Windham County, Connecticut
Windham County is a county located in the northeastern corner of the U. S. state of Connecticut. As of the 2010 census, the population was 118,428, making it the least populous county in Connecticut, it forms the core of the region known as the Quiet Corner. Windham County is included in the Worcester, MA-CT Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area; the entire county is within the Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor, as designated by the National Park Service. The area, now Windham County became of interest to the English around 1635, but went unsettled for over fifty years due to its lack of access to the shore. John Winthrop took a strong interest to this land, purchased land from the Narragansetts, was given permission by the court of Connecticut to settle in October 1671. In 1678, a tract of land, called Joshua’s Tract, was willed to Connecticut officials, in February 1682, it was gifted to Samuel and Daniel Mason.
In 1684, 1200 acres of land was sold to Jonathan Curtis, Thomas Dudley, Samuel, among others, by the Nipmunks. Windham County was created from Hartford and New London counties on 12 May 1726 by an act of the Connecticut General Court; the act establishing the county states: That the west bounds of the town of Lebanon, the north bounds of Coventry, the north bounds of Mansfield till it meet with the southwest bounds of Ashford, the west bounds of Ashford, the east bounds of Stafford, the Massachusetts line on the north, Rhode Island line on the east, the north bounds of Preston, north bounds of Norwich, containing the towns of Windham, Plainfield, Mansfield, Pomfret, Ashford and Mortlake, shall be one entire county, called by the name of County of Windham. In May 1749, the town of Woodstock New Roxbury, Worcester County Massachusetts, was unilaterally annexed by Connecticut and assigned to Windham County. In 1785, the town of Union was transferred to the newly formed Tolland County. Over the next century, Windham County would lose several towns to Tolland and New London counties: Coventry to Tolland in 1786, Lebanon to New London in 1824, Columbia and Mansfield to Tolland in 1827, Voluntown to New London in 1881.
The final boundary adjustment occurred on April 7, 1885, when the boundary dispute between the towns of Windham and Mansfield was resolved. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 521 square miles, of which 513 square miles is land and 8.5 square miles is water. The highest point in Windham County is Snow Hill in Ashford at 1,210 feet. Worcester County, Massachusetts Providence County, Rhode Island Kent County, Rhode Island New London County Tolland County County level government in the state of Connecticut was abolished in 1960. All government affairs and services are administered by either the state or local municipality; the office of county high sheriff was abolished by constitutional referendum in 2000. All former functions of the county sheriff's office are now carried out by the state marshals service; the last high sheriff of Windham County was Thomas W. White, who left office in 2000 due to the discontinuation of the county sheriff's departments in Connecticut.
Major highways through Windham County include Interstate 395, which runs north-south from the New London County line at Plainfield to the Massachusetts state line at Thompson. The southern part of I-395 is part of the Connecticut Turnpike, which branches off the interstate in Killingly and runs east-west from I-395 exit 35, to U. S. Route 6 at the Rhode Island state line. Other north-south routes include Route 12, which parallels I-395 through many local communities, Route 169, a National Scenic Byway traveling through rural communities from the New London County line in Canterbury to the Massachusetts state line in Woodstock. Other secondary north-south roads are Routes 89, 198, 97, 21, 49. Major east-west routes are U. S. Route 44 from the Tolland County line at Ashford to the Rhode Island state line at Putnam, U. S. Route 6 from the Tolland County line at Windham to the Rhode Island state line at Killingly. U. S. Route 6 has short expressway segments in Killingly. Other secondary east-west roads are Routes 14, 101, 171, 197.
Windham Airport is the primary airport for the county, located 3 miles from Willimantic. Other smaller airports include Danielson Airport. There are many bike paths in the county; the major two trails are the Air Line State Park Trail and the Hop River State Park Trail, both these trails enter the county through Windham. The Hop River Trail ends at the Air Line Trail shortly after entering the county, while the Air Line Trail continues all the way into Putnam. Another section of the Air Line Trail is in Thompson, which continues to the border with Massachusetts which it counties as the Southern New England Trunkline Trail. Another shorter trail is the Moosup Valley State Park Trail that starts in Plainfield and continues down into the state border with Rhode Island which it continues as Washington Secondary Rail Trail. Smaller trails include the Putman River Trail; the primary law enforcement agency most Windham County towns is the Connecticut State Police Troop D based in Danielson which serves Brooklyn, Chaplin, Hampton, Pomfret, Scotland, Thompson, Woodstock and I-395 between exit 28 and the MA border.
