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Top of the Pops

Top of the Pops known as TOTP, is a British music chart television programme, made by the BBC and broadcast weekly between 1 January 1964 and 30 July 2006. The world's longest running weekly music show, TOTP was shown every Thursday evening on BBC One, except for a short period on Fridays in mid-1973, again in autumn 1974, before once again being moved to Fridays at 7:30 pm from 1996 to 2005 and to Sundays on BBC Two from 2005 till the last weekly show in 2006; each weekly show consisted of performances from some of that week's best-selling popular music records excluding any tracks moving down the chart, including a rundown of that week's singles chart. This was the Top 20, changing to the Top 30 during the 1970s and the Top 40 in the 80s; the distinctive TOTP theme tune – a riff of Led Zeppelin's "Whole Lotta Love" – first appeared in 1973 as the background music to the chart countdown. The Official Charts Company states "performing on the show was considered an honour, it pulled in just about every major player."

The Rolling Stones were the first band to perform on TOTP with "I Wanna Be Your Man". Snow Patrol had the distinction of being the last act to play live on the weekly show when they performed their hit single "Chasing Cars". In addition to the weekly show there was a special edition of TOTP on Christmas Day, featuring some of the best-selling singles of the year, the coveted Christmas Number 1. Although the weekly show was cancelled in 2006, the Christmas special has continued. In recent years, end-of-year round-up editions have been broadcast on BBC1 on or around New Year's Eve, albeit featuring the same acts and tracks as the Christmas Day shows, it survives as Top of the Pops 2, which began in 1994 and features vintage performances from the Top of the Pops archives. Most performers on TOTP mimed until 1991 when the producers of the show allowed artists the option of singing live over a backing track. Miming has resulted in a number of notable moments. In 1991 Nirvana refused to mime to the pre-recorded backing track of "Smells Like Teen Spirit" with Kurt Cobain singing in a deliberately low voice and altering lyrics in the song.

In 1995, the Gallagher brothers of Oasis switched places while performing "Roll with It". When an artist could not appear on the show the song would be played while a TOTP dance act would dance on stage. Music videos of artists unable to attend would be used. According to Queen guitarist Brian May, the groundbreaking 1975 music video for "Bohemian Rhapsody" was produced so that the band could avoid miming on TOTP since they would have looked off miming to such a complex song; the show has seen seminal performances over its history. The March 1971 TOTP appearance of T. Rex frontman Marc Bolan wearing glitter and satins as he performed "Hot Love" is seen as the inception of glam rock. In the 1990s, the show's format was sold to several foreign broadcasters in the form of a franchise package, at one point various versions of the show were shown in more than 120 countries. Editions of the programme from the 1970s are being repeated on most Thursday and Friday evenings on BBC Four, although episodes featuring disgraced presenters and artists such as Jimmy Savile and Gary Glitter are not repeated.

Johnnie Stewart devised the rules which governed how the show would operate: the programme would always end with the number one record, the only record that could appear in consecutive weeks. The show would include the highest new entry and the highest climber on the charts, omit any song going down in the chart. Tracks could be featured in consecutive weeks in different formats. For example, if a song was played over the chart countdown or the closing credits it was acceptable for the act to appear in the studio the following week; these rules were sometimes interpreted flexibly and were more formally relaxed from 1997 when records descending the charts were featured more possibly as a response to the changing nature of the Top 40. When the programme's format changed in November 2003, it concentrated on the top 10. During the BBC Two era, the top 20 was regarded as the main cut-off point, with the exception made for up and coming bands below the top 20. Singles from below the top 40 were shown if the band were up and coming or had a strong selling album.

If a single being performed was below the top 40, just the words "New Entry" were shown and not the chart position. The show was intended to run for only a few programmes but lasted over 42 years, reaching landmark episodes of 500, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 in the years 1973, 1983, 1992 and 2002 respectively. Top of the Pops was first broadcast on 1 January 1964 at 6:35 pm, it was produced in Studio A on Dickenson Road in Manchester. DJ Jimmy Savile presented the first show live from the Manchester studio, which featured Dusty Springfield with "I Only Want to Be with You", the Rolling Stones with "I Wanna Be Your Man", the Dave Clark Five with "Glad All Over", the Hollies with "Stay", the Swinging Blue Jeans with "Hippy Hippy Shake" and the Beatles with "I Want to Hold Your Hand", that week's number one – throughout its history, the programme proper always finished with the best-selling single of the week, although there was a

Right to protest

The right to protest is a human right arising out of a number of recognized human rights. While no human rights instrument or national constitution grants the absolute right to protest, such a right to protest may be a manifestation of the right to freedom of assembly, the right to freedom of association, the right to freedom of speech. Additionally and restrictions on protest have lasted as long as governments have. Many international treaties contain clear articulations of the right to protest and it is crucial for individuals who are interested in protesting to stay up to date and aware; such agreements include the 1950 European Convention on Human Rights Articles 9 to 11. Articles 9 enunciates the "right to freedom of thought and religion." Article 10 enunciates the "right to freedom of expression." Article 11 enunciates the "right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests." However, in these and other agreements the rights of freedom of assembly, freedom of association, freedom of speech are subject to certain limitations.

