Tollund Man is a mummified corpse of a man who lived during the 4th century BCE, during the period characterised in Scandinavia as the Pre-Roman Iron Age. He was found in 1950, preserved on the Jutland peninsula, in Denmark; the man's physical features were so well preserved. Twelve years before Tollund Man's discovery, another bog body, Elling Woman, had been found in the same bog. Though the cause of death was determined to be strangulation, scholars believe the man was a human sacrifice, rather than an executed criminal, because of the arranged position of his body, the fact that his eyes and mouth were closed. On 6 May 1950, peat cutters in the Bjældskovdal peat bog, 12 kilometres west of Silkeborg, Denmark discovered a corpse in the peat layer which appeared so fresh that they at first believed they had discovered a recent murder victim; the Tollund Man lay 50 metres away from firm ground, buried under 2 metres of peat, his body arranged in a fetal position. He wore a pointed skin cap of sheepskin and wool, fastened under his chin by a hide thong, a smooth hide belt around his waist.
Additionally, a noose made of plaited animal hide was drawn tight around his neck and trailed down his back. Other than these, the body was naked, his hair was cropped so short as to be entirely hidden by his cap. There was short stubble on his chin and upper lip, suggesting that he had not shaved on the day of his death. C14 radiocarbon dating of Tollund Man indicated that he died in about 375–210 BCE; the preserved tender soft tissues of his body are the consequence of the acid in the peat, along with the lack of oxygen underneath the surface and the cold climate of the Nordic countries. The acid in the peat, needed for the preservation of a human body, is caused by a bryophyte named Sphagnum. Sphagnum fights against degradation due to resistant phenolic compounds contained in their cell walls. Due to the acidity of peat, bones are dissolved rather than preserved. Examinations and X-rays showed that the man's head was undamaged, his heart and liver were well preserved; the Silkeborg Museum estimated his age as 40 years and height at 1.61 metres, a short stature for the time.
It is that the body had shrunk in the bog. On the initial autopsy report in 1950, doctors concluded that Tollund Man died by hanging rather than strangulation; the rope left visible furrows in the skin at the sides of his neck. There was no mark, however, at the back of the neck where the knot of the noose would have been located. After a re-examination in 2002, forensic scientists found further evidence to support these initial findings. Although the cervical vertebrae were undamaged, radiography showed that the tongue was distended—an indication of death by hanging; the stomach and intestines were examined and tests carried out on their contents. Scientists identified the man's last meal as porridge or gruel made from grains and seeds, both cultivated and wild. 40 kinds of seeds were identified, but the porridge was composed of four types: barley, false flax and knotgrass. From the stage of digestion it was concluded that the man had eaten 12 to 24 hours prior to his death. Porridges were common for people of this time.
Because neither meat nor fresh fruit were found in the last meal, it is suggested that the meal was eaten in winter or early spring when these items were not available. Both feet and the right thumb, being well conserved by the peat, were preserved in formalin for examination. In 1976, the Danish police made a fingerprint analysis, making Tollund Man's thumbprint one of the oldest prints on record; the body is displayed at the Silkeborg Museum in Denmark. Because conservation techniques for organic material were insufficiently advanced in the early 1950s for the entire body to be preserved, the forensic examiners suggested the head be severed and the rest of the body remain unpreserved. Subsequently, the body was desiccated and the tissue disappeared. In 1987, the Silkeborg Museum reconstructed; as displayed today, the original head is attached to a replica of the body. In Denmark, more than 500 bog bodies and skeletal remains dating to the Iron Age have been recovered. Specimens from Jutland include the well-preserved Borremose bodies, Huldremose Woman, Grauballe Man on display at Moesgaard Museum near Aarhus, the conserved Haraldskær Woman.