Troop C, based in Tolland, covers the town of Ashford, Troop K, based in Colchester, covers the town of Windha
University of Connecticut
The University of Connecticut is a public land grant, National Sea Grant and National Space Grant research university in Storrs, United States. It was founded in 1881; the primary 4,400-acre campus is in Storrs, Connecticut a half hour's drive from Hartford and 90 minutes from Boston. It is a flagship university, ranked as the best public national university in New England and is tied for No. 18 in Top Public Schools and No. 56 in National Universities in the 2018 U. S. News & World Report rankings. UConn has been ranked by Money Princeton Review top 18th in value; the university is designated "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" with the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education classifying the student body as "More Selective", its most selective admissions category. The university has been recognized as a Public Ivy, defined as a select group of publicly-funded universities considered to provide a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
UConn is one of the founding institutions of the Hartford, Connecticut/Springfield, Massachusetts regional economic and cultural partnership alliance known as New England's Knowledge Corridor. UConn was the second U. S. university invited into Universitas 21, an elite international network of 24 research-intensive universities, who work together to foster global citizenship. UConn is accredited by the New England Association of Colleges. UConn was founded in 1881 as the Storrs Agricultural School, named after two brothers who donated the land for the school. In 1893, the school became a land grant college. In 1939, the name was changed to the University of Connecticut. Over the next decade, social work and graduate programs were established, while the schools of law and pharmacy were absorbed into the university. During the 1960s, UConn Health was established for new dental schools. John Dempsey Hospital opened in Farmington in 1975. Competing in the American Athletic Conference as the Huskies, UConn has been successful in their men's and women's basketball programs.
The Huskies have won 21 NCAA championships. The UConn Huskies are the most successful women's basketball program in the nation, having won a record 11 NCAA Division I National Championships and a women's record four in a row, plus over 40 conference regular season and tournament championships. UConn owns the two longest winning streaks of any gender in college basketball history. UConn was founded in 1881 as the Storrs Agricultural School, it was named after Charles and Augustus Storrs, brothers who donated the land for the school as well as initial funding. Women began attending classes in 1891 and were admitted in 1893, when the name was changed to Storrs Agricultural College and it became Connecticut's land grant college. In 1899, the name changed again to Connecticut Agricultural College. In 1940, the school was first divided into individual colleges and schools, reflecting its new university status; this was the year the School of Social Work and School of Nursing were established. The graduate program was started at this time, the schools of law and pharmacy were absorbed into the university.
Ph. D.s have been awarded since 1949. During the 1970s, UConn Health was established in Farmington as a home for the new School of Medicine and School of Dental Medicine. John Dempsey Hospital opened in Farmington in 1975 and has been operated by UConn since. In 1995, a state-funded program called UConn 2000 was passed by the Connecticut General Assembly and signed into law by then-Governor John G. Rowland; this 10-year program set aside $1 billion to upgrade campus facilities, add faculty, otherwise improve the university. An additional $1.3 billion was pledged by the State of Connecticut in 2002 as part of a new 10-year improvement plan known as 21st Century UConn. An agreement was reached in 2012 to launch Jackson Laboratory’s $1.1 billion genomic medicine lab on the Farmington UConn Health campus as part of the Bioscience Connecticut initiative. In 2013, Governor Dannel P. Malloy signed into law Next Generation Connecticut, committing $1.7 billion in funding over a decade to enhance UConn's infrastructure, hire additional faculty, upgrade STEM initiatives.
