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TorqueFlite

TorqueFlite is the trademarked name of Chrysler Corporation's automatic transmissions, starting with the three-speed unit introduced late in the 1956 model year as a successor to Chrysler's two-speed PowerFlite. In the 1990s, the TorqueFlite name was dropped in favor of alphanumeric designations, although the latest ZF-based transmissions with the eight-speed automatic has revived the name. Torqueflites use torque converters and Simpson gearsets, two identical planetary gearsets sharing a common sun gear. Chrysler Corporation licensed this gearset from Simpson in 1955; the first Torqueflites provided three speeds forward plus reverse. Gear ratios were 2.45:1 in first, 1.45 in second, 1.00 in third. The transmission was controlled by a series of pushbuttons located on the vehicle's dashboard; the buttons were at the extreme driver's side end of the dash, i.e. the left in left-hand drive vehicles, the right in right-hand drive ones. However, this was not always the case. S. 1962 Plymouth Valiant instrument cluster assembly, into the left end of which were integrated the transmission pushbuttons.

Button arrangement varied by vehicle year. A parking lock was not provided until the advent of the aluminum-case Torqueflites in 1960 and 1962, at which point a lever was added adjacent to the pushbuttons: Moving the lever to the "park" position placed the car into neutral and engaged a lock pawl on the transmission's output shaft. Moving the park lever out of "park" position unlocked the shift buttons so that a driving range could be selected; the buttons were replaced by conventional steering column- or floor-mounted shift levers in all automatic Chrysler-built vehicles for the 1965 model year, though floor levers were available in certain sporty 1964 models. Like a vehicle with a General Motors Hydramatic, a vehicle with a Torqueflite transmission starts out in first gear when the drive or second position is selected; this is in contrast to vehicles with several automatics from Ford and Borg-Warner, which start out in second rather than first if the second position is selected. With 1962 came the addition of a canister-style fluid filter installed in the cooler line.

For 1964, the canister filter was eliminated, the transmission's internal intake screen was replaced by an efficient Dacron filter. Fluid life starting in 1964 was extended from 12,000 mi to 50,000 mi, providing justification for the deletion of the drain plug from the oil pan. For 1966, the twin-cable shift and park control mechanism was replaced by a solid shift control linkage consisting of a series of pushrods, rotating rods and levers; the rear pump was eliminated, which simplified and cost-reduced the transmission but rendered push-starting impossible. The gated shift quadrants permitted the deletion of the reverse safety blocker valve which, in TorqueFlites made through 1965, had shifted the transmission harmlessly into neutral if the reverse position were selected with the vehicle moving forward above 3 mph. With the elimination of the rear pump the oil filter was designed with a single oil port. In 1968, part-throttle downshift functionality was added to A-904 transmissions used with six-cylinder engines.

This feature permitted the transmission to shift from third to second gear in response to moderate accelerator pressure. An automatic 3-2 downshift occurred only if the driver pushed the accelerator to the floor; this change was made to maintain acceptable in-town performance with taller final-drive ratios in the rear axle — 2.76:1 rear axle gears were being furnished in applications equipped with 2.93:1 or 3.23:1 gearsets. Part-throttle downshift functionality was extended to V8 A-904s in 1969, to most A-727 transmissions in 1970 to 1971. In 1978, most Torqueflite transmissions gained a lockup torque converter clutch to mechanically connect the converter's impeller and turbine, eliminating slip for better highway fuel economy; this addition required the removal of the torque converter drain plug. For 1980, a wide-ratio gearset was released for the A904, A998 and A999, with 2.74:1 in first, 1.54 in second, 1.00 in third. Torqueflite was an available option or standard equipment, depending on model and year, on all Chrysler products: Plymouth, Dodge, DeSoto and Imperial.

It was used by American Motors beginning in 1972, where it was named Torque-Command, as well as by Jeep, International Harvester, Maserati Quattroporte and Bristol, as well as several brands of light and medium-duty trucks and panel vans. When installed in Dodge trucks and vans, the transmission was marketed as LoadFlite. In the 1990s, the transmissions were renamed, however the original Torqueflite design remained the basis of many Chrysler designed transmissions through 2007. Torqueflite transmissions and transaxles made through 1991 were assigned arbitrary engineering designations consisting of the letter "A" followed by three digits. 1992 and units have four-character designations in which the first through fourth characters indicate the number of forward speeds, torque capacity, drive type or transaxle orientation, control system: The original To

Limousine

A limousine is a large luxury vehicle driven by a chauffeur with a partition between the driver's compartment and the passenger's compartment. A long wheelbase luxury sedan driven by a professional driver is called a stretch limousine. In some countries like the United States, Germany, or Canada, a "limousine service" is a pre-booked hire car with driver, regardless of the type of vehicle, it describes a large vehicle for transporting passengers to and from an airport. In German-speaking countries, a Limousine is a full-size sedan, while a lengthened-wheelbase car is called Stretch-Limousine; the word limousine is derived from the name of the French region Limousin. A particular type of carriage hood or roof physically resembled the raised hood of the cloak worn by the shepherds there. An alternate etymology has the chauffeur wearing a Limousin-style cloak in the open driver's compartment, for protection from the weather; the name was extended to this particular type of car with a permanent top projecting over the chauffeur.

