His greatest achievement of the season happened at the 1990 Spanish Grand Prix where his teammate Martin Donnelly suffered a severe crash leaving Warwick to help morale at the team by qualifying in the top 10 only for the gearbox to fail 10 laps from the end.
Benetton Formula Ltd. referred to as Benetton, was a Formula One constructor that participated from 1986 to 2001. The team was owned by the Benetton family who run a worldwide chain of clothing stores of the same name. In 2000, the team competed as Benetton for the 2000 and 2001 seasons. In 2002, the team became Renault F1; the Benetton Formula team was chaired by Alessandro Benetton from 1988 to 1998. The Benetton Group entered Formula One as a sponsor company for Tyrrell in 1983 Alfa Romeo in 1984 and 1985 and Toleman in 1985. Benetton Formula Ltd. was formed at the end of 1985 when the Toleman team was sold to the Benetton family. The team began with BMW engines and later switched to Ford Renault and Playlife; the team was managed by Peter Collins from 1986 to 1989 and Flavio Briatore from 1990 until 1997. In about 1991, TWR acquired a one-third stake in the team, bringing in Tom Walkinshaw and Ross Brawn to run the engineering operations. Rocco Benetton, the youngest son of Luciano Benetton joined the team as Chief Executive in 1998 and fired Briatore.
He replaced him with Prodrive boss David Richards, who lasted only for a year when he too was fired, due to a disagreement with the Benetton family about future strategy. Following Richards's departure, Rocco Benetton managed the team for three years until its sale to Renault; the Benetton team is best known for its success with Michael Schumacher, who accounts for 19 of the team's 27 career victories and their 2 Drivers' Championships. After switching to Renault engines, they won the Constructors' Championship in 1995 with Schumacher and Johnny Herbert. After 1995, Schumacher moved to Ferrari along with Ross Brawn, Rory Byrne and 11 other key figures from his two championship winning seasons with Benetton. On 16 March 2000, the team was sold to Renault for $120 million US; as part of their restructuring, Renault brought back Flavio Briatore as team manager. The team still used the Playlife engines; the drivers were Alexander Wurz. The team scored 20 points, as well as 3 podium finishes in 2000 at Brazil and Canada.
During their final season in 2001 the drivers, Jenson Button and Giancarlo Fisichella, were on the back two rows of the grid. This was in part attributed to the new 111-degree wide angle engine, but continued development allowed Benetton to leave Formula 1 on something of a high, the cars' performance lifted. Button and Fisichella scored 10 points for the team, including a podium finish for Fisichella in Belgium. During the 1994 season, some rival teams claimed Benetton had found a way to violate the FIA-imposed ban on electronic aids, including traction control and launch control. On investigation, the FIA discovered "start sequence" software in the Benetton B194 cars, a variety of illegal software in rival teams' cars as well. FIA had no evidence the software was used, so teams found with the software received little to no punishment. No traction control software was found to be in the Benetton cars, however. Flavio Briatore, Benetton's chief in 1994, said in 2001 that "Our only mistake was that at the time we were too young and people were suspicious".
During the 1994 season Benetton removed a fuel filter from the refueling rig used during pit stops. This resulted in a fire; this resulted in further inquiries by the FIA, during which, the refuelling rig manufacturer made clear that in their opinion the modification would have resulted in 10% higher flow rates than the rules allowed. Benetton Team had a British licence from 1986 to 1995 and an Italian licence from 1996 to 2001, thus becoming only the second constructor to change its nationality; the Benetton family wanted this change of nationality in order to have an F1 team of their own country. Benetton remains the only constructor to have achieved victory while racing under two different nationalities; the team was based in the UK throughout. Firstly at the old Toleman factory, in Witney, Oxfordshire and in 1992 moving to a new, bigger factory at Enstone. Benetton drivers: Gerhard Berger – joined the team from Arrows for its first season in 1986. Scored the team's first and last wins, at the 1986 Mexican Grand Prix and 1997 German Grand Prix.
He scored the team's first podium finish at the 1986 San Marino Grand Prix. Berger ended his Formula One career with Benetton in 1997. Recorded the fastest speed trap time by a turbocharged F1 car when he pushed his BMW powered Benetton B186 to 352.22 km/h during qualifying for the 1986 Italian Grand Prix at Monza. Drove for both Ferrari and McLaren between stints at Benetton, he is the only driver to win a race for Benetton while the team was racing as an Italian team. Teo Fabi – a driver when the team was known as Toleman in 1985. Scored the team's first pole position at the 1986 Austrian Grand Prix, he scored the team's first back to back pole positions when he scored pole at the next race in Italy. Fabi ended his Formula One career with Benetton after the 1987 Australian Grand Prix. Thierry Boutsen – drove for the team in 1987 and 1988, he finished 4th in the Drivers' Championship in 1988 with five 3rd-place finishes. He was the highest placed "atmo" driver at the end of the season. Left Benetton after 1988 to join Williams where he would score his three career wins.