The primary and original UConn campus is in Storrs, a division of the Town of Mansfield, 22 miles east of Hartford, Connecticut's capital and bordered by the towns of Coventry, Willington and Ashford. The University of Connecticut Libraries form the largest public research collection in the state; the main library is the Homer D. Babbidge Library, on Fairfield Way in the center of campus. In 1882, Charles Storrs donated the first volumes to the university library collection; the university housed its primary library collections in the Old Whitney building, one of the first agriculture school buildings. The library migrated from Old Main to the basement of Beech Hall in 1929; the collection moved to the Wilbur Cross Building and remained there until the 1970s. The current main library, Homer Babbidge, was known as the Nathan Hale Library, it underwent a $3 million renovation, completed in 1998, making it the largest public research library in New England. The Storrs campus is home to the university's Music and Pharmacy libraries, the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, home to the university's archives and special collections, including university records, rare books, manuscript collections.
Each of the regional campuses have their own libraries, including the Jeremy Ri
East Hartford, Connecticut
East Hartford is a town in Hartford County, United States. The population was 51,252 at the 2010 census; the town is located on the east bank of the Connecticut River, directly across from Hartford, Connecticut. The town includes the neighborhoods of Hockanum. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 18.7 square miles, of which 18.0 square miles is land and 0.73 square miles, or 3.93%, is water. When the Connecticut Valley became known to Europeans around 1631, it was inhabited by what were known as the River Tribes — a number of small clans of Native Americans living along the Great River and its tributaries. Of these tribes the Podunks occupied territory now lying in the towns of East Hartford and South Windsor, numbered, by differing estimates, from sixty to two hundred bowmen, they were governed by two sachems and Arramamet, were connected in some way with the Native Americans who lived across the Great River, in what is now Windsor. The region north of the Hockanum River was called Podunk.
In 1659, Thomas Burnham purchased the tract of land now covered by the towns of South Windsor and East Hartford from Tantinomo, chief sachem of the Podunk Indians. Burnham lived on the land and willed it to his nine children; the town of Hartford once included the land now occupied by the towns of East Hartford, Bolton and West Hartford. In 1783, East Hartford became a separate town, which included Manchester in its city limits until 1823; as of 2010, there were 51,252 people, 20,206 households, 12,830 families residing in the town. The population density was 3,200 people per square mile. There were 21,328 housing units at an average density of 1,180.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 38.4% non-Hispanic White, 25.9% Black or African American, 0.03% Native American, 5.9% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28.3% of the population. There were 20,206 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.5% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families.
30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.01. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $41,424, the median income for a family was $50,540. Males had a median income of $36,823 versus $29,860 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,763. About 8.1% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.5% of those under age 18 and 7.3% of those age 65 or over. East Hartford is home to the headquarters of Pratt & Whitney, part of the United Technologies conglomerate; the manufacturing plant takes up a significant amount of East Hartford's area, at its peak, it employed tens of thousands of people.
East Hartford contains a Coca-Cola bottling plant, located on Main Street. The city is dotted with industrial and suburban office parks, in the early 2000s, urban planners strategically situated a regional stadium, Rentschler Stadium, a hunting and camping focused department store, Cabela's, on the vacant former Pratt & Whitney company airfield, Rentschler Field. According to East Hartford's Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Connecticut River Academy Goodwin College East Hartford High School Stone Academy Connecticut International Baccalaureate Academy East Hartford Middle School The Great River Park is located on the banks of the Connecticut River in East Hartford, providing riverside activities for the town. Wickham Park, located in East Hartford and Manchester, features Oriental gardens, open fields, ponds, picnic areas, softball fields, an aviary; the west side of the park offers a scenic view of East Hartford and the skyline of Hartford across the Connecticut River and is a popular site for weddings.
It has a popular sledding hill in the winter. Nearby, Rentschler Field Stadium is home of the University of Connecticut Huskies football team. Milton Avery, artist Lawrence Brainerd, businessman and United States senator from Vermont Mary Cadorette, actress Samuel Colt, founder of Colt Firearms Francis Patrick Garvan and longtime president of the Chemical Foundation John A. Gurley, U. S. Representative from Ohio during the early part of the American Civil War John Larson, current U. S. Representative from Connecticut's 1st congressional district Hiram N. Moulton, mayor of Madison, Wisconsin Aaron Olmstead, sea captain, namesake of several cities in Ohio Denison Olmsted and astronomer Frederick Law Olmsted, renowned urban and suburban planner famous for many of the New York City parks and Stanford University's campus lived and studied for much of his youth between his primary residence in Hartford and his father's childhood home in East Hartford. Gérard Ouellet, member of the Canadian House of Commons Diane Venora, actress Town of East Hartford official website Historical Society of East Har
An estuary is a enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments, they are subject both to marine influences—such as tides and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The mixing of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world. Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea level began to rise about 10,000–12,000 years ago. Estuaries are classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns, they can have many different names, such as bays, lagoons, inlets, or sounds, although some of these water bodies do not meet the above definition of an estuary and may be saline.
