Speed reading is any of several techniques used to improve one's ability to read quickly. Speed reading methods include minimizing subvocalization; the many available speed reading training programs include books, videos and seminars. There is scientific controversy surrounding the domain of speed reading. Psychologists and educational specialists working on visual acuity used a tachistoscope to conclude that, with training, an average person could identify minute images flashed on the screen for only one five-hundredth of a second. Though the images used were of airplanes, the results had implications for reading, it was not until the late 1950s that a portable and convenient device would be developed as a tool for increasing reading speed. Evelyn Wood, a researcher and schoolteacher, was committed to understanding why some people were faster at reading and tried to force herself to read quickly. In 1958, while brushing off the pages of a book she had thrown down in despair, she discovered that the sweeping motion of her hand across the page caught the attention of her eyes, helped them move more smoothly across the page.
She used the hand as a pacer. Wood first taught the method at the University of Utah, before launching it to the public as Evelyn Wood's Reading Dynamics in Washington, D. C. in 1959. Skimming is a process of speed reading that involves visually searching the sentences of a page for clues to the main idea or when reading an essay, it can mean reading the beginning and ending for summary information optionally the first sentence of each paragraph to determine whether to seek still more detail, as determined by the questions or purpose of the reading. For some people, this comes but is acquired by practice. Skimming is seen more in adults than in children, it is conducted at a higher rate than normal reading for comprehension, results in lower comprehension rates with information-rich reading material. Scanning is the process where one looks for information using a mind-map formed from skimming; these techniques are used by meta-guiding your eyes. Scanning includes the main point as well as important information.
Meta guiding is the visual guiding of the eye using a finger or pointer, such as a pen, in order for the eye to move faster along the length of a passage of text. It involves drawing invisible shapes on a page of text in order to broaden the visual span for speed reading. For example, an audience of customers at a speed reading seminar will be instructed to use a finger or pen to make these shapes on a page and told that this will speed up their visual cortex, increase their visual span to take in the whole line, imprint the information into their subconscious for retrieval, it has been claimed to reduce subvocalization, thereby speeding up reading. Because this encourages the eye to skim over the text, it can reduce comprehension and memory, lead to missing important details of the text. An emphasis on viewing each word, albeit without regression is required for this method to be effective. E.g. S movement and Z movementSpeed. Reading a text involves comprehension of the material. In speed reading practice this is done through multiple reading processes: preview, read and recite.
Another important method for better comprehension is the SQ3R process. These processes help an individual to retain most of the presented ideas from a reading material. A better focus in comprehension is attained through a better reading process with good understanding of the topic. Types of reading affect the speed of reading; each of us is wired differently from environmental influences. Many have learned to read word by word from grade school, have never been taught or informed the need to improve upon that method; when reading word by word, our eyes skip back to a previous word or line. These mechanical issues slow us down while comprehending. There are three types of reading Mental reading: sounding out each word internally, as reading to yourself; this is the slowest form of reading. Many intelligent people read with subvocalization at 250 wpm. Auditory reading: hearing out the read words; this is a faster process. Visual reading: understanding the meaning of the word, rather than sounding or hearing.
This is the fastest process. Mental readers read at 250 words per minute. Auditory readers read at 450 words per minute. Visual readers read at 700 words per minute. Proficient readers are able to read 280 - 310 wpm without compromising comprehension. Skimming alone may not be ideal. Skimming is used when researching and getting an overall idea of the text. Nonetheless, when time is limited, skimming or skipping over text can aid comprehension when layered reading is employed. Duggan & Payne compared skimming with reading given only enough time to read through half of a text, they found that the main points of the full text were better understood after skimming than after normal reading (which only read half the text
The Irish Times
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859. The editor is Paul O'Neill who succeeded Kevin O'Sullivan on 5 April 2017; the Irish Times is published every day except Sundays. It employs 420 people. Though formed as a Protestant nationalist paper, within two decades and under new owners it had become the voice of British unionism in Ireland, it is no longer marketed as a unionist paper. The editorship of the newspaper from 1859 until 1986 was controlled by the Anglo-Irish Protestant minority, only gaining its first nominal Irish Catholic editor 127 years into its existence; the paper's most prominent columnists include writer and arts commentator Fintan O'Toole and satirist Miriam Lord. The late Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald was once a columnist. Senior international figures, including Tony Blair and Bill Clinton, have written for its op-ed page, its most prominent columns have included the political column Backbencher, by John Healy, Drapier and Reason and the long-running An Irishman's Diary.
