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Tora Bora

Tora Bora is a cave complex, part of the Spīn Ghar mountain range of eastern Afghanistan. It is situated in the Pachir Aw Agam District of Nangarhar 50 km west of the Khyber Pass and 10 km north of the border of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in Pakistan. Tora Bora was known to be a stronghold location of the Taliban, used by military forces against the Soviet Union during the 1980s. Tora Bora and the surrounding Spīn Ghar range had natural caverns formed by streams eating into the limestone, expanded into a CIA-financed complex built for the Mujahedeen; the lithological nature of Tora Bora is schist. During the U. S. invasion of Afghanistan the cave complex was one of the strongholds of the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, according to Donald Rumsfeld. It was the location of the December 2001 Battle of Tora Bora, suspected hideout of Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, it was reported that in 2007, U. S. intelligence suspected Osama bin Laden planned to meet with top Al Qaeda and Taliban commanders at Tora Bora prior to the launch of a possible attack on Europe or the United States of America.

Tora Bora was variously described by the western media to be an "impregnable cave fortress" housing 2,000 men complete with a hospital, a hydroelectric power plant, offices, a hotel and ammunition stores, roads large enough to drive a tank into, sophisticated tunnel, ventilation systems. This fortress at Tora Bora had been developed as a CIA-financed complex built for the Mujahideen. Both the British and American press published detailed plans of the base; when shown a plan during an NBC interview, Donald Rumsfeld of the United States Secretary of Defense said "This is serious business, there's not one of those, there are many of those". An elaborate military operation was planned which included deployment of the CIA-US Special Operations Forces team with laser markers to guide non-stop heavy air strikes during 72 hours; when Tora Bora was captured by the U. S. and Afghan troops, no traces of the supposed "fortress" were found despite painstaking searches in the surrounding areas. Tora Bora turned out to be a system of 200 fighters.

While arms and ammunition stores were found, there were no traces of the advanced facilities claimed to exist. In an interview published by PBS, a Staff Sergeant from the U. S. Special Forces Operational Detachment Alpha 572 described the caves: Again, with the caves, they weren't these crazy mazes or labyrinths of caves that they described. Most of them were natural caves; some were supported with some pieces of wood maybe about the size of a 10-foot by 24-foot room, at the largest. They weren't real big. I know they made a spectacle out of that, how are we going to be able to get into them? We worried about that too, it turns out, when you go up there, there's just small bunkers, a lot of different ammo storage is up there. – Jeff, Staff Sgt. ODA 572 The complex was retaken by the Taliban, served as an important base for the Taliban insurgency. In 2017, Tora Bora was attacked and captured by the Islamic State of Iraq and the LevantKhorasan Province, though the Afghan National Army soon recaptured it.

Qanat Zhawar Photo Gallery – The Telegraph Article on photographs – The New York Post

1970–71 Liverpool F.C. season

The rebuilding of Liverpool F. C. continued into 1970-71 as many of the side who came in the previous season began to make their presence felt with the club. Although they had finished fifth in the football league Ray Clemence, Larry Lloyd, Alec Lindsay all beginning to emerge in their second season of first-team action. Two players would figure well into the seventies. John Toshack was bought from Cardiff City in November 1970 for £110,000, became an instant hero by scoring in the Merseyside derby versus Everton F. C. a few weeks later. The rebuilding of the side from the 1960s was beginning to take shape and although they finished fifth in the First Division it seemed that Bill Shankly would be emerging with a team that would be challenging for major trophies in the next few years. One signing which took place a few days before they finished runners-up in the FA Cup Final was the signing of Kevin Keegan from Scunthorpe United for £35,000. However, the team showed that the future would look promising by losing in the FA Cup Final to Arsenal and losing on aggregate one-nil in the Semi-Finals to Leeds United who end up being the eventual and last winners of the Fairs Cup.

Ray Clemence Tommy Lawrence Chris Fagan Ron Yeats Roy Evans Chris Lawler Alec Lindsay Larry Lloyd Ian Ross John McLaughlin Tommy Smith Steve Arnold Ian Callaghan Brian Hall Steve Heighway Emlyn Hughes Doug Livermore Ian St. John Peter Thompson Phil Boersma Alun Evans Bobby Graham John Toshack Jack Whitham Final LFC History.net – 1970–71 season Liverweb - 1970-71 Season

Flood control in the Netherlands

Flood control is an important issue for the Netherlands, as due to its low elevation two thirds of its area is vulnerable to flooding, while the country is densely populated. Natural sand dunes and constructed dikes and floodgates provide defense against storm surges from the sea. River dikes prevent flooding from water flowing into the country by the major rivers Rhine and Meuse, while a complicated system of drainage ditches and pumping stations keep the low-lying parts dry for habitation and agriculture. Water control boards are the independent local government bodies responsible for maintaining this system. In modern times, flood disasters coupled with technological developments have led to large construction works to reduce the influence of the sea and prevent future floods; these have proved essential over the course of Dutch history, both geographically and militarily, has impacted the lives of many living in the cities affected, stimulating their economies through constant infrastructural improvement.