The banks of many estuaries are amongst the most populated areas of the world, with about 60% of the world's population living along estuaries and the coast. As a result, many estuaries suffer degradation from a variety of factors including: sedimentation from soil erosion from deforestation and other poor farming practices; the word "estuary" is derived from the Latin word aestuarium meaning tidal inlet of the sea, which in itself is derived from the term aestus, meaning tide. There have been many definitions proposed to describe an estuary; the most accepted definition is: "a semi-enclosed coastal body of water, which has a free connection with the open sea, within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater derived from land drainage". However, this definition excludes a number of coastal water bodies such as coastal lagoons and brackish seas. A more comprehensive definition of an estuary is "a semi-enclosed body of water connected to the sea as far as the tidal limit or the salt intrusion limit and receiving freshwater runoff.
This broad definition includes fjords, river mouths, tidal creeks. An estuary is a dynamic ecosystem having a connection to the open sea through which the sea water enters with the rhythm of the tides; the sea water entering the estuary streams. The pattern of dilution varies between different estuaries and depends on the volume of fresh water, the tidal range, the extent of evaporation of the water in the estuary. Drowned river valleys are known as coastal plain estuaries. In places where the sea level is rising relative to the land, sea water progressively penetrates into river valleys and the topography of the estuary remains similar to that of a river valley; this is the most common type of estuary in temperate climates. Well-studied estuaries include the Severn Estuary in the United Kingdom and the Ems Dollard along the Dutch-German border; the width-to-depth ratio of these estuaries is large, appearing wedge-shaped in the inner part and broadening and deepening seaward. Water depths exceed 30 m.
Examples of this type of estuary in the U. S. are the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay along the Mid-Atlantic coast, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay along the Gulf Coast. Bar-built estuaries are found in place where the deposition of sediment has kept pace with rising sea level so that the estuaries are shallow and separated from the sea by sand spits or barrier islands, they are common in tropical and subtropical locations. These estuaries are semi-isolated from ocean waters by barrier beaches. Formation of barrier beaches encloses the estuary, with only narrow inlets allowing contact with the ocean waters. Bar-built estuaries develop on sloping plains located along tectonically stable edges of continents and marginal sea coasts, they are extensive along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U. S. in areas with active coastal deposition of sediments and where tidal ranges are less than 4 m. The barrier beaches that enclose bar-built estuaries have been developed in several ways: building up of offshore bars by wave action, in which sand from the sea floor is deposited in elongated bars parallel to the shoreline, reworking of sediment discharge from rivers by wave and wind action into beaches, overwash flats, dunes, engulfment of mainland beach ridges due to sea level rise and resulting in the breaching of the ridges and flooding of the coastal lowlands, forming shallow lagoons, elongation of barrier spits from the erosion of headlands due to the action of longshore currents, with the spits growing in the direction of the littoral drift.
Barrier beaches form in shallow water and are parallel to the shoreline, resulting in long, narrow estuaries. The average water depth is less than 5 m, exceeds 10 m. Examples of bar-built estuaries are Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Fjords were formed where pleistocene glaciers deepened and widened existing river valleys so that they become U-shaped in cross s
Hartford County, Connecticut
Hartford County is a county located in the north central part of the U. S. state of Connecticut. As of the 2010 census, the population was 894,014, making it the second-most populous county in Connecticut. Hartford County contains the city of Hartford, the state capital of Connecticut and the county's most populous city, with an estimated 123,243 residents in 2016. Hartford County is included in the Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT Metropolitan Statistical Area. Hartford County was one of four original counties in Connecticut established on May 10, 1666, by an act of the Connecticut General Court; the act establishing the county states: This Court orders that the Townes on the River from yee north bounds of Windsor wth Farmington to ye south end of ye bounds of Thirty Miles Island shalbe & remaine to be one County wch shalbe called the County of Hartford. And it is ordered that the County Court shalbe kept at Hartford on the 1st Thursday in March and on the first Thursday in September yearely.
