Thomas Clement Douglas was a Canadian politician who served as Premier of Saskatchewan from 1944 to 1961 and Leader of the New Democratic Party from 1961 to 1971. A Baptist minister, he was elected to the House of Commons of Canada in 1935 as a member of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, he left federal politics to become Leader of the Saskatchewan Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and the seventh Premier of Saskatchewan. His cabinet was the first democratic socialist government in North America and it introduced the continent's first single-payer, universal health care program known as Medicare. After setting up Saskatchewan's Medicare program, Douglas stepped down and ran to lead the newly formed federal New Democratic Party, the successor party of the national CCF, he was elected as its first federal leader in 1961. Although Douglas never led the party to government, through much of his tenure the party held the balance of power in the House of Commons, he was noted as being the main opposition to the imposition of the War Measures Act during the 1970 October Crisis.
He resigned as leader the next year, but remained as a Member of Parliament until 1979. Douglas was awarded many honorary degrees, a foundation was named for him and his political mentor M. J. Coldwell in 1971. In 1981, he was invested into the Order of Canada, he became a member of Canada's Privy Council in 1984, two years before his death. In 2004, a CBC Television program named Tommy Douglas "The Greatest Canadian", based on a Canada-wide, viewer-supported survey. Thomas Clement Douglas was born in 1904 in Camelon, Scotland, the son of Annie and Thomas Douglas, an iron moulder who fought in the Boer War. In 1910, his family immigrated to Canada. Shortly before he left Scotland, Douglas injured his right knee. Osteomyelitis set in and he underwent a number of operations in Scotland in an attempt to cure the condition. In Winnipeg, the osteomyelitis flared up again, Douglas was sent to hospital. Doctors there told his parents. After several operations, Douglas's leg was saved; this experience convinced him.
Many years Douglas told an interviewer: "I felt that no boy should have to depend either for his leg or his life upon the ability of his parents to raise enough money to bring a first-class surgeon to his bedside."During World War I, the family returned to Glasgow in Scotland. They returned to Winnipeg in time for Douglas to witness the Winnipeg general strike. From a rooftop vantage point on Main Street, he witnessed the police charging the strikers with clubs and guns, a streetcar being overturned and set on fire, he witnessed the RCMP shoot and kill one of the workers. This incident influenced Douglas in life by cementing his commitment to protect fundamental freedoms in a Bill of Rights when he was Premier of Saskatchewan. In 1920, at the age of 15, Douglas began an amateur career in boxing at the One Big Union gym in Winnipeg. Weighing 135 pounds, Douglas fought in 1922 for the Lightweight Championship of Manitoba, won the title after a six-round fight. Douglas sustained a broken nose, a loss of some teeth, a strained hand and thumb.
He held the title the following year. In 1930, Douglas married a music student at Brandon College, they had one daughter, actress Shirley Douglas, they adopted a second daughter, who became a nurse. His grandson is son of daughter Shirley and actor Donald Sutherland. Douglas started elementary school in Winnipeg, he completed his elementary education after returning to Glasgow. He worked as a soap boy in a barber shop, rubbing lather into tough whiskers dropped out of high school at 13 after landing a job in a cork factory; the owner offered to pay Douglas's way through night school so that he could learn Portuguese and Spanish, languages that would enable him to become a cork buyer. However, the family returned to Winnipeg when the war ended and Douglas entered the printing trades, he served a five-year apprenticeship and worked as a Linotype operator acquiring his journeyman's papers, but decided to return to school to pursue his ambition to become an ordained minister. In 1924, the 19-year-old Douglas enrolled at Brandon College, a Baptist school affiliated with McMaster University, to finish high school and study theology.
During his six years at the college, he was influenced by the Social Gospel movement, which combined Christian principles with social reform. Liberal-minded professors at Brandon encouraged students to question their fundamentalist religious beliefs. Christianity, they suggested, was just as concerned with the pursuit of social justice as it was with the struggle for individual salvation. Douglas studied Greek philosophy, he came first in his class during his first three years competed for gold medals in his last three with a newly arrived student named Stanley Knowles. Both became ministers of religion and prominent left-wing politicians. Douglas was active in extracurricular activities. Among other things, he became a champion debater, wrote for the school newspaper and participated in student government winning election as Senior Stick, or president of the student body, in his final year. Douglas financed his education at Brandon College by conducting Sunday services at several rural churches for 15 dollars a week.
A shortage of ordained clergy forced smaller congregations to rely on student ministers. Douglas rep
Necmi Sönmez is a Turkish-German curator, art critic and writer. He works in Düsseldorf. Necmi Sönmez studied art history, Byzantine art history and classical archaeology in Mainz, Paris and Frankfurt am Main, he gained his doctorate in 2001 in Frankfurt with a dissertation on “Milch, Blütenstaub, Reis und Wachs. Das Gesamtwerk von Wolfgang Laib” at Goethe University Frankfurt with Prof. Stefan Germer and Prof. Manfred Schneckenburger. From 1994 to 1997, Sönmez worked as an independent curator and organizing numerous exhibition projects involving young artists, in Turkey, the Netherlands and France. From 1998 to 2000 he was a project assistant at the MUMOK in Vienna. From 2001 until the end of January 2005, Sönmez held the post of curator of contemporary art at the Museum Folkwang in Essen, where he curated several exhibitions and projects, including the first museum exhibitions of artists, such as Didiert Trenet, Daniel Knorr, Surasi Kusolwong, Elisabeth Ballet and Saâdane Hafif. From 2006 to 2008, Sönmez was artistic director of the Kunstverein Arnsberg, where he presented artists such as Ekrem Yalcindag, Gregor Schneider, Myriam Holme, Florian Bach, Sabine Boehl, Martin Dammann and Anja Cuipka.