An Irishman's Diary was written by Patrick Campbell in the forties. After Myers' move to the rival Irish Independent, An Irishman's Diary has been the work of Frank McNally. On the sports pages, Philip Reid is the paper's golf correspondent. One of its most popular columns was the biting and humorous Cruiskeen Lawn satire column written in Irish in English, by Myles na gCopaleen, the pen name of Brian O'Nolan who wrote books using the name Flann O'Brien. Cruiskeen Lawn is an anglicised spelling of the Irish words crúiscín lán, meaning'full little jug'. Cruiskeen Lawn made its debut in October 1940, appeared with varying regularity until O'Nolan's death in 1966; the first appearance of a newspaper using the name The Irish Times occurred in 1823, but this closed in 1825. The title was revived as a thrice-weekly publication by Major Lawrence E. Knox, with the first edition being published on 29 March 1859, it was founded as a moderate Protestant Nationalist newspaper, reflecting the politics of Knox, who stood unsuccessfully as a parliamentary candidate for Isaac Butt's Home Rule League.
Its headquarters were at 4 Lower Abbey Street in Dublin. Its main competitor in its early days was the Dublin Daily Express; the Irish Times supported Ireland remaining part of the United Kingdom and was allied to the Irish Unionist Alliance. After Knox's death in 1873, the paper was sold to the widow of Sir John Arnott, MP, a former Lord Mayor of Cork and owner of Arnotts, one of Dublin's major Department stores; the sale, for £35,000, led to two major changes. Its headquarters was shifted to 31 Westmoreland Street, remaining in buildings on or near that site until 2005, its politics shifted becoming predominantly Protestant and Unionist, it was associated with the Irish Unionist Alliance. The paper, along with the Irish Independent and various regional papers, called for the execution of the leaders of the failed 1916 Easter Rising. Though the paper became a publicly listed company in 1900, the family continued to hold a majority shareholding until the 1960s; the last member of the Arnott family to sit on the paper's board was Sir Lauriston Arnott, who died in 1958.
The editor during the 1930s, R. M. Smyllie, had strong anti-fascist views: he angered the Irish Catholic hierarchy by opposing General Franco during the Spanish Civil War; the Irish Times, like other national newspapers, had problems with Irish Government censorship during World War II. The Times was pro-Allied and was opposed to the Éamon de Valera government's policy of neutrality. In 1974, ownership was transferred to The Irish Times Trust; the former owner, Major Thomas McDowell, was made "president for life" of the trust which runs the paper and was paid a large dividend. However several years the articles of the Trust were adjusted, giving Major McDowell 10 preference shares and one more vote than the combined votes of all the other directors should any move be made to remove him. Major McDowell died in 2009; the Trust was set up in 1974 as "a company limited by guarantee" to purchase The Irish Times Limited and to ensure that The Irish Times would be published as an independent newspaper with specific editorial objectives..
The Trust is regulated by a legal document, the Memorandum and Articles of Association, controlled by a body of people under company law. It does not have charitable status, it has no beneficial shareholders and it cannot pay dividends. Any profits made by The Irish Times cannot be distributed to the Trust but must be used to strengthen the newspaper, directly or indirectly; the Trust is composed of a maximum of 11 Governors. The Trust appoints Governors who are required to be "representative broadly of the community throughout the whole of Ireland"; as of June 2012, Ruth Barrington is the chair of the trust, the governors are Tom Arnold, David Begg, Noel Dorr, Margaret Elliott, Rosemary Kelly, Eoin O'Driscoll, Fergus O'Ferrall, Judith Woodworth, Barry Smyth, Caitriona Murphy. In 1969, the longest-serving editor of The Irish Times, Douglas Gageby, was called a "white nigger" by the company chairman (a former Irish Bri
Kitsilano Secondary School
Kitsilano Secondary School is a public secondary school in the Kitsilano neighbourhood of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The school has several district programs including on-site pre-employment. Advanced Placement courses are offered; the first students selected royal blue and gold as the school colours, based on those at Aberdeen University. The original school crest was designed by Mr. S. P. Judge, the first art teacher at Kitsilano, although the crest has undergone some slight changes over the decades, it still proudly displays the colours and motto; the school is well known for the numerous television and film productions which have been filmed there. Disturbing Behavior, Big Bully, Anything for Love, The Santa Claus 2, 21 Jump Street, Party of Five used Kitsilano as a filming location; the school counts a number of former alumni who went on to careers in film and television, notably Ryan Reynolds and Joshua Jackson. The school song "Hail Kitsilano" was composed in 1936 by Mr. Ivor Parfitt.