As established in 1666, Hartford County consisted of the towns of Windsor, Hartford and Middletown. The "Thirty Miles Island" referred to in the constituting Act was incorporated as the town of Haddam in 1668. In 1670, the town of Simsbury was established, extending Hartford County to the Massachusetts border. In the late 17th to early 18th centuries, several more towns were established and added to Hartford County: Waterbury in 1686, Windham in 1694, Hebron in 1708, Coventry in 1712, Litchfield in 1722. In 1714, all of the unincorporated territory north of the towns of Coventry and Windham in northeastern Connecticut to the Massachusetts border were placed under the jurisdiction of Hartford County. Windham County was constituted in 1726, resulting in Hartford County losing the towns of Windham, Coventry and Ashford. Northwestern Connecticut, placed under the jurisdiction of New Haven County in 1722, was transferred to Hartford County by 1738. All of northwestern Connecticut was constituted as the new Litchfield County in 1751.
In 1785, two more counties were established in what was now the U. S. state of Connecticut: Tolland and Middlesex. This resulted in the modern extent of Hartford County. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the establishment of several more towns resulted in minor adjustments in the bounds of the county; the final adjustment resulting in the modern limits occurred on May 8, 1806, when the town of Canton was established. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 751 square miles, of which 735 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county in Connecticut by land area. The county is divided into two unequal parts by the Connecticut River, watered by Farmington, Podunk and other rivers; the surface is diverse: part of the river valleys are alluvial and subject to flooding, while other portions of the county are hilly and mountainous. Hampden County, Massachusetts Tolland County New London County Middlesex County New Haven County Litchfield County As of the census of 2000, there were 857,183 people, 335,098 households, 222,505 families residing in the county.
The population density was 1,166 people per square mile. There were 353,022 housing units at an average density of 480 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.90% White, 11.66% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 2.42% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 6.43% from other races, 2.31% from two or more races. 11.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.2% were of Italian, 11.2% Irish, 9.1% Polish, 6.5% English, 5.7% French and 5.3% German ancestry. 78.4% spoke English, 10.3% Spanish, 2.6% Polish, 1.9% French and 1.6% Italian as their first language. There were 335,098 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.20% were married couples living together, 13.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.60% were non-families. 27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.05.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $50,756, the median income for a family was $62,144. Males had a median income of $43,985 versus $33,042 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,047. About 7.10% of families and 9.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.90% of those under age 18 and 7.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 894,014 people, 350,854 households, 227,831 families residing in the county; the population density was 1,216.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 374,249 housing units at an average density of 509.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 72.4% white, 13.3% black or African American, 4.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 7.1% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 15.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 15.9% were Italian
Connecticut's 2nd congressional district
Connecticut's 2nd Congressional District is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Connecticut. Located in the eastern part of the state, the district includes all of New London County, Tolland County, Windham County, along with parts of Hartford and New Haven counties. Principal cities include: Enfield, New London, Groton; the district is represented by Democrat Joe Courtney. Hartford County – Enfield, Glastonbury and Suffield. Middlesex County – Chester, Deep River, East Haddam, East Hampton, Haddam, Old Saybrook, Westbrook. New Haven County – Madison. New London County – Bozrah, East Lyme, Griswold, Lebanon, Lisbon, Montville, New London, North Stonington, Old Lyme, Salem, Stonington and Waterford. Tolland County – Andover, Columbia, Ellington, Mansfield, Stafford, Union and Willington. Windham County – Ashford, Canterbury, Eastford, Killingly, Pomfret, Scotland, Thompson and Woodstock. District organized from Connecticut's At-large congressional district in 1837; as of June 2016, there are four living former members of the U.