30 of these bog bodies are housed and/or displayed in Danish museums for continued research. Nobel Prize-winning Irish poet Seamus Heaney wrote a series of poems inspired by P. V. Glob's study of the mummified Iron Age bodies found in Jutland's peat bogs, finding contemporary political relevance in the relics of the ritualistic killings. Heaney's poem The Tollund Man, published in his Wintering Out collection, compares the ritual sacrifice to those who died in the sectarian violence of "the Troubles." Heaney wrote an excerpt from the poem in the Tollund Man exhibit's guest book in 1973. British author Margaret Drabble, in her 1989 novel, A Natural Curiosity, uses her characters' obsession with the Tollund Man to provide a satirical criticism of Margaret Thatcher's modern England. Tollund Man is featured in separate songs: "Tollund Man" by the American folk band The Mountain Goats and "Curse of the Tollund Man" by the English rock band The Darkness. Tollund Man was mentioned in the episode "Mummy in the Maze" of the American television series Bones and was mentioned in the 2016 movie
Ahmedabad Municipal Transport Service runs the public bus service in the city of Ahmedabad in India. The responsibility of the administration of AMTS comes under the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation There existed three transport services viz. ABC Co. Morris Transport and Munshi Bus service, before the municipal bus service. There was a shortage of petrol till 1946 due to the Second World War and the petrol supply was in limited quantity in 1947 when the municipal bus service started. Coal gas was used as a fuel earlier in the buses and many buses were plying on gas. There were 50,000 commuters who travelled in such buses. Morris company operated some 32 bus routes in the city; the buses ran on Gandhi Road, Relief Road from Bhadra in the city area. There were anti-clockwise routes running from Shahpur to Shahpur. Moreover, there were other routes for Shahibaug, Vadaj and Calico Mills outside the city area. There were buses for Asarva, Khokhara-Mehmdabad, Gomtipur and Maninagar in the eastern area, while Paldi, Vasna and Commerce College routes were covered on the western bank of the Sabarmati River.
Buses for the Sabarmati area ran from Vadaj. The first communal riots took place in 1941, the atmosphere was tense in 1946 also; the buses run by private companies closed down during the emergency period, hence the citizens felt insecurity and difficulty. The private companies' buses were in wretched condition, having wooden seats without sponge, a curse for the commuters, because the profit motive was at the centre for such commercial organizations. Hence the citizens demanded for a public transport service; the minimum bus fare was one Anna, the maximum bus fare was three Annas. They were in force from 1-1-47. Amdavad municipality decided to start a bus service in the public sector, keeping in view the ideal to end the troubles of the people and to give them good service at reasonable rates. There were 60 municipal buses running on the road on 1-4-47. There was a lot of excitement for the new buses, the people thronged on the bus routes to see the municipal buses, because the public sector city bus service was the first of its kind in Amdavad, the citizens gave a warm welcome to it.
The people of the city took pride in the bus service started by the municipality. The seats were comfortable in the new buses. All the routes started from the railway station; the route numbers were similar to those of the Morris Company, with minor changes, so that the passengers should not face any problems at that time. Clockwise and anti-clockwise circular routes were started from Lal Darwaja; when the bus service began in 1947, buses were not delivered in requisite number, hence certain buses were hired for a month, to cater for the urgent need, from Gujarat Motors Ltd. on a daily rent of Rs.50. Due to an inconvient body for the city-service, they were stopped as soon as the organization got its own buses. InsuranceThe third party insurance risk was not covered from the beginning under the Motor Vehicle Act Section 94, therefore the amount equivalent to its premium was decided to be deposited, Mumbai state government was requested for exemption on the said amount; the request was granted.
It was granted that all the municipal transport service staff would get monthly Rs. 5 as a grain rebate. New busesAs deliveries were received from the bus dealers, more buses came on the roads. An order was given to General Motors to buy 225 buses in total. Out of that, 143 buses were received up to September 1947; the petrol supply was inadequate in those days, due to government regulations, so the buses on the road were much fewer than was required. However, there was a considerable increase in the number of passengers as compared to private bus-management. In 1947-48, the daily number of passenger were nine thousand. AdministrationThe department was considered as a section of the Municipality before the separation of the transport fund on 1-8-1950. Separate accounts of AMTS service were maintained, taking into consideration the payments released from 1-4-1950 onwards from the municipal office, accordingly, AMTS estimate Budget-‘B' for 1951-52 was presented in the General Meeting of the Municipal corporation by the transport committee through a standing committee in Dec. 1950.
