Torquay is a seaside town in Devon, part of the unitary authority area of Torbay. It lies 18 miles south of the county town of Exeter and 28 miles east-north-east of Plymouth, on the north of Tor Bay, adjoining the neighbouring town of Paignton on the west of the bay and across from the fishing port of Brixham; the town's economy, like Brixham's, was based upon fishing and agriculture, but in the early 19th century it began to develop into a fashionable seaside resort frequented by members of the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars while the Royal Navy anchored in the bay. As the town's fame spread, it was popular with Victorian society. Renowned for its mild climate, the town earned the nickname the English Riviera; the writer Agatha Christie was born in the town and lived at Ashfield in Torquay during her early years. There is a tour with plaques dedicated to her life and work. Torquay's name originates in its being the quay of the ancient village of Torre. In turn, Torre takes its name from the tor, the extensively quarried remains of which can be seen by the town's Lymington Road thus giving this the original name of Torrequay Torkay and Tor Quay before joining the words together to Torquay.
The area comprising modern Torquay has been inhabited since Paleolithic times. Hand axes found in Kents Cavern have been dated as 40,000 years old, a maxilla fragment, known as Kents Cavern 4, may be the oldest example of a modern human in Europe, dating back to 37,000–40,000 years ago. Roman soldiers are known to have visited Torquay during the period when Britain was a part of the Roman Empire, leaving offerings at a curious rock formation in Kents Cavern, known as "The Face". No evidence has been found of Roman settlement in the town; the first major building in Torquay was Torre Abbey, a Premonstratensian monastery founded in 1196. Torquay remained a minor settlement until the Napoleonic wars, when Torbay was used as a sheltered anchorage by the Channel Fleet, relatives of officers visited Torquay; the mild climate attracted many visitors who considered the town a convalescence retreat where they could recover from illness away from the cold and cloudy winters of more northerly or easterly locations.
The population of Torquay grew from 838 in 1801, to 11,474 in 1851. The second phase in the expansion of Torquay began when Torre railway station was opened on 18 December 1848; the improved transport connections resulted in rapid growth at the expense of nearby towns not on Isambard Kingdom Brunel's railways. The more central Torquay railway station was opened on 2 August 1859 with views of the sea from the platforms. After the growth of the preceding decades, Torquay was granted borough status in 1872. Regarded as a convalescence retreat, Torquay began to encourage summer visitors, 1902, saw the first advertising campaign to market Torquay to summer tourists. Torquay Tramways operated electric street trams from 1907, they were powered by the unusual Dolter stud-contact electrification so as not to disfigure the town with overhead wires, but in 1911, was converted to more conventional overhead-line supply. The line was extended into Paignton in 1911 but the network was closed in 1934; the Royal National Lifeboat Institution's Torquay Lifeboat Station was at the Ladies Bathing Cove from 1876 until 1923.
A second lifeboat was kept at the harbour from 1917 until 1928. Torquay was regarded as a "Spa Town". Called the "Bath Saloons complex", it had an open air tide-filled swimming bath; the complex was opened in 1853. Charles Dickens was said to have made readings there. In the 1900s, a ballroom and a new sea water-filled swimming pool were built; the Marine Spa provided various therapies such as seaweed baths, douche showers and cold water baths and electric shock treatment. Bands such as Ivy Benson and Ted Heath played at Marine Spa ballroom. Four stone arches that were part of the Marine Spa are still visible on the outside of the harbour wall. During World War I, military hospitals were sited in Torquay – many survivors from the Battle of Gallipoli recuperated in the town – and it was used as a troop staging area. In September 1915, King George V and Queen Mary visited. After the war, the Great Western Railway launched an advertising campaign to attract tourists, this helped the town grow to a major south coast resort.