Alessandro Nannini – started with the team in 1988 after two seasons with Minardi and scored two third-place finishes at the British and Spanish Grands Prix, as well as recording the fa
The Toleman TG183 was a Formula One racing car designed by Rory Byrne and built and raced by Toleman Motorsport. The car first raced in the last two races of the 1982 Formula One season driven by Derek Warwick. In the 1983 Formula One season an updated version of the car, designated TG183B, was introduced and Warwick was joined at Toleman by Bruno Giacomelli; the car raced in the first four races of the 1984 Formula One season when Ayrton Senna made his debut in the Formula 1 championship alongside former FIM 350cc and Formula 750 motorcycle World Champion Johnny Cecotto from Venezuela. The TG183 was distinctive in that it had twin rear wings and front wing mounted radiators; the front wing configuration caused the front of the car to move about at high speed and was replaced by a more conventional front wing set up. The TG183B's last race meeting, the 1984 San Marino Grand Prix saw the only time that Ayrton Senna would fail to qualify for a Grand Prix. After a dispute with tyre supplier Pirelli which saw the team switch to Michelin, Toleman sat out the first day of qualifying rather than use the Italian rubber.
In the second, wet qualifying session Senna's Hart 415T engine suffered a fuel pressure problem at the Tosa section of the Imola circuit, the furthest part of the track from the pits. He was unable to get back to the pits in time to record a time; the TG183B was replaced after four races of 1984 by the Toleman TG184. * 14 points scored in 1984 using the Toleman TG184
Las Vegas Valley
The Las Vegas Valley is a major metropolitan area in the southern part of the U. S. state of Nevada. The state's largest urban agglomeration, it is the heart of the Las Vegas–Paradise-Henderson, NV MSA; the Valley is defined by the Las Vegas Valley landform, a 600 sq mi basin area surrounded by mountains to the north, south and west of the metropolitan area. The Valley is home to the three largest incorporated cities in Nevada: Las Vegas and North Las Vegas. Five unincorporated towns governed by the Clark County government are part of the Las Vegas Township and constitute the largest community in the state of Nevada; the names Las Vegas and Vegas are interchangeably used to indicate the Valley, the Strip, the city, as a brand by the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority to denominate the region. The Valley is affectionately known as the "ninth island" by Hawaii natives and Las Vegans alike, in part due to the large number of people from Hawaii who live in and travel to Las Vegas. Since the 1990s the Las Vegas Valley has seen rapid growth, tripling its population of 741,459 in 1990 to 2,227,053 estimated in 2018.
The Las Vegas Valley remains one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States, in its short history has established a diverse presence in international business, urban development and entertainment, as well as one of the most iconic and most visited tourist destinations in the world. In 2014, a record breaking 41 million visited the Las Vegas area, producing a gross metropolitan product of more than $100 billion; the first reported non-Native American visitor to the Las Vegas Valley was the Mexican scout Rafael Rivera in 1829. Las Vegas was named by Mexicans in the Antonio Armijo party, including Rivera, who used the water in the area while heading north and west along the Old Spanish Trail from Texas. In the 19th century, areas of the valley contained artesian wells that supported extensive green areas, or meadows, hence the name Las Vegas; the area was settled by Mormon farmers in 1854 and became the site of a United States Army fort in 1864, beginning a long relationship between southern Nevada and the U.
S. military. Since the 1930s, Las Vegas has been identified as a gaming center as well as a resort destination targeting adults. Nellis Air Force Base is located in the northeast corner of the valley; the ranges that the Nellis pilots use and various other land areas used by various federal agencies, limit growth of the valley in terms of geographic area. Businessman Howard Hughes arrived in the late 1960s and purchased many casino hotels, as well as television and radio stations in the area. Legitimate corporations began to purchase casino hotels as well, the mob was run out by the federal government over the next several years; the constant stream of tourist dollars from the hotels and casinos was augmented by a new source of federal money from the establishment of what is now Nellis Air Force Base. The influx of military personnel and casino job-hunters helped start a land building boom, now leveling off; the Las Vegas area remains one of the world's top entertainment destinations. The valley is contained in the Las Vegas Valley landform.