S. House of Representatives from Connecticut's 2nd congressional district. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
The Farmington River is a river, 46.7 miles in length along its main stem, located in northwest Connecticut with major tributaries extending into southwest Massachusetts. Via its longest branch, the Farmington's length increases to 80.4 miles, making it the Connecticut River's longest tributary by a mere 2.3 miles over the major river directly to its north, the Westfield River. The Farmington River's watershed covers 609 square miles; the river played an important role in small-scale manufacturing in towns along its course, but it is now used for recreation and drinking water. The Farmington River Watershed Association is a non-profit organization for conservation and preservation of this river. Headwaters for both main branches of the Farmington River, referred to as the East Branch and West Branch, are found in southwestern Massachusetts, though only the West Branch begins north of the Connecticut border; the West Branch rises at the outlet of Hayden Pond in Massachusetts. In 1994, a 14-mile stretch of the branch was designated a National Scenic River.
The East Branch begins in Hartland, Connecticut at the confluence of Pond and Valley Brooks. However, this branch has been impounded along the first 11 miles of its course to form the Barkhamsted Reservoir and Lake McDonough; the East Branch and West Branch join in New Hartford, Connecticut just about one mile south of Lake McDonough. Upper reaches of the river flow southward, but the river turns northward in Farmington and runs north and east until it flows into the Connecticut River in Windsor, Connecticut. There are several whitewater sections. One of these, the so-called "Upper Farmington" section of the West Branch in New Boston, Massachusetts, is about 7 miles long, it is Class 2 through farm and woods scenery to an iron bridge, where kayak and canoe slalom races are held. Below the bridge the river becomes Class 3-4 technical at low water, technical and pushy at higher water, with a short gorge with several abrupt drops; the biggest of these is about four feet at Decoration Rock. Below, the river continues technical with many rocks and constant maneuvering required.
The river is leading through larger drops at Battering Ram rapid and Corkscrew. It flattens to Class 2 until a final, ledge rapid at Bear's Den, just above the reservoir; the Upper Farmington is runnable during fall dam releases, is a much better run at levels of about 600 cubic feet per second, or about 5 feet on the internet gauge for that section. A second whitewater section is found in Tariffville, one mile of technical Class 3 water, runnable all year round; the river is paddled at levels between 1.5 and 2.75 feet on the internet gauge. This section includes the famous T-ville Hole, where kayakers can practice hole surfing and freestyle moves above a flat pool. Below the Hole is a broken dam, where the river funnels through an abrupt four foot drop into a large wave; this area is popular with swimmers in summer, it is risky due to heavy currents and undercut rocks. There have been at least three fatal drownings in the Tariffville Gorge section people who were not properly prepared or trained for the heavy rapids and pinning obstacles in the gorge.
Paddlers without helmets and Class 3 whitewater skills should end downriver trips at Tariffville Park, just above the start of the gorge. Other whitewater areas include Satan's Kingdom in New Hartford, popular with tubers, the Crystal Rapids section in Collinsville and Unionville, about four miles of Class 1-3 training waters with a bicycle and pedestrian path on the right side of the river. Entrance to the park is free. A service will pick tubers up and drop them off at certain points; the west branch of the river includes two hydroelectric dams in West Hartland and Colebrook, run by Connecticut's Metropolitan District Commission. The largest dam on the east branch is the Saville Dam; the Rainbow Dam, a 68-foot dam with a hydroelectric generator and a fish ladder, dams the river at Windsor, a few miles before the river flows into the Connecticut River. A number of other dams have been built on the river since European settlement to power mills and other industry. A few, such as in Collinsville, are still intact.
The Collinsville Renewable Energy Promotion Act would instruct the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to issue licenses to the town of Canton, Connecticut to restart two small power dams along the river. The bill passed the United States House of Representatives on February 12, 2013, but has not yet become law. Water released from or flowing over the Otis Reservoir dam enters the Farmington River just North of Reservoir Road in Otis, Massachusetts. Significant quantities of water are released during the fall in order to drop the reservoir water level for the winter; the Farmington River was the home of a Native American indigenous people called the Massaco, who inhabited the Simsbury and Canton area of Connecticut. One of the eighteen bands of the Wappinger, they lived and fished along the river, which acquired the name "Farmington" The land of the Massaco was subsequently purchased by the Dutch; this and its settlement during the era of the Connecticu