In Jan. 1951, an All India Convention Committee meeting was held in Amdavad. At that time, a bus-stand was erected near Vidyapith in order to assist the crowds gathered to attend to their beloved leaders. On 30 Jan 1951, Mahatma Gandhi’s death-anniversary, people participated in great numbers in the mass-spinning programme at Harijan Ashram. There proper bus arrangements were made. Special arrangements were made for the S. S. C exam at the demand of the National Student Union. A new transport committee was appointed on 19-7-1951 after the conversion of the municipality into a corporation. At the end of the year 1951-52, the organization had 205 buses. More new busesWith the expansion of the city area and progress in industries, AMTS field became wider. Various new housing colonies and factories cropped up across the river towards the west in Maninagar, Vadaj and east of the railway line, it was necessary to add more bus-routes to cope with public demand. Sixty-five new buses were purchased and these had diesel engines, so fuel expense were decreased in the 1954-55 budget.
Tyre-tube and spare-part expenses were lower in the new fleet of buses. Temporary staff at the workshop was limited. Carriage capacity of the new buses was comparatively more due to a greater number of seats, but estimated bus-fare income was at par with last year, Rs. 5,900
Holidays in Poland are regulated by the Non-working Days Act of 18 January 1951. The Act, as amended in 2010 defines thirteen public holidays. Note: The table below lists only public holidays i.e. holidays which are considered to be non-working days. Under communist rule, the 1st of May was celebrated as Labour Day with government-endorsed parades and similar events. Following the 1989 changes, the Sejm decided to keep this day a public holiday but to give it the neutral name of State Holiday. In addition, the 3rd of May was created as Constitution Day; the May holidays are called "Majówka" in Polish, a pun made from the May month name. The following are national and state holidays in Poland, although they are working days unless declared a public holiday: March 1 - National "cursed soldiers" Remembrance Day, Narodowy Dzień Pamięci "Żołnierzy Wyklętych", established in 2011 May 1 - State Holiday, informally called Labour Day, Święto Państwowe, public holiday, established in 1950 May 3 - May 3rd Constitution Day, Święto Narodowe Trzeciego Maja, public holiday, established in 1919, disestablished in 1946 established again in 1990 May 8 - Victory Day, Narodowy Dzień Zwycięstwa, established in 2015 August 1 - National Warsaw Uprising Remembrance Day, Narodowy Dzień Pamięci Powstania Warszawskiego, established in 2009 August 31 - Day of Solidarity and Freedom, Dzień Solidarności i Wolności, set on the anniversary of August Agreement from 1980, established in 2005 November 11 - National Independence Day, Narodowe Święto Niepodległości, public holiday, established in 1937, disestablished in 1945 established again in 1989 May 9 - Victory Day, established in 1945, disestablished on 7 May 2015 July 22 - National Day of the Rebirth of Poland, set on the anniversary of the PKWN Manifesto's signing, established in 1945, disestablished on 28 April 1990 November 7 - Great October Socialist Revolution Day, established in 1945, disestablished in 1990 The following are holidays declared by statute in Poland.
These holidays are declared in statute and as such they form a part of law in Poland. However, these holidays are not granted the distinction of national or state holidays; these are working days, unless coinciding with a public holiday. January 27 – Public Employment Services Worker's Day, Dzień Pracownika Publicznych Służb Zatrudnienia, established in 2010 February 8 – Prison Service Day, Święto Służby Więziennej, established in 2010 February 22 – Crime Victims Day, Dzień Ofiar Przestępstw, coinciding with European Victims Day, established in 2003 May 2 – Flag Day, Dzień Flagi Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, established in 2004 May 2 – Polish Diaspora Day, Dzień Polonii i Polaków za Granicą, established in 2002 May 4 – Firefighters Day, Dzień Strażaka, coinciding with International Firefighters' Day, established in 2002 May 16 – Border Guard's Day, Święto Straży Granicznej, established in 1991 May 29 – Veterans of Overseas Military Activities Day, Dzień Weterana Działań poza Granicami Państwa, coinciding with International Day of United Nations Peacekeepers, established in 2011 June 12 – Government Protection Bureau's Day, Święto BOR, established in 2001 June 13 – Military Gendarmerie Day, Święto Żandarmerii Wojskowej, established in 2001 that's a lie July 24 – Police Day, Święto Policji, established in 1995 July 31 – Treasury Day, Dzień Skarbowości, celebrated since 2008, established in 2010 August 15 – Armed Forces Day, Święto Wojska Polskiego, this holiday coincides with a public holiday, established in 1992 August 29 – Municipal Police Day, Dzień Straży Gminnej, established in 1997 September 1 – Veterans Day, Dzień Weterana, established in 1997 September 21 – Customs Service Day, Dzień Służby Celnej, established in 1999 October 13 – Paramedics' Day, Dzień Ratownictwa Medycznego, established in 2006 October 14 – Teachers' Day, Dzień Edukacji Narodowej, established in 1972 October 16 – Saint Pope John Paul II Day, Dzień Papieża Jana Pawła II, established in 2005 November 21 – Social Workers' Day, Dzień Pracownika Socjalnego, established in 1990 The following are holidays declared by parliamentary resolution in Poland.
These holidays are declared by a resolution of Sejm. These holidays do not form a part of law in Poland, are not granted the distinction of national or state holidays; these are working days. March 23 – Polish-Hungarian Friendship Day, Dzień Przyjaźni Polsko-Węgierskiej, established in 2007 March 24 – National Life Day, Narodowy Dzień Życia, established in 2004 April 13 – Katyn Memorial Day, Dzień Pamięci Ofiar Zbrodni Katyńskiej, set on the anniversary of the discovery of mass graves in Katyn, established in 2007 April 18 – Coma Patients' Day, Dzień Pacjenta w Śpiączce, established in 2012 April 28 – Day for Safety and Health at Work, Dzień Bezpieczeństwa i Ochrony Zdrowia w Pracy, coincides with Workers' Memorial Day, established in 2003 May 27 – Local Government's Day, Dzień Samorządu Terytorialnego, set on the anniversary of the first local government elections in P
Rimini, Montana is a ghost town, one of the oldest mining districts in the state. It was established when silver lodes were discovered in 1864. Other names for the town were Lewis and Clark, Vaughn and Bear Gulch, it was the site of Camp Rimini, which trained dogs for use in World War II. The town was named for the Italian city of Rimini. At its peak in 1890, Rimini's population was about 300 people; the town had "several stores. Camp Rimini, Montana trained sled and pack dogs for use as war dogs in World War II. Between 1942-1944, 263 sled dogs and 268 pack dogs were trained; the facility was run by the Quartermaster Corps, responsible for running the Army's K-9 Corps. The Montana Department of Environmental Quality describes the Rimini Mining District as follows: The Rimini district is about 13 miles east of Helena on the east side of the Continental Divide at the terminal point of a branch of the Northern Pacific Railroad, it is on Tenmile Creek with Red Mountain on the east and Lee Mountain on the west.
It is the oldest lead-zinc camp in Montana... The Lee Mountain Lode was discovered in 1864 and the Eureka Mine in 1865. However, little mining occurred until 1885 when the Northern Pacific spurline was constructed to the district. During the 1880s a number of mines were developed with the most productive ones being the East Pacific, Lady Washington, John McGraw and Porphery Dike; some of these mines were opened to depths of up to 500 or 600 ft. One of the deepest, the Lee Mountain, has produced more than $1.5 million and the Valley Forge, 325 ft deep, has produced more than $200,000. The district shipped 400 tons of ore per week in 1891 with most of the ore being sent to the smelter at Wickes. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, "the small historic mining community of Rimini is located within the Superfund site boundaries" of the Upper Tenmile Creek Mining Area. EPA added the Upper Tenmile Creek Mining Area to the Superfund National Priorities List on October 22, 1999, due to mining waste problems in the 53-square-mile watershed...
The Upper Tenmile Creek Mining Area site is located in the Rimini Mining District, southwest of Helena, Montana. It consists of numerous abandoned and inactive hard-rock mine sites that produced gold, lead and copper. Mining began in the district before 1870 and continued through the 1920s. Little mining has been performed there since the early 1930s... The site includes the drainage basin of Tenmile Creek upstream of the Helena water treatment plant and includes tributaries that supply water to the plant's five intake pipelines. EPA identified 150 individual mine sites within the watershed boundary, of which 70 have been prioritized for cleanup. Many of these mine features are above the five City of Helena drinking water intakes, which supply about 50 percent of the city's water; the Susie Mine was one of the mines in the Upper Tenmile Creek Mining Area. The Susie mine was a gold and lead mine, has high acid drainage polluted with arsenic and heavy metals; the drainage from this mine is a major source of the heavy metal contamination in streams that flow into the water sources for Helena, Montana.
The EPA made significant progress on the cleanup in Rimini in FY 2011: The main road through Rimini was excavated and backfilled to remediate contaminated material. 18,000 cubic yards of waste were removed from one mile of Rimini Road. Removal of this waste reduces the potential for residents to be exposed to contamination as well as prevents future erosion and distribution of wastes via the adjacent Tenmile Creek. Nearly all of the residential yards were remediated, with new septic systems installed and landscaping completed. 6,000 cubic yards of waste were removed from the yards in Rimini and 9,000 cubic yards from the Lee Mountain site. Race to the Sky A dog sled race to remember the dogs that trained at Camp Rimini. "BOOK, CAMP RIMINI AND BEYOND: WWII MEMOIRS - $24.50: War Dog Militaria". Retrieved 2012-03-07
Stereocyclops histrio is a species of frog in the family Microhylidae. It is endemic to the northeastern Bahia state of Brazil where it occurs in remnants of the Atlantic forest. After the holotype was collected in 1944, the species went unrecorded until a population was found in the Una Biological Reserve and its surroundings in 1999, it is now known from four locations. Common name Bahia yellow frog has been coined for it in reference to the bright lemon yellow coloration of the holotype, it was the only species in the genus Hyophryne until 2012 when molecular data demonstrated that it is nested within Stereocyclops species. Males measure 24–39 mm and females 25–43 mm in snout–vent length; the body is oval, the head is wider than it is long, truncate in dorsal view and protruding laterally. The eyes are small and the tympanum is indistinct; the fingers are short and without webbing. The toes have webbing. Dorsal coloration is variable, yellow-lime, orange, beige or dark-brown; the venter has white rounded or elongated blotches.
The iris is black ventrally. The body surface is smooth. Only gravid females have dermal spines in the pericloacal region. Two females, both measuring 42 mm SVL, contained 590 and 1190 ovarian eggs measuring 1.3–1.5 mm in diameter. Its habitat is secondary forest, it is an explosive breeder. It is locally abundant in the Una Biological Reserve, where it was inhabiting primary forest as well as the surrounding forest fragments, secondary forest, cacao groves, it has been recorded in the Serra Bonita Private Reserve of Natural Heritage. It is threatened by habitat loss
Dahyabhai Shastri is an Indian scholar of Sanskrit and the founder of Brahmarshi Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya, Nadiad. He is a former president of the Gujarat state unit of the Vishwa Hindu Parishad. Born in Vasai Dabhla, a small village in Mehsana district of Gujarat and did his studies in Sanskrit in Ahmedabad and Varanasi, Shastri chairs the Veda Centre, Pardi, he is known for contributions in interpreting Sanskrit grammar and literature and is a recipient of Gujarat State Award. The Government of India awarded him the fourth highest civilian honour of the Padma Shri, in 2016, for his contributions to Literature and education. Sanskrit grammar "Nadiad based Dahyabhai Shastri receives Padma Award". Desh Gujarat. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016