This includes the cities of Las Vegas, North Las Vegas, Henderson, the unincorporated towns of Summerlin South, Spring Valley, Sunrise Manor, Enterprise and Whitney. The valley is technically located within the larger metropolitan area, as the metropolitan area covers all of Clark County including parts that do not fall within the valley; the government of Clark County has an "Urban Planning Area" of Las Vegas. This definition is a rectangular area, about 20 mi from east to west and 30 miles from north to south. Notable exclusions from the "Urban Planning Area" include Red Rock, Blue Diamond, Mount Charleston; the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department is the largest police department in the valley and the state and exercises jurisdiction in the entire county. There are 3,000 police officers that cover the city of Las Vegas; the department does not exercise primary jurisdiction in areas with separate police forces such as North Las Vegas, Boulder City, Nellis Air Force Base and the Paiute reservation.
The Las Vegas Valley lies in the Mojave Desert. The surrounding land is desert with mountains in the distance; the Las Vegas Valley lies in a high-altitude portion of the Mojave Desert, with a subtropical hot-desert climate. The Valley averages less than 5 in of rain annually. Daily daytime summer temperatures in July and August range from 100 °F to 110 °F, while nights range from 72 °F to 80 °F. Low humidity, tempers the effect of these temperatures, though dehydration, heat exhaustion, sun stroke can occur after a limited time outdoors in the summer; the interiors of automobiles prove deadly to small children and pets during the summer and surfaces exposed to the sun can cause first- and second-degree burns to unprotected skin. July and August can be marked by "monsoon season", when moist winds from the Gulf of California soak much of the Southwestern United States. While not only raising humidity levels, these winds develop into dramatic desert thunderstorms that can sometimes cause flash flooding.
Winters in the Las Vegas Valley are chilly, but sunny. Winter highs in December and January range from 52 °F to 60 °F, while nighttime lows range from 34 °F to 42 °F (
Dagenham is a suburban town in East London, England. In the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham, it is 11.5 miles east of Charing Cross. A parish in the county of Essex, it was an agrarian village and remained undeveloped until 1921, when the London County Council began construction of the large Becontree estate; the population of the area increased in the 20th century, with the parish of Dagenham becoming an urban district in 1926 and a municipal borough in 1938. It has formed part of Greater London since 1965 and is a predominantly residential area, with some areas of declining industrial activity, including the Ford Dagenham plant; the southern part of Dagenham, adjacent to the River Thames, forms part of the London Riverside section of the Thames Gateway redevelopment area. Dagenham first appeared in a document in a charter of Barking Abbey dating from 666 AD; the name certainly originated with a small farmstead, the "ham" or farm of a man called Daecca, as Dæccan hamm in Old English means home of a man called Dæcca.
In 1931 the Ford Motor Company relocated from Trafford Park in Manchester, to a plant in Dagenham, the location of supplier Briggs Motorway Bodies. A 500-acre riverside site was developed to become Europe's largest car plant, a vast vertically integrated site with its own blast furnaces and power station, importing iron ore and exporting finished vehicles. By the 1950s Ford had taken over Briggs at Dagenham and its other sites at Doncaster, Southampton and Romford. At its peak the Dagenham plant had 4,000,000 square feet of floor space and employed over 40,000 people, although this number fell during the final three decades of the 20th century as production methods advanced and Ford invested in other European factories as well. On 20 February 2002, full production was discontinued due to overcapacity in Europe and the relative difficulty of upgrading the 60-year-old site compared with other European sites such as Almussafes and Cologne. Other factors leading to the closure of the Auto-assembly line were the need of the site for the new Diesel Centre of Excellence, which produces half of Ford's Diesel Engines worldwide, the UK employment laws when compared to Spanish and Belgian laws.
In 2005 Cummins offered $15 million to reinstate the factory. Ford and Cummins offered a good redundancy package, billed as one of the best in UK manufacturing, it is the location of the Dagenham wind turbines. Some 4,000 people now work at the Ford plant; the movie Made in Dagenham is a dramatisation of the 1968 Ford sewing machinists strike at the plant, when female workers walked out in protest against sexual discrimination and unequal pay. Sterling who were famous for manufacturing British Army weapons and Jaguar car parts were based in Dagenham until they went bankrupt in 1988. Other industrial names once known worldwide were Ever Ready, whose batteries could be found in shops throughout the Commonwealth, Bergers Paint and the chemical firm of May & Baker who in 1935 revolutionized the production of antibiotics with their synthetic sulfa-drug known as M&B 693; the May & Baker plant and run by Sanofi-Aventis, occupied a 108-acre site in Rainham Road South, near Dagenham East Underground station.