The Greek geographer Pytheas noted of the Low Countries, as he passed them on his way to Heligoland around c. 325 BCE, that "more people died in the struggle against water than in the struggle against men". First-century Roman author Pliny wrote something similar in his Natural History: There, twice in every twenty-four hours, the ocean's vast tide sweeps in a flood over a large stretch of land and hides Nature's everlasting controversy about whether this region belongs to the land or to the sea. There these wretched peoples occupy high ground, or manmade platforms constructed above the level of the highest tide they experience. Around their huts they catch fish, it does not fall to their lot to keep herds and live on milk, like neighboring tribes, nor to fight with wild animals, since all undergrowth has been pushed far back. The flood-threatened area of the Netherlands is an alluvial plain, built up from sediment left by thousands of years of flooding by rivers and the sea. About 2,000 years ago most of the Netherlands was covered by extensive peat swamps.

The coast consisted of a row of coastal dunes and natural embankments which kept the swamps from draining but from being washed away by the sea. The only areas suitable for habitation were on the higher grounds in the east and south and on the dunes and natural embankments along the coast and the rivers. In several places the sea had broken through these natural defenses and created extensive floodplains in the north; the first permanent inhabitants of this area were attracted by the sea-deposited clay soil, much more fertile than the peat and sandy soil further inland. To protect themselves against floods they built their homes on artificial dwelling hills called terpen or wierden. Between 500 BC and AD 700 there were several periods of habitation and abandonment as the sea level periodically rose and fell; the first dikes were low embankments of only a meter or so in height surrounding fields to protect the crops against occasional flooding. Around the 9th century the sea was on the advance again and many terps had to be raised to keep them safe.

Many single terps had by this time grown together as villages. These were now connected by the first dikes. After about AD 1000 the population grew, which meant there was a greater demand for arable land but that there was a greater workforce available and dike construction was taken up more seriously; the major contributors in dike building were the monasteries. As the largest landowners they had the organization and manpower to undertake the large construction. By 1250 most dikes had been connected into a continuous sea defense; the next step was to move the dikes ever-more seawards. Every cycle of high and low tide left a small layer of sediment. Over the years these layers had built up to such a height that they were flooded, it was considered safe to build a new dike around this area. The old dike was kept as a secondary defense, called a sleeper dike. A dike couldn't always be moved seawards. In the southwest river delta it was the case that the primary sea dike was undermined by a tidal channel.

A secondary dike was built, called an inlaagdijk. With an inland dike, when the seaward dike collapses the secondary inland dike becomes the primary. Although the redundancy provides security, the land from the first to second dike is lost. Taking land from the cycle of flooding by putting a dike around it prevents it from being raised by silt left behind after a flooding. At the same time the drained soil peat decomposes leading to land subsidence. In this way the difference between the water level on one side and land level on the other side of the dike grew. While floods became more rare, if the dike did overflow or was breached the destruction was much larger; the construction method of dikes has changed over the centuries. Popular in the Middle Ages were wierdijken, earth dikes with a protective layer of seaweed. An earth embankment was cut vertically on the sea-facing side. Seaweed was stacked against this edge, held into place with poles. Compression and rotting processes resulted in a solid residue that proved effective against wave action and they needed little maintenance.

In places where seaweed was unavailable other materials such as reeds or wicker mats were used. Another system used much and for a long time was that of a vertical screen of timbers backe

Occhio, malocchio, prezzemolo e finocchio

Occhio, prezzemolo e finocchio is a 1983 Italian comedy film directed by Sergio Martino. The film consists in two episodes spoofing superstition and magic starring Lino Banfi and Johnny Dorelli. Segment Il pelo della disgraziaLino Banfi: Altomare Secca Milena Vukotic: Giovanna Secca Janet Agren: Helen Mario Scaccia: Corinto Marchialla Dagmar Lassander: Ludovica Marchialla Gegia: Mariella Secca Elisa Kadigia Bove: Jenny Franco Javarone: King of OccultSegment Il magoJohnny Dorelli: Gaspar the Magician Adriana Russo: Iole Paola Borboni: Marquise Del Querceto Mario Brega: Alberigo Renzo Montagnani: Aldovrandi Silvan: Himself Ugo Bologna: Raggiotti Anna Kanakis: Customer List of Italian films of 1983 Occhio, prezzemolo e finocchio on IMDb

2017–18 Robert Morris Colonials men's basketball team

The 2017–18 Robert Morris Colonials men's basketball team represented Robert Morris University during the 2017–18 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Colonials, led by eighth-year head coach Andrew Toole, played their home games at the PPG Paints Arena and four games at the Palumbo Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as members of the Northeast Conference, they finished the season 9 -- 9 in NEC play to finish in a tie for sixth place. As the No. 7 seed in the NEC Tournament, they upset No. 2 seed Mount St. Mary's in the quarterfinals before losing in the semifinals to No. 1 seed Wagner. On January 30, 2017, Robert Morris announced plans to build a new basketball and volleyball facility named the UPMC Events Center on the school's campus; the basketball team's former home, the Charles L. Sewall Center was to be demolished to make room for the new arena; as a result, the Colonials played their home games at the PPG Paints Arena and at the Palumbo Center on the campus of Duquesne University.

