Torii Kiyomitsu was a painter and printmaker of the Torii school of Japanese ukiyo-e art. Dividing his work between actor prints and bijinga, he used the benizuri-e technique prolific at the time, which involved using one or two colors of ink on the woodblocks rather than hand-coloring. Though scholars note his kabuki prints as lacking originality, they see a grace, "dream-like quality" in his prints of young men and women which, at times, rivals that of the work of Suzuki Harunobu, just beginning his career at this time. Kiyomitsu continued to produce the billboards and other kabuki-related materials which were the domain of the Torii school, in those works he was quite traditional and retrospective in his style. However, he was more or less the first Torii artist to experiment outside that field, to emerge into the wider mainstream of ukiyo-e styles, adapting to the use of new techniques and popular subjects. Overall, it is said that the workshop flourished under his direction, but the core "Torii style" was not changed or advanced.
Two of his greatest pupils were Torii Kiyotsune, who faithfully continued the Torii traditions, Torii Kiyonaga, who went on to be a master and innovator in his own right. Frédéric, Louis. "Japan Encyclopedia". Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Hickman, Money. "Enduring Alliance: The Torii Line of Ukiyo-e Artists and Their Work for the Kabuki Theatre". Fenway Court, 1992. Boston: Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Lane, Richard.. Images from the Floating World, The Japanese Print. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192114471.
Kitagawa Utamaro was a Japanese artist. He is one of the most regarded designers of ukiyo-e woodblock prints and paintings, is best known for his bijin ōkubi-e "large-headed pictures of beautiful women" of the 1790s, he produced nature studies illustrated books of insects. Little is known of Utamaro's life, his work began to appear in the 1770s, he rose to prominence in the early 1790s with his portraits of beauties with exaggerated, elongated features. He produced over 2000 known prints and was one of the few ukiyo-e artists to achieve fame throughout Japan in his lifetime. In 1804 he was arrested and manacled for fifty days for making illegal prints depicting the 16th-century military ruler Toyotomi Hideyoshi, died two years later. Utamaro's work reached Europe in the mid-nineteenth century, where it was popular, enjoying particular acclaim in France, he influenced the European Impressionists with his use of partial views and his emphasis on light and shade, which they imitated. The reference to the "Japanese influence" among these artists refers to the work of Utamaro.
Ukiyo-e art flourished in Japan during the Edo period from the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries. The artform took as its primary subjects courtesans, kabuki actors, others associated with the ukiyo "floating world" lifestyle of the pleasure districts. Alongside paintings, mass-produced woodblock prints were a major form of the genre. Ukiyo-e art was aimed at the common townspeople at the bottom of the social scale of the administrative capital of Edo, its audience, themes and mass-produced nature kept it from consideration as serious art. In the mid-eighteenth century, full-colour nishiki-e prints became common, they were printed by using a large number of one for each colour. Towards the close of the eighteenth century there was a peak in both quality and quantity of the work. Kiyonaga was the pre-eminent portraitist of beauties during the 1780s, the tall, graceful beauties in his work had a great influence on Utamaro, to succeed him in fame. Shunshō of the Katsukawa school introduced the ōkubi-e "large-headed picture" in the 1760s.
He and other members of the Katsukawa school, such as Shunkō, popularized the form for yakusha-e actor prints, popularized the dusting of mica in the backgrounds to produce a glittering effect. Little is known of Utamaro's life, he was born Kitagawa Ichitarō in c. 1753. As an adult, he was known by the given names Yūsuke, Yūki. Early accounts have given his birthplace as Kyoto, Yoshiwara in Edo, or Kawagoe in Musashi Province; the names of his parents are not known. Utamaro married, although little is known about his wife and there is no record of their having had children. There are, many prints of tender and intimate domestic scenes featuring the same woman and child over several years of the child's growth among his works. Sometime during his childhood Utamaro came under the tutelage of Sekien, who described his pupil as bright and devoted to art. Sekien, although trained in the upper-class Kanō school of Japanese painting, had become in middle age a practitioner of ukiyo-e and his art was aimed at the townspeople in Edo.
His students included ukiyo-e artists such as Eishōsai Chōki. Utamaro's first published work may be an illustration of eggplants in the haikai poetry anthology Chiyo no Haru published in 1770, his next known works appear in 1775 under the name Kitagawa Toyoaki,—the cover to a kabuki playbook entitled Forty-eight Famous Love Scenes, distributed at the Edo playhouse Nakamura-za. As Toyoaki, Utamaro continued as an illustrator of popular literature for the rest of the decade, produced single-sheet yakusha-e portraits of kabuki actors; the young, ambitious publisher Tsutaya Jūzaburō enlisted Utamaro and in the autumn of 1782 the artist hosted a lavish banquet whose list of guests included artists such as Kiyonaga, Kitao Shigemasa, Katsukawa Shunshō, as well as writers such as Ōta Nanpo and Hōseidō Kisanji. It was at this banquet that it is believed the artist first announced his new art name, Utamaro. Per custom, he distributed a specially made print for the occasion, in which, before a screen bearing the names of his guests, is a self-portrait of Utamaro making a deep bow.
Utamaro's first work for Tsutaya appeared in a publication dated as 1783: The Fantastic Travels of a Playboy in the Land of Giants, a kibyōshi picture book created in collaboration with his friend Shimizu Enjū, a writer. In the book, Tsutaya described the pair as making their debuts. At some point in the mid-1780s 1783, he went to live with Tsutaya Jūzaburō, it is estimated that he lived there for five years. He seems to have become a principal artist for the Tsutaya firm. Evidence of his prints for the next few years is sporadic, as he produced illustrations for books of kyōka, a parody of the classical waka form. None of his work produced during the period 1790–1792 has survived. In about 1791 Utamaro gave up designing prints for books and concentrated on making single portraits of women displayed in half-length, rather than the prints of women in groups favoured by other ukiyo-e artists. In 1793 he achieved recognition as an artist, his semi-exclusive arrangement with the publisher Tsutaya Jūzaburō ended.
Utamaro went on to produce several series of well-known works, all featuring women of the Yoshiwara district. Over the
Art Gallery of South Australia
The Art Gallery of South Australia, located on the cultural boulevard of North Terrace in Adelaide, is one of three significant visual arts museums in the Australian state of South Australia. It has a collection of over 38,000 works of art, making it, after the National Gallery of Victoria, the second largest state art collection in Australia, it was known as the National Gallery of South Australia until 1967 when the current name was adopted. The Art Gallery is located adjacent to the State Library of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the University of Adelaide. AGSA is part of Adelaide's North Terrace cultural precinct and had 712,994 visitors in the year ended 30 June 2011; as well as its permanent collection, AGSA displays a number of visiting exhibitions each year and contributes travelling exhibitions to regional galleries. The gallery was established in 1881 and opened in two rooms of the public library by Prince Albert Victor and Prince George George V of Great Britain.
The present building dates from 1900 and was extended in 1936 and 1962. Subsequent renovations and a significant extension of the building which opened in 1996 added contemporary display space without compromising the interior of the original Victorian building. In 2016, the gallery participated in the large "Biennial 2016" art festival; the AGSA is renowned for its collections of Australian art, notably Indigenous Australian and colonial art, British art, including a large collection of Pre-Raphaelite works, by artists Edward Burne-Jones, William Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Morris & Co. and Japanese art. It has important works of the Heidelberg school including Tom Roberts' A break away!, Charles Conder's A holiday at Mentone, Arthur Streeton's Road to Templestowe. The mid-twentieth century is represented by works by Russell Drysdale, Arthur Boyd, Margaret Preston, Bessie Davidson, Sidney Nolan; the gallery holds works by twentieth century South Australian artists including James Ashton, Hans Heysen and Jeffrey Smart.
European landscape paintings include works by Jacob Isaakszoon van Ruisdael, Salomon van Ruysdael, Joseph Wright of Derby, Camille Pissarro. British portrait painters are well represented in the collection which includes Robert Peake, Anthony van Dyck, Peter Lely and Thomas Gainsborough. Other works include paintings by Francesco Guardi, Pompeo Batoni and Camille Corot. Sculpture includes works by Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth and Jacob Epstein. Selected Australian works Selected international works William Holman Hunt and the Two Marys,.
A commemorative stamp is a postage stamp issued on a significant date such as an anniversary, to honor or commemorate a place, person, or object. The subject of the commemorative stamp is spelled out in print, unlike definitive stamps which depict the subject along with the denomination and country name only. Many postal services issue several commemorative stamps each year, sometimes holding first day of issue ceremonies at locations connected with the subjects. Commemorative stamps can be used alongside ordinary stamps. Unlike definitive stamps that are reprinted and sold over a prolonged period of time for general usage, commemorative stamps are printed in limited quantities and sold for a much shorter period of time until supplies run out. There are several candidates for the title of first commemorative. A 17-cent stamp issued in 1860 by New Brunswick, showing the Prince of Wales in anticipation of his visit is one possibility. Cited as the world’s first commemoratives are the sixteen stamps of the United States Columbian Issue, produced to celebrate the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago honoring the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492.
The United States 15-cent black stamp of 1866 depicts Abraham Lincoln, was the first stamp issued after his assassination in 1865, but it was not declared as a memorial to him. The U. S. issued a 5-cent stamp in 1882 showing the murdered President James A. Garfield. In addition, the United States issued stamped envelopes for the Centennial Exposition in 1876, although technically these are postal stationery and not stamps; the British Jubilee Issue of 1887 may be thought of as commemorative of the 50 years' reign of Queen Victoria, although there are no special inscriptions on the stamps, they were intended as regular stamps. In 1870 Peru issued a 5¢ scarlet Locomotive and Arms stamp and is regarded as the first commemorative postage stamp, issued to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the first railway in South America. Though the United Kingdom set the precedent for postage stamps and their designs, they were the late runners with the issue of their first commemorative stamp, not issuing one until 1924 when it printed and released the British Empire Exhibition issue of 1924.
Other premier commemorative stamps were issued by New South Wales in 1888 to mark its 100th anniversary. Commemoratives followed in 1891 for Hong Romania. In 1892 and 1893 a half-dozen nations of America and Spain issued commemorative stamps for the 400th anniversary of the West's discovery of America by Christopher Columbus; the appearance of commemorative postage stamps caused a backlash among some stamp collectors in the early years of stamp collecting, who balked at the prospect of laying out ever-larger sums to acquire the stamps of the world. This led to the formation of the Society for the Suppression of Speculative Stamps in 1895 to blacklist these excessive stamps; the organization broke up after unsuccessful attempts at getting collectors at large to comply with their wishes. Today early commemoratives are still prized by collectors. Definitive stamp Airmail stamp Stamp collecting Postage stamp Commemoration of the American Civil War on postage stamps Territories of the United States on stamps
Nishiki-e is a type of Japanese multi-coloured woodblock printing. It was invented in the 1760s, perfected and popularized by the printmaker Suzuki Harunobu, who produced many nishiki-e prints between 1765 and his death five years later. Most prints had been in black-and-white, coloured by hand, or coloured with the addition of one or two colour ink blocks. A nishiki-e print is created by carving a separate woodblock for every colour, using them in a stepwise fashion. An engraver by the name of Kinroku is credited with the technical innovations that allowed so many blocks of separate colours to fit together on the page, in order to create a single complete image; this style and technique is known as Edo-e, referring to Edo, the name for Tokyo before it became the capital. In the Meiji period, various nishiki-e illustrated new fashions, imported goods, the railroad, other new topics. "Newspaper nishiki-e" were popular among the public during this period. Print designers created nishiki-e on topics picked up from the newspapers such as Tōkyō Nichinichi Shinbun or Yūbin Hōchi Shinbun.
Woodblock prints soared in popularity during the first Sino-Japanese War, with 3,000 prints produced during this 9-month period. These prints glorified the Japanese army while denigrating the Chinese, and the bright colours in the prints, exciting scenes, inexpensive nature made them a good alternative to the black and white photographs of the time. Forbes, Andrew. Suzuki Harunobu: 100 Beauties. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B00AC2NB8Y Munsterberg, Hugo. "The Arts of Japan: An Illustrated History." Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company. Paine, Robert Treat and Alexander Soper. "The Art and Architecture of Japan." New Haven: Yale University Press. Ukiyo-e Caricatures 1842-1905 Database of the Department of East Asian Studies of the University of Vienna. All pictures of the database are nishiki-e. Nishiki-e collection from Edo-Tokyo Museum
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012