During World War II Torquay was regarded as safer than the towns of South East England, played host to evacuees from the London area, the town did, suffer minor bomb damage during the war from planes dumping excess loads after participating in the Plymouth Blitz. The last air raid on Torquay took place on 29 May 1944, shortly before the D-Day landings in June and, in the months leading up to D-Day, thousands of US Army personnel arrived with the 3204th Quartermaster Service Company billeted in Chelston and Cockington. During Operation Overlord more than 23,000 men of the American 4th Infantry Division departed Torquay for Utah Beach; the water sport events of the 1948 Summer Olympic Games were held in Torquay, the Olympic flame brought from London to Torre Abbey Gardens. Although it did not host any Olympic events for the 2012 Summer Olympics, with the sailing taking place in Weymouth, Torbay looked to host teams as a preparation camp and the flame passed through once more on its route around the UK.
After World War II several private high-rise blocks of flats were constructed above the Rock Walk cliffs and harbour, giving the area a Monte Carlo feel. In 1971, after a tragedy, the Marine Spa was demolished to make way for the ill-fated Coral Is
The Utah State University Honors Program is an academic program within Utah State University. Established in 1964, the Honors Program offers a wide range of courses designed to enhance the learning experience for motivated students in all of the University’s colleges. Honors allows students more personal contact with their professors and greater opportunities for research at the undergraduate level; the Honors Program is the home to major fellowship advising. That is, students who wish to apply for the Barry M. Goldwater, Harry S Truman, Gates Cambridge, or Rhodes Scholarships do so through the Honors office. In 1962, a committee established to determine the feasibility of an honors program at Utah State University determined that “justice requires of the university not that it treat all of its students identically, but that it provide an equal opportunity for each student to live a enriched and a useful life; this led to the establishment of the program in 1964. The Honors Program was given a home in the Merrill Library in 1969, having spent the previous five years in the Biology and Natural Resources Building.
The next 30 years would see remarkable growth. Undergraduate Research and Creative Opportunity grants were established in 1975, helping students finance their research, making USU home of the 2nd oldest undergraduate research program in the nation, behind only MIT. Student Showcase, an annual symposium for students’ research projects, was begun in 1986. Departmental Honors, which allows upper-division classes to be taken for honors credit, was initiated in 1987. In 2005, Honors made its most recent move by taking up physical residence in historic Old Main. Utah State University offers two types of Honors courses: departmental. University Honors courses are general education courses taught by Honors faculty with fewer students admitted; this theoretically allows for greater classroom participation and more one-on-one contact with professors. Besides these HONR-designated courses, several lower-division English, math and language courses are given the Honors designation. Departmental Honors differs from Honors in University Studies in that specific courses are not designated.
To receive Departmental Honors, the student approaches the professor of an upper-division course and sets up an Honors contract. This contract is a project the student completes in addition to regular coursework and takes up to 30 hours of work outside the classroom. A contract is a research opportunity allowing the student to gain greater understanding of the subject material. Honors contracts become resume-enhancers and points of pride among Honors students. To graduate with full Honors, a student must complete at least 12 credits of Honors in University Studies and 15 credits of Departmental Honors A student may graduate with Departmental Honors only by completing the 15 credits. For those students who have multidisciplinary majors, there is an option for University Honors, in which the 15 credits of contracts are replaced with 15 credits of upper-division Honors work chosen by the student and approved by the program director. All theses are published as scholarly works by the university.
The most immediate benefits of being part of the Honors Program are academic. In addition to the distinction of graduating with honors, during their studies, Honors students enjoy smaller class sizes, priority registration for classes, more professor interaction, greater opportunities to pursue research. There are financial rewards to being in Honors. Honors students are eligible for several scholarships not available to the campus at-large, including the Douglas D. Alder Scholarship, the Morse Scholarship, the Lawrence O. and Helen B. Cannon Awards. Honors students are encouraged to use the Honors Research Fund, which provides students up to $400 to help offset costs of presenting papers and posters at conferences, may be used to fund research projects. Honors students may apply to the Honors Study Abroad Scholarship or to the Research Fund to help support study or volunteering abroad. Honors sponsors applications for major fellowships, including but not limited to, the Goldwater Scholarship for students in the STEM disciplines.