This former type of automobile had an enclosed passenger compartment seating three to five persons, with only a roof projecting forward over the open driver's area in the front. Rich owners of expensive carriages and their passengers were accustomed to their own private compartment leaving their coachman or driver outside in all weathers; when automobiles arrived the same people required a similar arrangement for their chauffeurs. As such, the 1916 definition of limousine by the US Society of Automobile Engineers is "a closed car seating three to five inside, with driver's seat outside". In Great Britain, the limousine de-ville was a version of the limousine town car where the driver's compartment was outside and had no weather protection; the limousine-landaulet variant had a removable or folding roof section over the rear passenger seat.. In the United States, sub-categories of limousines in 1916 were the berline defined as "a limousine having the driver's seat enclosed", the brougham, defined as "a limousine with no roof over the driver's seat."

The limousine body style has a partition separating the driver from the rear passenger compartment. This partition includes a openable glass section so passengers may see the road. Communication with the driver is possible either by opening the window in the partition or by using an intercom system. Limousines are long-wheelbase vehicles, in order to provide extra legroom in the passenger compartment. There will be occasional or jump seat at the front of the compartment. Many nations have official state cars designed to transport government officials; the top leaders have specially equipped limousines. Presidential state car describes the history of United States presidential limousines. Stretch limousines are longer than regular limousines in order to accommodate more passengers. Stretch limousines may have seating along the sides of the cabin. A "stretch limousine" was created in Fort Smith, around 1928 by a coach company named Armbruster. Armbruster's cars were used to transport famous "big band" leaders, such as Glenn Miller and Benny Goodman, their bands and equipment.

These early stretch limousines were called "big band buses". Armbruster called their lengthened cars "extended-wheelbase multi-door auto-coaches", their 12-passenger people movers were used by hotels, airlines and tour companies. A variety of vehicles have been converted into novelty limousines, they are used for weddings and other social occasions. Another style of novelty limousine are those painted in bright colours, such as pink. Vehicles converted into novelty stretch limousines include the East German Trabant, Volkswagen Beetle, Fiat Panda, Citroën 2CV. There are instances of Corvettes and Mini Coopers being stretched to accommodate up to 10 passengers; the last production limousine, by Cadillac, with forward-facing jump seats was in 1987, the last Packard in 1954, the last Lincoln in 1939, though Lincoln has offered limousines through their dealers as special order vehicles at times. Several Lincoln Premier cars were built, one being owned by Elvis Presley. Vehicles of this type in private use may contain expensive audio players, video players, bars with refrigerators.

The President of the United States has ridden in a variety of types of limousine stretching back to 1899. In the United States, the most popular vehicles for stretch limousines conversion are the Lincoln Town Car, Cadillac XTS, Cadillac Escalade, Chrysler 300, Hummer H2, Ford Excursion, the Lincoln Navigator. Due to the partition behind the driver, the London black cabs are a type of limousine; the jump seats referred to as taxi-tip-seats carry advertising on the underside. Examples of limousines produced by vehicle manufacturers include: In the U. S. Canada, Australia, "limousine service" is the process of pre-booked hire of any car with a driver; the car is a luxury car, but not a limousine. Car classification Party bus

Nedelcho Beronov

Nedelcho Krumov Beronov was a Bulgarian jurist, right-wing politician and Constitutional Court chairman, as well as a presidential candidate in the 2006 presidential elections. Born in Nova Zagora, Beronov graduated from the Sofia University Faculty of Law in 1951 and from the University of National and World Economy in 1972, he worked as an arbiter and head arbiter at the Stara Zagora State Court of Arbitration between 1954 and 1991, as well as an arbiter at the Bulgarian Commercial and Industrial Chamber Court of Arbitration between 1977 and 1997. Between 1993 and 1997 Beronov was a reader of Civil and Contractual Law at the Varna University of Economics and Varna Technical University, his work included a number of juridical publications. A Union of Democratic Forces deputy and member of the Commission of Law-related Issues in the 38th National Assembly of Bulgaria in 1997, Beronov became a member of the Constitutional Court in the autumn of the same year and was unanimously elected as its chairman after the death of then-chairman Hristo Danov in October 2003.