It was abandoned in 2013. The council has decided, they will redevelop it with a new shopping centre: stores announced so far are a Sainsbury's supermarket and a pub restaurant. More stores will be announced in the future. Dagenham was an ancient, civil, parish in the Becontree hundred of Essex; the Metropolitan Police District was extended in 1840 to include Dagenham. The parish formed part of the Romford Rural District from 1894. Dagenham Parish Council offices were located on Bull Street; the expansion of the Greater London conurbation into the area caused the review of local government structures, it was suggested in 1920 that the Dagenham parish should be abolished and its area divided between Ilford Urban District and Barking Town Urban District. Separately, the London County Council proposed that its area of responsibility should be expanded beyond the County of London to cover the area. Instead, in 1926 the Dagenham parish was removed from the Romford Rural District and designated as an urban district.
In 1938, in further recognition of its development, Dagenham became a municipal borough. In 1965 the Municipal Borough of Dagenham was abolished and its former area became part of the London Borough of Barking, renamed Barking and Dagenham in 1980. In 1205 Dagenham was large enough to have a chaplain, the Parish Church of St Peter and St Paul was built at around that time. In 1854, the London and Southend Railway was built through the south of Dagenham, near the River Thames. In 1885 a new direct route from Barking to Pitsea, via Upminster, was built with Dagenham station opened just north of the village. Dagenham Dock station opened on the original southern route in 1908. Dagenham was still an undeveloped village, when building of the vast Becontree estate by the London County Council began in the early 1920s; the building of the enormous council estate, which spread into the neighbouring parishes of Ilford and Barking, caused a rapid increase in population. In 1932 the electrified District line of the London Underground was extended to Upminster through Dagenham with stations opened as Dagenham and Heathway and today called Dagenham East and Dagenham Heathway.
Dagenham East was the location of the Dagenham East rail crash in 1958. Services on the London Tilbury & Southend line at Dagenham East were withdrawn in 1962; the wards of Eastbrook, River and Wha
1981 Italian Grand Prix
The 1981 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monza on 13 September 1981. Formula One returned to the Monza circuit after a year's absence. Coming into Italy, both Nelson Piquet and Carlos Reutemann were tied on points in the Drivers' Championship. Alain Prost was becoming a challenger for the world title, having been challenging both leaders in the recent races; the race would be known for the first time a Toleman-Hart qualified and finished in a race with Brian Henton qualifying the car in 23rd place. When the race started, pole-man René Arnoux fell back to third while Prost and Reutemann battled for the lead. Behind, Didier Pironi was fourth after overtaking four cars on the run up to the first chicane. Pironi continued his charge with Arnoux soon behind him; as his opponents dropped behind, Prost increased his lead and would keep it for the rest of the race. Jacques Laffite made an excellent start, was running third when he retired from the race with a puncture on lap 11.
One Lap 19, John Watson lost control of his car at the Lesmo and smashed into the barriers at high speed, igniting a small fire at the back of the car. His McLaren's engine tub broke off from the debris littered the track. Michele Alboreto, behind Watson, crashed into the broken off engine, while Carlos Reutemann took to the grass and brushed a barrier whilst avoiding the accident, losing a place and sustaining minor damage. Watson escaped unharmed; as the race reached the halfway point, the standings stood as: Prost, Piquet, Reutemann and de Angelis. In an incredible case of misfortune, Piquet's engine blew on the last lap, promoting Reutemann into third and turning the tables for title hopes of the two; the Brazilian, was able to score a point as the sixth driver to have covered the entire race distance. Andrea de Cesaris, suffered a puncture on the last lap. Haunted by the trauma of nearly killing mechanic Dave Luckett in a previous race, Siegfried Stohr crashed his Arrows during the qualifying session.
He decided to stop racing and started a successful motor racing academy. Nelson Piquet was running 3rd. John Watson had a huge accident at the Lesmo curves when he went wide coming out of the second Lesmo curve, touched the grass and spun across the track, his carbon-fibre McLaren slammed backwards violently into the Armco barrier and tore the car in half and strew bits of the car across the track, which caused Michele Alboreto to crash, who escaped with only a few bruises, but Watson walked away unhurt- proving the strength of the McLaren's carbon fibre construction. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings