Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Independence Party of Minnesota
The Independence Party of Minnesota the Reform Party of Minnesota, is a political party in the U. S. state of Minnesota. It was the party of former Minnesota Governor Jesse Ventura. An affiliate of the Reform Party of the United States of America, the IPM was affiliated with the Independence Party of America, but is no longer affiliated with any national party, focusing on Minnesota politics; the party has fielded candidates for most statewide races and was considered a major party by the state from 1994 to 2014. It lost that status when none of its statewide candidates won 5% of the vote in the 2014 gubernatorial election; the party, represented in the U. S. Senate by Dean Barkley in 2002–2003, nominated former U. S. Representative Tim Penny as its candidate in the 2002 gubernatorial election, Peter Hutchinson in 2006 and Tom Horner in 2010. Despite its name, the IPM does not support or otherwise call for secession from the United States; the party was formed in 1992 by Minnesota supporters of Ross Perot, fielded Dean Barkley that year as a candidate for a seat in the US House of Representatives.
Other supporters led by Don Dow, State Director, Victoria Staten, Assistant State Director and Ross Perot's spokesperson on NAFTA, worked as part of United We Stand America, some found their way to the Independence Party after the elections. Over the following years, the party began to field candidates in other state races. In 1995 the IPMN affiliated with the national Reform Party and renamed itself the Reform Party of Minnesota; the state party carried that name until it disaffiliated from the national party in 2000 due to factional dissent and the increasing influence of Pat Buchanan within the party. The party changed its name back to Independence Party. After his most influential opponents left the party, Buchanan went on to become the Reform Party's candidate for president. On 2004's Super Tuesday, March 2, the party held caucuses around the state along with Minnesota's other three parties. Since the organization had no national party affiliation, it ran a straw poll to gauge the opinions of members with regard to the available presidential candidates in the 2004 election.
For the poll, the group used instant-runoff voting, a voting method, gaining interest in the state. Additionally, the party had several progressive agenda items to vote on. For a bit of levity, there was a vote on the mascot to use for the party. Three top possibilities were the bison and white buffalo. Technology was involved in the IPMN's caucusing, as it used the Internet to conduct a two-day online "virtual caucus" for people who were unable to attend the evening of Super Tuesday. On March 5, 2004, the party announced that the presidential winner was John Edwards, who had circulated his decision to withdraw shortly before IP members voted; the Super Tuesday ballot was the first statewide experiment in instant-runoff voting. The Bison, to be named Indy, won the mascot vote, out-polling the nearest competitors by a 19% margin. In May 2005, Peter Hutchinson, Minnesota Finance Commissioner in the Rudy Perpich administration, announced that he was planning to seek the Independence Party's nomination for governor in the 2006 election.
Hutchinson finished 3rd of 6 earning 141,735 votes for 6.4% of the total vote. As of 2006, the party has had two members in the Minnesota Senate. Bob Lessard of International Falls, joined the party in 2001 after he was re-elected to the Senate as an independent with 54.3% of the vote. He did not seek re-election in 2002. In the 2002 election, Sheila Kiscaden of Rochester was turned down for endorsement for re-election to the Minnesota Senate by the Republican party, she joined the IP and won re-election, giving the Independence Party its first victory in a Minnesota legislative election. She joined the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party in January 2006. There have been no members of the IPM in the Minnesota House of Representatives. In the 2006 elections IP 5th district congressional candidate Tammy Lee received 51,456 votes for 21.01% of the total vote. Lee's strong showing resulted in part from her unusually strong fundraising, Lee raised $228,938 for her run. In May 2008, a "Draft Dean Barkley" movement started on the web to encourage the former senator to run again.
He accepted, came in 3rd, winning a significant 15% of all votes cast. His candidacy had a significant impact on a race in which the eventual winner Al Franken and then-incumbent Senator Norm Coleman were separated by only 312 votes. Two other federal candidates, David Dillon in the 3rd congressional district and Bob Anderson in the 6th congressional district, received 10% of the vote in their races. Thus, 2008 is high-water mark for the Minnesota Independence Party in both the number of federal candidates running and the percent of vote received—both key measures of the growing base of support. In 2010 gubernatorial candidate Tom Horner, a former public relations executive and chief of staff to U. S. Senator David Durenberger received 12% of the vote, nearly doubling the total of previous IP gubernatorial candidate Peter Hutchinson. Horner polled as high as 18% in the weeks leading up to the election, but was outspent by the GOP and DFL candidates and the third-party expenditure groups supporting their candidacies.
Horner did receive endorsement from three of the state's five living ex-governors: Republicans Arne Carlson and Al Quie as well as Ventura. Former U. S. Senate candidate and prominent Minnesota attorney Mike Ciresi endorsed Horner. Most Minnesota newspapers including the Star Tribune, St. Paul Pioneer Press, St. Cloud Times, Duluth News Tribune, Rochester Post-Bulletin
Virginia is a city in Saint Louis County, United States, on the Mesabi Iron Range. The population was 8,712 at the 2010 census. According to a water tower in the middle of town, the city's nickname is the "Queen City", or "Queen City of the North". Despite its small size, Virginia ranks among the most dangerous cities in Minnesota when measured by violent and property crimes per capita. Virginia was laid out in 1892, named after Virginia, the native state of a large share of the lumbermen in the area at that time. A post office has been in operation at Virginia since 1893. Virginia was incorporated in February 1895, it was a logging community first it was developed as an iron mining community. The mines in the Virginia area were prosperous and setting new records by the late 1890s; the main population boom began after mining camps were built for entrepreneurs and financiers including Andrew Carnegie, Leonidas Merritt, Jay Cooke, John D. Rockefeller, William J. Olcott, James J. Hill, others. With the use of diamond drills, a massive labor force, the mines were able to move millions of tons per year and ship them out of the Twin Ports of Duluth and Superior, as well as Two Harbors.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.18 square miles. Lakes in Virginia include Bailey Lake; the area was named Qeechaquepagem by an Ojibwe tribe, which means “lake of the north birds”. Virginia is part of the Quad Cities, which include nearby Eveleth and Mountain Iron. Virginia is located on one of the sub-regions within Minnesota's Iron Range. Virginia is considered the commerce center of the Mesabi Range. Virginia serves as a shopping, industrial and medical hub for the surrounding communities; as of the census of 2010, there were 8,712 people, 4,242 households, 2,019 families residing in the city. The population density was 462.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,738 housing units at an average density of 251.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.7% White, 0.6% African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 4,242 households of which 21.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.7% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 52.4% were non-families.
46.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.95 and the average family size was 2.74. The median age in the city was 44.9 years. 18.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.9% male and 52.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,157 people, 4,333 households, 2,270 families residing in the city; the population density was 486.1 people per square mile. There were 4,692 housing units at an average density of 249.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.17% White, 0.46% African American, 2.24% Native American, 0.55% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.80% of the population. 21.4% were of Finnish, 13.3% German, 9.9% Norwegian, 8.8% Italian, 7.8% Swedish ancestry. There were 4,333 households out of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.6% were non-families.
42.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.73. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.0% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 23.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,873, the median income for a family was $43,419. Males had a median income of $38,834 versus $22,473 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,776. About 10.6% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.6% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. Virginia is the home of the Land of an annual event in June. B'nai Abraham Synagogue Laurentian Divide Lyric Center for the Arts Mesabi Trail Olcott Park Greenhouse Olcott Park is a city park in Virginia.
It has a fountain in the northern part of the park, built in 1937. There is a bandstand in the center, used for city band performances. To the south, it borders Parkview Learning Center, to the east 9th Avenue West, to the north 9th Street North, to the west Greenwood Cemetery. Olcott Park is home to the Olcott Park Greenhouse. Olcott Park is named after William J. Olcott who headed The Oliver Mining Company, the largest mining company on the Iron Range for decades. Virginia is a regional transportation hub within the Mesabi Range. Major roadways include U. S. Highway 53, U. S. Highway 169, State Highway 135. Other main routes include 2nd Avenue West, 12th Avenue West, 13th Street South, 8th Street South, 9th Stree
2012 Minnesota Senate election
The 2012 Minnesota Senate election was held in the U. S. state of Minnesota on November 6, 2012, to elect members to the Senate of the 88th and 89th Minnesota Legislatures. A primary election was held in several districts on August 14, 2012; the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party won a majority of seats, defeating the majority of the Republican Party of Minnesota. This was the first election for the Republicans since it won a majority of seats in the 2010 election, its first since the return of partisan elections to the Senate in 1976; the new Legislature convened on January 8, 2013. Source: Minnesota Secretary of State Minnesota House of Representatives election, 2012 Minnesota gubernatorial election, 2010 Minnesota elections, 2012 Color shaded map showing winning margin by district from 2012 Election Maps, Minnesota Secretary of State
The Minnesota Senate is the upper house of the Legislature of the U. S. state of Minnesota. At 67 members, half as many as the Minnesota House of Representatives, it is the largest upper house of any U. S. state legislature. Floor sessions are held in the west wing of the State Capitol in Saint Paul. Committee hearings, as well as offices for senators and staff, are located north of the State Capitol in the Minnesota Senate Building. Due to the restoration process of the State Capitol taking place since 2014, the Senate held floor sessions in 2016 in the Minnesota Senate Building, an office building across the street north of the State Capitol, it was the first time the Senate held a regular session outside of the State Capitol since its opening in 1905. In addition to its legislative powers, certain appointments by the governor are subject to the Senate's advice and consent. Appointees may serve without being confirmed by the Senate, unless the Senate rejects the appointment; each Senate district is split between an B House district.
The Minnesota Constitution forbids a House district to be within more than one Senate district. In order to account for decennial redistricting, members run for one two-year term and two four-year terms each decade. Senators are elected for four-year terms in years ending in 2 and 6, for two-year terms in years ending in 0. Districts are redrawn after the decennial United States Census in time for the primary and general elections in years ending in 2; the most recent election was held on November 8, 2016. From statehood through 1972, the lieutenant governor served as president of the Senate. In 1972, voters approved a constitutional amendment that provided for the Senate to elect its own president beginning January 1973; the majority leader is responsible for managing and scheduling the business of the Senate and serves as the leader of their caucus. All senators and staff have offices in the Minnesota Senate Building, a 293,000 square feet office building that opened in January 2016; the office building, located north of the State Capitol across University Avenue, was constructed at the cost of $90 million and includes three committee hearing rooms and a 264-space underground parking facility.
91st Minnesota Legislature Minnesota House of Representatives Minnesota Legislature Past composition of the Senate Political party strength in Minnesota Official website
Koochiching County, Minnesota
Koochiching County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,311, its county seat is International Falls. A portion of the Bois Forte Indian Reservation is in the county. A small part of Voyageurs National Park extends into its boundary, with Lake of the Woods County to its northwest. Historymakers of Koochiching County were of many occupations, they were explorers, traders and lumberjacks. They were teachers, merchants and builders of industry. Settlers came at the beginning of the 1900s and suffered through isolation, harsh weather, poverty, they built schools and good roads. Koochiching County is the second largest county in area next to Saint Louis County, it is one of the youngest counties in the state having been created in 1906 after it was separated from Itasca County. The name "Koochiching" comes from either the Ojibwe word Gojijiing or Cree Kocicīhk, both meaning "at the place of inlets," referring to the neighboring Rainy Lake and River. Reverend J.
A. Gilfillan recorded their meaning, "according to some, Neighbor lake, according to others a lake somewhere," referring to the neighbouring Rainy Lake and to Lake Couchiching located in southern Ontario. Early European inhabitants gave the names Lac à la Pluie and Rivière à la Pluie to the nearby bodies of water because of the mist-like rain present at the falls of Rainy River and to the settlement that became known as International Falls. About 10,000 years ago 90% of Koochiching County was covered by Lake Agassiz; when it receded it left low areas of decayed vegetation. Koochiching County lies on the north edge of Minnesota, its northern border abuts the south border of Canada. The Rainy River flows west-northwestward along its north border, being fed by several rivers which drain from the county into the Rainy: Rat Root River drains the east central part of the county; the county terrain consists of low rolling hills, with swampy areas where Lake Agassiz basin was deepest. There are deposits of peat from 1½ to 50 feet in the low areas.
The level soil is broken by ledges of precambrian rock. Bed rock in the area includes Ely greenstone and greenstone schists that are said to be among the oldest on the planet; the terrain slopes to the north, with its highest point on the western part of its southern border at 1,515' ASL. The county has a total area of 3,154 square miles, of which 3,104 square miles is land and 50 square miles is water, it third-largest by total area. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 14,355 people, 6,040 households, 3,962 families in the county; the population density was 4.62/sqmi. There were 7,719 housing units at an average density of 2.49/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 96.12% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 2.15% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, 1.23% from two or more races. 0.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 21.2 % were of 7.0 % Irish ancestry. There were 6,040 households out of which 28.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.30% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.40% were non-families.
30.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.88. The county population contained 23.90% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 98.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,262, the median income for a family was $43,608. Males had a median income of $40,642 versus $22,261 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,167. About 8.40% of families and 12.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.10% of those under age 18 and 13.40% of those age 65 or over. Koochiching County voters have tended to vote Democratic for several decades. In 78% of national elections since 1980 the county selected the Democratic Party candidate.
Koochiching County is unique in Minnesota, in the sense that there are no organized civil township governments within the county, due to legislative action taken by the county to absorb existing township governments. Survey townships, as defined by the Public Land Survey System are not organized. Six city governments have been created, the rest of the county consists of unorganized territories and unincorporated communities. Nett Lake Koochiching County is the location of the fictional town of Frostbite Falls, the home of the animated characters Rocky and Bullwinkle. Frostbite Falls was named in honor of International Falls, since International Falls is of
St. Louis County, Minnesota
St. Louis County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 200,226, its county seat is Duluth. It is the largest county by total area in Minnesota, the largest in the United States east of the Mississippi River. St. Louis County is included in MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Major industries include pulpwood tourism. Surface mining of taconite and processing it into high grade iron ore remains an important part of the economy of the Iron Range. Parts of the federally recognized Bois Forte and Fond du Lac Indian reservations are in the county; this area was long inhabited by Algonquian-speaking tribes: the Ojibwe and Potawatomi peoples were loosely affiliated in the Council of Three Fires. As American settlers entered the territory, the Native Americans were pushed to outer areas; the Minnesota Legislature established St. Louis County on February 20, 1855, as Doty County, changed its name to Newton County on March 3, 1855.
It consisted of the area east and south of the St. Louis River, while the area east of the Vermilion River and north of the St. Louis River was part of Superior County. Superior County was renamed St. Louis County. On March 1, 1856, that St. Louis County was renamed as Lake County. Newton County had that eastern area added to it. On May 23, 1857, St. Louis County took its current shape when Carlton County was formed from parts of St. Louis and Pine counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,860 square miles, of which 6,247 square miles is land and 612 square miles is water. By area, it is the largest county in Minnesota and the largest in the U. S. east of the Mississippi River. Voyageurs National Park, established in 1975, is located in its northwestern corner, on the south shore of Rainy Lake on the Canada–US border; the county includes parts of Superior National Forest, established in 1909, the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness on the border, established in 1978.
The BWCAW is a 1,090,000-acre wilderness area designated for fishing, camping and canoeing, is one of the most visited wilderness areas in the United States. St. Louis County has more than 500 lakes, including Rainy, Namakan, Sand Point, Crane lakes; the largest lakes are Vermilion. The "Hill of Three Waters" on the Laurentian Divide lies northeast of Hibbing. Rain falling on this hill runs to three watersheds: Hudson Bay to the north, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the east, or the Gulf of Mexico to the south and west; the county is drained by the St. Louis and other rivers. Duluth on Lake Superior is one of the most important fresh-water ports in the United States and located in this county; the county encompasses part of the Iron Range. It has had a significant taconite mining industry in the city of Virginia. Rainy River District, Canada Lake County Douglas County, Wisconsin Carlton County Aitkin County Itasca County Koochiching County Superior National Forest Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Voyageurs National Park The county has a humid continental climate moderated by its proximity to Lake Superior.
Winters are long and cold seeing maximum temperatures remaining below 32 °F on 106 days. Due to global warming, in January 2019 Tracy Twine, professor at the University of Minnesota’s Department of Soil and Climate, said "we just don’t expect temperatures to be below 10 degrees Fahrenheit in Duluth anymore. Public schools and other government offices shut down on January 29-30, 2019 because of wind chills of -70°F; as of the 2010 census, there were 200,226 people residing in the county. The racial makeup of the county was 94.0% White, 2.2% Native American, 0.4% Black or African American, 0.9% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 2.3% of two or more races. 1.2% were Hispanic or Latino. According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the ancestral makeup was 24.3% German, 15.9% Norwegian, 13.0% Swedish, 10.2% Irish. As of the 2000 census, there were 200,528 people, 82,619 households, 51,389 families residing in the county; the population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 95,800 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 94.86% White, 0.85% Black or African American, 2.03% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 1.35% from two or more races. 0.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 27.60% of households included children under the age of 18, 49.30% were married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.80% were non-families. 31.20% of all households consisted of individuals and 13.00% of individuals 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.90. The population spread by age was 22.40% under the age of 18, 11.40% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 16.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,306, the median income for a family was $47,134.
Males had a median income of $37,934 versus $24