For example, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights contains prohibitions on "propaganda of war" and advocacy of "national, racial or religious hatred". It is important for people interested in protest to note that different places have passed their own clarification of these rights. Protesting, however, is not violent or a threat to the interests of national security or public safety. Nor is it civil disobedience, because most protest does not involve violating the laws of the state. Since it is an expression of a universal right, choosing to lawfully protest is not a violation of state laws. Protests campaigns of nonviolent resistance or civil resistance, can have the character of positively supporting a democratic and constitutional order; this can happen, for example. During points of widespread tension or controversy within a society, it is important for government institutions to recognize this right. A democracy's ability to preserve its citizen's right to protest is a result of that democracy's "political health."

Direct action Demonstration Protest Right of revolution Know Your Rights: Demonstrations and Protests - American Civil Liberties Union

Georgia State Route 60

State Route 60 is a 90.1-mile-long state highway that travels southeast-to-northwest through portions of Jackson, Lumpkin and Fannin counties in the north-central part of the U. S. state of Georgia. The highway connects the Braselton area with McCaysville at the Tennessee state line, via Gainesville and Dahlonega. SR 60 begins at an intersection with SR 124 east of Braselton in Jackson County, it crosses over, but does not have an interchange with Interstate 85 soon after. It heads crosses into Hall County. Just after the county line, the highway intersects SR 332, the two routes head concurrent to the northwest. In the unincorporated community of Belmont, they meet the northern terminus of SR 211. In Candler, SR 332 departs to the west on Poplar Springs Road. SR 60 continues to the northwest and enters Gainesville. At Central Park, it has an interchange with I-985/US 23/SR 365; this interchange marks the southern terminus of SR 53 Connector. Just after this interchange, SR 53 Connector/SR 60 pass the Lee Gilmer Memorial Airport and the eastern terminus of the Pearl Nix Parkway before intersecting with SR 369.

At this intersection, SR 53 Connector departs to the northwest on John W. Morrow, Jr. Parkway, while SR 60/SR 369 head concurrent to the northeast for a few blocks. At the intersection with US 129 Business/SR 11, SR 369 departs to the northeast, while SR 60 heads northwest, concurrent with SR 11 Business. Near City Park, the two highways split and each intersects SR 60 Connector. SR 60 crosses over the northeastern portion of Lake Lanier and passes the Chattahoochee Golf Course, it meets the southern terminus of SR 283 and the eastern terminus of SR 136 before crossing over another part of Lake Lanier. The road crosses into the southern portion of Lumpkin County. Just northeast of the Chestatee River, it intersects US 19/SR 400 and SR 115. At this intersection, SR 115 meets its southern terminus, SR 400 meets its northern terminus. Southwest of here, US 19/SR 400 run concurrent toward Atlanta, they curve to the northwest, bordering the western edge of the Achasta Golf Club. Just before they curve away from the golf course toward the main part of town, they cross over the Chestatee River.

On the southeastern edge of the North Georgia College & State University, they intersect SR 9/SR 52, which join the concurrency. The four highways curve around the main part of town. At East Main Street, the southern terminus of US 19 Business/SR 52 Business intersect the concurrency. A short distance after this intersection, SR 52 departs to the east, while US 19/SR 9/SR 60 cross over Yahoola Creek on the Reverend Joseph Grizzle Bridge; the highways head to the north and meet the northern terminus of US 19 Business/SR 52 Business and begin passing through the North Georgia mountains. The concurrency enters the Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest before SR 60 departs from the concurrency to the northwest, it becomes a winding route and enters Union County. It passes Woody Gap and Woody Lake and enters Suches. There, it meets the western terminus of SR 180. Just before leaving the county, SR 60 begins to parallel the Toccoa River. In Fannin County, it continues to parallel the river. South-southeast of Margaret, SR 60 continues its northwesterly routing.

In Morganton, it meets part of the former route of US 76. Northwest of town, it intersects US 76/SR 2/SR 515; the route continues through Mineral Bluff. In town, it meets the southern terminus of SR 60 Spur. A little while it curves to the west and parallels the Toccoa River for a second time, it enters McCaysville. The highway curves to the northwest to meet its northern terminus, an intersection with the northern terminus of SR 5 at the Tennessee state line, on the northern edge of town. Here, the roadway continues as Tennessee State Route 68; the only portion of SR 60, part of the National Highway System, a system of routes determined to be the most important for the nation's economy and defense, is from just south of the interchange with I-985/US 23/SR 365, in Gainesville, to the northern end of the US 19 concurrency, north-northeast of Dahlonega. The roadway that would become SR 60 was established at least as early as 1919 as part of SR 9 from south-southwest of Dahlonega to north-northeast of the city.

By the end of 1926, the portion of SR 9 south-southwest of the city had a "completed semi hard surface". By the middle of 1930, this segment had a "completed hard surface"; that year, SR 86 was established from Blue Ridge northeast to the North Carolina state line west-northwest of Ivy Log. The portion of SR 9 north-northeast of Dahlonega had no surface course. By the end of 1931, US 19 was shifted west onto SR 9. In January 1932, the portion north-northeast of Dahlonega had a completed semi hard surface; the entire length of SR 86 was under construction. The next month, the western terminus of SR 86 was shifted eastward to begin northwest of Morganton. By mid-1933, the portion of SR 86 from northwest of Morganton to Mineral Bluff had a "sand clay or top soil" surface; that year, the entire length of SR 86 had a completed semi hard surface. In 1936, the portion of US 19/SR 9 north-northeast of Dahlonega, the entire length of SR 86, were under construction. At the beginning of 193