As fellowship advising fell under the direction of the Honors Program, the numbers of applicants to major fellowships increased dramatically. Since 2003, USU students have received 4 Honorable Mentions. Students who apply for nationally prestigious fellowships are provided with intensive one-on-one advising, if they are selected for an interview, mock interviews with a faculty panel. Students considering an application may elect to take the Applying to Graduate School and Fellowships course, which includes mock interviews and a “mocktail” party reminiscent of the Rhodes cocktail party. One of the great myths about Honors is that honors courses require more time and effort than non-honors courses; because of the smaller class sizes and emphasis on student discussion, the opposite is the case: Honors classes have less homework than their regular university counterparts. Additionally, Honors advertises that the more intimate settings of their cou
Dominic D. P. Johnson is an Alistair Buchan Professor of International Relations at St Antony's College, Oxford, he received a D. Phil. In biology from the University of Oxford in 2001 and a PhD in political science from the University of Geneva in 2004. Drawing on both disciplines, he researches and writes on the role of human biology and evolution in understanding the behaviour of individuals, groups and states. Johnson held several post-doctoral fellowships in the United States prior to being hired at Edinburgh, he was a National Security Fellow at the Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University 2002–2003, a Science Fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University 2003–2004, a visiting Fellow in the Global Fellows Program of the International Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles 2004–2006, a Fellow in the Society of Fellows at Princeton University, 2004–2007, where he was a lecturer at Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.
He was a Society in Science Branco Weiss Fellow from 2004–2009. In addition to over forty articles published in academic journals and edited books, he is the author of three books. "Overconfidence and War: The Havoc and Glory of Positive Illusions", argues that the widespread human tendency to maintain overly positive images of ourselves, of our control over events, of the future, play a key role in the causes of war. "Failing to Win: Perceptions of Victory and Defeat in International Politics", with Dominic Tierney, explores how common psychological biases generate powerful misconceptions about the success and failure of political events, altering the lessons that people learn from history. "Failing to Win" won the 2006 Best Book Award from the International Studies Association. 2001: 2nd prize in business plan competition, National Environment Research Council 2004: Best PhD from Geneva University during 2002–04, Swiss Political Science Association 2005: Overconfidence and War named an Honor Book, New Jersey Council for the Humanities 2008: Failing to Win named Best Book in International Studies, International Studies Association 2011: Chancellor's "Rising Star" Award, University of Edinburgh Overconfidence and War: The Havoc and Glory of Positive Illusion.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 2004. ISBN 978-0-6740-1576-0. Failing to Win. Perceptions of Victory and Defeat in International Politics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 2006. ISBN 978-0-6740-2324-6. With Dominic Tierney. God Is Watching You. How the Fear of God Makes Us Human. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2016. ISBN 978-0-1998-9563-2. Johnson, Dominic DP, James H. Fowler. "The evolution of overconfidence." Nature 477.7364: 317–320. King, AJ, Johnson, DDP & Van Vugt, M The origins and evolution of leadership. Current Biology 19: 1591–1682. Johnson, DDP, & Levin, SA The tragedy of cognition: psychological biases and environmental inaction. Current Science 97: 1593–1603. McDermott, R, Tingley, D, Cowden, J, Frazzetto, G. & Johnson, DDP Monoamine oxidase A gene predicts behavioral aggression following provocation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences doi:10.1073/pnas.0808376106. Johnson, DDP, McDermott, R, Barrett, ES, Cowden, J, Wrangham, R, McIntyre, MH & Rosen, SP Overconfidence in wargames: experimental evidence on expectations, aggression and testosterone.
Proceedings of the Royal Society 273: 2513–2520. Johnson, DDP & Bering, JM Hand of God, mind of man: punishment and cognition in the evolution of cooperation. Evolutionary Psychology 4: 219–233. Johnson, DDP God's punishment and public goods: A test of the supernatural punishment hypothesis in 186 world cultures. Human Nature 16: 410–446. Official website Project on the Evolution of Religions