His current activities include co-curating the exhibition “Contemporary Art from Islamic Cultures” Kunstmuseum Bochum, serving as a member of the committee of experts of the Regional Contemporary Art Fund in the French region of Franche-Comté and working as guest curator for the Proje4L / Elgiz Museum of Contemporary Art in Istanbul. Necmi Sönmez has changed the structure of Städtische Galerie Museum Folkwang to the Mobile Städtische Galerie from 2001 until 2005, he has developed an interdisciplinary subversive public art program aimed at forging closer links between theoretical formats and exhibition presentations. 2001 “Tische der Kommunikation” 2002 “Private Öffentlichkeit” 2003 “Sukûn / Stille” 2004 “Das Erinnerte Haus”. Since 1994, Necmi Sönmez has published number of monographies on artists that function in parallel to his curatorial work including: Fahr-el-Nissa Zeid Mübin Orhan Robert and Lisa Sainbury Collection „Ecole de Paris et les Peintres Turc“ Klaus Jürgen-Fischer, "Kunstspektakel - Kunstdebakel.
Kunstkritisches Tagebuch, Sanat Hayati Icerir mi?: Selected Writings 1995–2005 Turkish Realities, Positions of Contemporary Photography from Turkey, Necmi Sönmez has contributed to Flash Art, Neue Bildende Kunst, Kunstzeitung and Virgül. Turkish art Public art Curator http://www.necmisoenmez.de http://www.art-magazin.de/kunst/15236/radar http://www.goethe.de/kue/bku/kur/kur/sz/son/enindex.htm
Anna Levinson was a German zoologist who specialized in general and applied entomology. She worked at the Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology from 1971, at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology from 2004 in Seewiesen and Erling. Born in Tel-Aviv, she graduated from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Science, with a Ph. D. on June 6, 1972. She was awarded the Karl Leopold Escherich-Medal on February 26, 2OO7 in Innsbruck, Austria by DGaaE. Levinson was the daughter of the Mathematician Frieda Bar-Ilan. After graduating from a mathematics - and science – oriented Gymnasium, she earned a teaching diploma and taught biology at a junior High School, she studied botany, parasitology and graduated with the degree of M. Sc. from the Faculty of Science of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1964. Within her M. Sc. research, she investigated the sound patterns and corresponding behavioural responses produced by Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria. She performed doctoral research under the supervision of Professors R.
Galun and E. Rivnay on the possible utilization of insect attractants and repellents for suppressing the density of harmful insect populations in the phytophagous cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, the haematophagous bedbug Cimex lectularius and the cereal feeding khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium, she received the degree of Ph. D. from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1972. Between 1965 and 1968 Anna Levinson delivered courses of entomology to students at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, she performed research on the biological control of pest insect populations the scale insect Parlatoria blanchardii utilizing various species of the coccinellid genera Chilocorus and Scymnus. She investigated the aggregation and dispersal behaviour of the bedbug species Cimex lectularius and discovered the intraspecific assembling and alarm pheromones of the above hemipteran. In 1971, she became a research associate of the Max Planck Institute for Behavioural Physiology and performed research, together with her husband Hermann Levinson, on the nutritional and sensory physiology of certain harmful insect and mite species on the molecular structure and mode of action of kairomones, sex pheromones and other stimuli of possible value in producing insectistasis and acaristasis.
Insectistasis depends on the use of pheromones to trap, confuse or inhibit mating, in order to keep pest populations below a level, in which they may cause significant economic damage. Since 1988, Anna Levinson and Hermann Levinson are working together on the ethnozoology of harmful and harmless animal species prevalent in the ancient Orient and classical Antiquity. Anna Levinson has collaborated with national and international research teams like those of Wittko Francke, Christoph Reichmuth, Kenji Mori, Robert M. Silverstein and Konstantin Buchelos investigating the mode of action and employment of pheromone traps for stored product beetles and moths khapra beetles, hide beetles, tobacco beetles, grain moths, meal moths, flour moths, tobacco moths as well as almond moths; these traps were patented in numerous countries and are used until now. They reduce the number of insecticidal treatments required in the storage environment. In total she wrote more than 100 scientific papers. Anna Levinson is a member of the German Society of general and applied Entomology as well as the Entomological Society of Munich.
Because of her numerous achievements and publications, she received worldwide recognition as a Leading Scientist of the World for 2006, rendered by the International Biographical Centre of Cambridge, England. She was awarded the Honorary Medal of Karl Leopold Escherich, rendered by Prof. Dr. Gerald Moritz, President of the German Society of general and applied Entomology in 2007. "Alfred Elbert - Laudatio für Frau Dr. Anna Levinson und Herrn Professor Dr. Hermann Levinson anlässlich der Verleihung der Karl-Escherich-Medaille der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie am 26. Februar 2007 in Innsbruck". Mitt. Dtsch. Ges. allg. angew. Ent. 16, 2008, p. 9 "Magic Spells to combat Pests". Gottfried Plehn, Max-Planck-Research, pages 58–61. Gutsmiedel, D. 2OO3: Die ägyptischen Plagegeister. Bild der Wissenschaft 6, 7O-72