The main foyer is home to a portrait of the school's namesake. The auditorium houses a Tanu totem pole, carved by Don Yeomans in 1986 in honour of Vancouver's centennial anniversary. In addition to its distinguished academic record, Kitsilano has been successful in a number of sports, most prominently, rugby, ice-hockey, cheer, it won provincial basketball championships in 1997, were the City and District Champions and went to the Provincial finals in 1977, more the HSBC Vancouver basketball tournament in 2007. Kitsilano Secondary School was founded in 1917, when overflow classes from King Edward High School were moved to Cecil Rhodes School; the first temporary wooden structures for the new school were built in 1920 at Trafalgar and 12th Avenue. The current building was designed by Vancouver VSB staff architect Frank A. A. Barrs and opened in 1927. In 1958, a Modernist-style addition designed by school architect Allan B. Wilson was added to the south side of the original building. In 1973 a single storey concrete structure was added on the southeast corner of the site.
In 2010 the school board approved a concept plan for the seismic upgrades to the facility. In October 2011 the provincial government announced a $57.8 million restoration project that will include seismic upgrades and new construction meeting Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold Standards. In 2012 three design-build partners, each comprising a general contractor and an architectural firm, were shortlisted for the project. In August 2013 it was announced that the Bouygues Building Canada team were selected to design and build the renovation and expansion. Construction began on the south east corner in 2014; this involved the removal of volleyball courts. The new academic wing was completed in the summer of 2015. On April 5, 2013 students and staff were informed that an incident involving two students and a staff member may have occurred during a school trip two years earlier; the teacher involved was placed on paid leave. Neither the Vancouver School Board or Vancouver Police Department will discuss the specifics of the allegations.
No charges have been filed. On January 31, 2018 a groping incident between students occurred at a school dance; the incident was under investigation as of February 3, 2018 according to a Vancouver School Board spokesman. Parents were informed by administration about the incident. Kathleen Heddle, Olympic rower, 3-time Gold medallist Josh Holmes, Video game designer Joshua Jackson, actor Levon Kendall, professional basketball player Justin Mensah-Coker, professional rugby player playing with Plymouth Albion R. F. C. Ryan Reynolds, television/movie star Sarah Strange, television/movie actor School history webpage Kitsilano SS renewal project Kitsilano SS renewal project schedule Canada's Historic Places, Kitsilano Secondary School webpage
Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses". Per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year; the prize was awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, the Norwegian Nobel Institute, the Parliament. Due to its political nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history, been the subject of numerous controversies. According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who in the preceding year "shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".
Alfred Nobel's will further specified that the prize be awarded by a committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category; as he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear. According to the Norwegian Nobel Committee, his friendship with Bertha von Suttner, a peace activist and recipient of the prize, profoundly influenced his decision to include peace as a category; some Nobel scholars suggest. His inventions included dynamite and ballistite, both of which were used violently during his lifetime. Ballistite was used in war and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, carried out dynamite attacks in the 1880s. Nobel was instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron and steel producer into an armaments company, it is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobel's death.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize, as it did not have the same militaristic traditions as Sweden. It notes that at the end of the 19th century, the Norwegian parliament had become involved in the Inter-Parliamentary Union's efforts to resolve conflicts through mediation and arbitration; the Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize; the statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. These nominators are: Members of national assemblies and governments and members of the Inter-Parliamentary Union Members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the International Court of Justice at the Hague Members of Institut de Droit International University professors of history, social sciences, philosophy and theology, university presidents, directors of peace research and international affairs institutes Former recipients, including board members of organizations that have received the prize Present and past members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Former permanent advisers to the Norwegian Nobel Institute Nominations must be submitted to the Committee by the beginning of February in the award year.
Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline. In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received, but the record was broken again in 2010 with 237 nominations; the statutes of the Nobel Foundation do not allow information about nominations, considerations, or investigations relating to awarding the prize to be made public for at least 50 years after a prize has been awarded. Over time, many individuals have become known as "Nobel Peace Prize Nominees", but this designation has no official standing, means only that one of the thousands of eligible nominators suggested the person's name for consideration. Indeed, in 1939, Adolf Hitler received a satirical nomination from a member of the Swedish parliament, mocking the nomination of Neville Chamberlain. Nominations from 1901 to 1956, have been released in a database. Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for further review is created.
This short list is considered by permanent advisers to the Nobel institute, which consists of the Institute's Director and the Research Director and a small number of Norwegian academics with expertise in subject areas relating to the prize. Advisers have some months to complete reports, which are considered by the Committee to select the laureate; the Committee seeks to achieve a unanimous decision. The Nobel Committee comes to a conclusion in mid-September, but the final decision has not been made until the last meeting before the official announcement at the beginning of October; the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway on 10 December each year. The Peace Pri
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, more Leonardo da Vinci or Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance whose areas of interest included invention, painting, architecture, music, engineering, anatomy, astronomy, writing and cartography. He has been variously called the father of palaeontology and architecture, he is considered one of the greatest painters of all time. Sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute and tank, he epitomised the Renaissance humanist ideal. Many historians and scholars regard Leonardo as the prime exemplar of the "Universal Genius" or "Renaissance Man", an individual of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination", he is considered one of the most diversely talented individuals to have lived. According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent in recorded history, "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, while the man himself mysterious and remote". Marco Rosci notes that, while there is much speculation regarding his life and personality, his view of the world was logical rather than mysterious, although the empirical methods he employed were unorthodox for his time.
Leonardo was born out of wedlock to notary Piero da Vinci and a peasant woman named Caterina in Vinci in the region of Florence, he was educated in the studio of Florentine painter Andrea del Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan, he worked in Rome and Venice, he spent his last years in France at the home awarded to him by Francis I of France. Leonardo is renowned as a painter; the Mona Lisa is the most famous of his works and the most parodied portrait, The Last Supper is the most reproduced religious painting of all time. His drawing of the Vitruvian Man is regarded as a cultural icon, being reproduced on items as varied as the euro coin, T-shirts, his painting Salvator Mundi sold for $450.3 million at a Christie's auction in New York on 15 November 2017, the highest price paid for a work of art. 15 of his paintings have survived. These few works compose a contribution to generations of artists rivalled only by that of his contemporary Michelangelo, together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, his thoughts on the nature of painting.
Leonardo is revered for his technological ingenuity. He conceptualised flying machines, a type of armoured fighting vehicle, concentrated solar power, an adding machine, the double hull. Few of his designs were constructed or feasible during his lifetime, as the modern scientific approaches to metallurgy and engineering were only in their infancy during the Renaissance; some of his smaller inventions, entered the world of manufacturing unheralded, such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire. A number of his most practical inventions are displayed as working models at the Museum of Vinci, he made substantial discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, geology and hydrodynamics, but he did not publish his findings and they had no direct influence on science. Leonardo was born on 15 April 1452 "at the third hour of the night" in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci, in the lower valley of the Arno river in the territory of the Medici-ruled Republic of Florence.
He was the out-of-wedlock son of the wealthy Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine legal notary, Caterina, a peasant. Leonardo had no surname in the modern sense—"da Vinci" meaning "of Vinci"; the inclusion of the title "ser" indicated. Little is known about Leonardo's early life, he spent his first five years in the hamlet of Anchiano in the home of his mother, from 1457 lived in the household of his father and uncle in the small town of Vinci. His father had married a 16-year-old girl named Albiera Amadori, who loved Leonardo but died young in 1465 without children; when Leonardo was 16, his father married again to 20-year-old Francesca Lanfredini, who died without children. Piero's legitimate heirs were born from his third wife Margherita di Guglielmo and his fourth and final wife, Lucrezia Cortigiani. In all, Leonardo had 12 half-siblings, who were much younger than he was and with whom he had few contacts, but they caused him difficulty after his father's death in the dispute over the inheritance.
Leonardo received an informal education in Latin and mathematics. In life, Leonardo recorded only two childhood incidents. One, which he regarded as an omen, was when a kite dropped from the sky and hovered over his cradle, its tail feathers brushing his face; the second occurred while he was exploring in the mountains: he discovered a cave and was both terrified that some great monster might lurk there and driven by curiosity to find out what was inside. Leonardo's early life has been the subject of historical conjecture. Vasari, the 16th-century biographer of Renaissance painters, tells a story of Leonardo as a young man: A local peasant made himself a round shield and requested that Ser Piero have it painted for him. Leonardo responded with a
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Middlesex is an ancient county in southeast England. It is now within the wider urbanised area of London, its area is now mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in other neighbouring ceremonial counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, existed as an official unit until 1965; the historic county includes land stretching north of the River Thames from 17 miles west to 3 miles east of the City of London with the rivers Colne and Lea and a ridge of hills as the other boundaries. The low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest county by area in 1831; the City of London was a county in its own right from the 12th century and was able to exert political control over Middlesex. Westminster Abbey dominated most of the early financial and ecclesiastical aspects of the county; as London grew into Middlesex, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to expand the city boundaries into the county, which posed problems for the administration of local government and justice.
In the 18th and 19th centuries the population density was high in the southeast of the county, including the East End and West End of London. From 1855 the southeast was administered, with sections of Kent and Surrey, as part of the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works; when county councils were introduced in England in 1889 about 20% of the area of Middlesex, along with a third of its population, was transferred to the new County of London and the remainder became an administrative county governed by the Middlesex County Council that met at the Middlesex Guildhall in Westminster, in the County of London. The City of London, Middlesex, became separate counties for other purposes and Middlesex regained the right to appoint its own sheriff, lost in 1199. In the interwar years suburban London expanded further, with improvement and expansion of public transport, the setting up of new industries. After the Second World War, the population of the County of London and inner Middlesex was in steady decline, with high population growth continuing in the outer parts.
After a Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London all of the original area was incorporated into an enlarged Greater London in 1965, with the rest transferred to neighbouring counties. Since 1965 various areas called. Middlesex was the former postal county of 25 post towns; the name refers to the tribal origin of its inhabitants. The word is formed from the Old English,'middel' and'Seaxe'. In 704, it is recorded as Middleseaxon in an Anglo-Saxon chronicle, written in Latin, about land at Twickenham; the Latin text reads: "in prouincia quæ nuncupatur Middelseaxan Haec". The Saxons derived their name from a kind of knife for which they were known; the seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem. Their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word "Saxon". There were settlements in the area of Middlesex that can be traced back thousands of years before the creation of a county.
Middlesex was part of the Kingdom of Essex It was recorded in the Domesday Book as being divided into the six hundreds of Edmonton, Gore, Hounslow and Spelthorne. The City of London has been self-governing since the thirteenth century and became a county in its own right, a county corporate. Middlesex included Westminster, which had a high degree of autonomy. Of the six hundreds, Ossulstone contained the districts closest to the City of London. During the 17th century it was divided into four divisions, along with the Liberty of Westminster took over the administrative functions of the hundred; the divisions were named Finsbury, Holborn and Tower. The county had parliamentary representation from the 13th century; the title Earl of Middlesex was created twice, in 1622 and 1677, but became extinct in 1843. The economy of the county was dependent on the City of London from early times and was agricultural. A variety of goods were provided for the City, including crops such as grain and hay and building materials.
Recreation at day trip destinations such as Hackney, Islington and Twickenham, as well as coaching, inn-keeping and sale of goods and services at daily shops and stalls to the considerable passing trade provided much local employment and formed part of the early economy. However, during the 18th century the inner parishes of Middlesex became suburbs of the City and were urbanised; the Middlesex volume of John Norden's Speculum Britanniae of 1593 summarises: This is plentifully stored, as it seemeth beautiful, with many fair and comely buildings of the merchants of London, who have planted their houses of recreation not in the meanest places, which they have cunningly contrived, curiously beautified with divers devices, neatly decked with rare inventions, environed with orchards of sundry, delicate fruits, gardens with delectable walks, alleys and a great variety of pleasing dainties: all of which seem to be beautiful ornaments unto this country. Thomas Cox wrote in 1794: We may call it all London, being chiefly inhabited by the citizens, who fill the towns in it with their country houses, to which they resort that they may breathe a little sweet air, free from the fogs and smoke of the City.
In 1803 Sir John Sinclair, president of the Board of Agr