The Colonials finished the 2016–17 season 14–19, 9–9 in NEC play to finish in a three-way tie for fifth place. As the No. 7 seed in the NEC Tournament, they defeated LIU Brooklyn in the quarterfinals before losing in the semifinals to Mount St. Mary's. In a poll of league coaches at the NEC media day, the Colonials were picked to finish in seventh place

David Chotjewitz

David Chotjewitz is a German writer and theatre director who lives in Hamburg. In 1967, his family moved to Rome, where Chotjewitz grew up until 1973, he attended the Italian primary school and the German school of Rome. In 1973, he moved with his parents and brother to the small north Hessian village of Kruspis, he left without receiving his diploma. In 1982, he received formal vocational training from the print publisher Weismann in Munich and in spring of 1984, from the Rowohlt publishing house in Reinbek, he was married in 1983 and his daughter, was born the same year. His first literary book publication, the collection, Frühreif - Texte aus der Plastiktüte, appeared in spring of 1984, he wrote his first radio play, Geduld Holfstätter oder Der erste Kuß, in 1987. In 1988, he began to translate a novel by Norma Klein, for the Frankfurt publisher, Alibaba. In the 1990s, Chotjewitz worked with independent theatre companies in Hamburg and as an assistant director at the Deutsches Schauspielhaus in Hamburg, as well as at the Burgtheater in Vienna.

From 1992 to 1994, he studied with the Javanese dance and performance teacher, Suprapto Suryodarmo in Java - see Amerta Movement. In the following years, he co-operated with the Healing Theatre in Cologne and the Julia Pascal Company in London. In 1994, his novel about Albert Einstein, Das Abenteuer des Denkens, was published and received a lot of attention, it has been reprinted several times, last by Carlsen Verlag. His award-winning novel for young people, Daniel Halber Mensch, was published in the United States by an imprint of Simon & Schuster as Daniel Half Human and has been quite successful there. In 1999, Chotjewitz produced his first theatre work, Der einäugige Karpfen, based on a story by Kenzaburō Ōe. In 2000, he founded the theatre project, "Theater: Playstation", which staged musical theatre projects such as BLUT on the DANCEFLOOR and STIRB, POPSTAR, STIRB, in cooperation with Kampnagel Hamburg. In summer of 2007, he started the project, BEHÖRDE für LIEBLINGSLIEDER. Projects planned for 2008 include a new biographical novel about the young Goethe and a project with youths in Colombia.

Chotjewitz has received awards such as the literature prize of the city Hamburg in 1996, a grant from the Stiftung Preußische Seehandlung in 1997 and a grant from the Stuttgarter Schriftstellerhaus in 2006. "Daniel Half Human" received among others, a Mildred L. Batchelder Award, his novel Crazy Diamond, about a teenaged rockstar who dies under unclear circumstances, was published in the United States in April 2008. Frühreif - Texte aus der Plastiktüte, Munich 1984 Der erste Kuß oder Geduld, Hofstätter, radio play, Süddeutscher Rundfunk 1987 Bücher waren ihr Schicksal, radio play, Westdeutscher Rundfunk 1988 Mitten in der Masse, radio play, Norddeutscher Rundfunk 1989 Das große Schweigen, radio play, Norddeutscher Rundfunk 1992 Marie ist tot, das Radio ist aus... radio play, Radio Bremen 1993 Daniel - Der kindliche Held, radio play, Radio Bremen 1994 Das Abenteuer des Denkens, Roman über Albert Einstein, Frankfurt 1994 Tödliche Safari, novel, Frankfurt 1995 Karl Marx - Roman aus dem Leben eines jungen Philosophen, Frankfurt 1996 Daniel Halber Mensch, novel for young people, Hamburg 2000 Javanische Schatten, radio play, NDR 2001 Mr. Pitiful - Das Leben des Otis Redding, radio feature, SDR 2002 Crazy Diamond, Hamburg 2005, New York 2008 Der einäugige Karpfen, based on a story by Kenzaburo Oe, Hamburg 2000 Die Traumwandler, Hamburg 2001 BLUT on the DANCEFLOOR, Hamburg 2002 STIRB, POPSTAR, STIRB, Hamburg 2003 Boys don't Cry, Hamburg 2005 Daniel Halber Mensch, Hamburg 2006 Norma Klein: Familienbande 1988 Norma Klein: Daddy's Darling 1989 Norma Klein: Der Weg zurück 1989 Norma Klein: Madison oder Die Freiheit der Jugen 1990 Norma Klein: Leda oder die Anfänge der Liebe 1991 Edith Konnecky: Allegra Maud Goldmann 1992 Hatty Naylor: Im Pappkarton 1992 Slelagh Stephenson: Fünffaches Schweigen 2003 Doris Orgel: "Daniel Half Human" 2004 English text about Daniel Halber Mensch on the website of New Books in German Review by a young reader about Crazy Diamond in German Review of the Einstein novel in GermanDoris Orgel David Chotjewitz in the German National Library catalogue Official Web site with some English pages Simon and Schuster Carlsen Publisher web site in German Autobiographical text about his childhood in Rome and Hessen in German Carlsen English website