His wife Anna is a professor at the Varna Medical University and his son Kamen is a mathematician, doctor of Kyoto University and a lecturer in Germany. In 2006, Beronov was nominated as an independent candidate for President of Bulgaria supported by right-wing parties such as the Union of Democratic Forces, Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria and the Democratic Party, together with vice president candidate Yuliana Nikolova. Beronov failed to reach the runoff. Official website of Beronov's presidential nomination

Algemeen nut beogende instelling

Since 2008 the Dutch Tax Administration can designate an institution to be a "Public Benefit Organisation". At least 90% of the efforts of an ANBI has to be focused on the general good, and since 2012 the'culturele ANBI' can profit from more Dutch tax advantages. The ANBI does not have to be a Dutch legal personality, but the ANBI is a Dutch foundation, though not every foundation qualifies. It can be a Dutch vereniging, it cannot be an organisation, for the benefit of its members or shareholders only: a sport club, association of personnel, or a commercial institution. The ANBI does not have to have registered offices in the Netherlands nor in the EU; the most important conditions are: The ANBI can not be a company with capital divided into shares, a cooperative, a mutual insurance society or another body that may issue participation certificates. At least 90% of the ANBIs efforts must be focused on the general good; the ANBI and the persons directly involved in the ANBI must comply with the integrity requirements.

An ANBI director or person determining the policy may not treat the ANBI's assets as personal assets. The assets must be segregated. An ANBI may not retain more assets than reasonably required for the institutions work. For this reason the ANBI's assets must remain limited; the ANBI directors’ remuneration must be restricted to an expense allowance or a minimum attendance fee. An ANBI must possess an up-to-date policy plan; the ANBI's costs must be in reasonable proportion to its expenditure. The ANBI funds remaining after dissolution must be allocated to a general good objective identical to the ANBI's objective. An ANBI is governed by specific administrative obligation. More conditions apply to ANBIs as of January 1, 2014; the Dutch Tax Administration can revoke an ANBI designation anytime. Special regulations apply in that case; the database of registered ANBIs is searchable. Institutions without an office inside the Netherlands can start the application for designation as ANBI or Culturele ANBI by submitting a written request for an application form to the Belastingdienst/Oost-Brabant in Eindhoven.

Institutions that have an office inside the Netherlands can download an application form. If in a calendar year the sum of someone's gifts to ANBIs exceeds 1% of the Dutch threshold income, the excess, with a maximum of 10% of that income, is deductible income; the ANBI itself is exempted from inheritance tax and gift tax on inheritances and gifts it receives, except on those made under a condition such that it is not for public benefit. ANBI examples: Stichting Max Havelaar Wiardi Beckman Stichting'Culturele ANBI' examples: Stichting Museumjaarkaart - purpose: promote visiting Dutch museums VandenEnde Foundation - purpose: promote cultureNon-Dutch ANBI examples: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in GenevaNon-Dutch'culturele ANBI' examples: Museum of Modern Art in New YorkRevoked designation example: Stichting INGKA FoundationNon-ANBI examples: Stichting Pensioenfonds Zorg en Welzijn - pension fund for the healthcare and social work sectors Nederlandse Omroep Stichting - purpose: make news and sports programmes for the three Dutch public television channels and the Dutch public radio services Charitable organization Belastingdienst.nl Dutch Government website: The registered ANBI's Belastingdienst.nl Dutch Government website: Public Benefit Organisation

Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of 2018, Philadelphia County was home to an estimated population of 1,584,138 residents; the county is the second smallest county in Pennsylvania by land area. Philadelphia County is one of the three original counties, along with Chester and Bucks counties, created by William Penn during November 1682. Since 1854, the county has been coextensive with the City of Philadelphia, which serves as its seat of government. Philadelphia County is part of the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. Philadelphia County is the economic and cultural anchor of the Delaware Valley, the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States, with a population of 7.2 million. Native American tribes of Lenape were the first known occupants in the area that became Philadelphia County; the first European settlers were Swedes and Finns who arrived during 1638.

The Netherlands seized the area during 1655, but lost control to England during 1674. William Penn received his charter for Pennsylvania from Charles II of England during 1681, November 1682 he divided Pennsylvania into three counties. During the same year, Philadelphia was planned and was made the county seat and the capital of the Province of Pennsylvania. Penn wanted Philadelphia, meaning "love brotherly", to be a place where religious tolerance and the freedom to worship were ensured. Philadelphia's name is shared with an ancient city in Asia Minor mentioned by the Bible's Book of Revelation, it was William Penn's desire, as a Quaker, that his "Holy Experiment" would be found blameless at the Last Judgment. When established, Philadelphia County consisted of the area from the Delaware River west between the Schuylkill River to the south and the border with Bucks County to the north. Two counties would be formed out of Philadelphia County, Berks County, formed during 1752, Montgomery County established during 1784.

From these separations, as well as other border changes, was created the present-day boundaries of the county. The City of Philadelphia, as planned by Penn, comprised only that portion of the present day city situated between South and Vine Streets and the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. Other settlements were made beyond the boundaries of the city, in the course of time they became incorporated separately and had separate governments. Several of these settlements were situated contiguous to the "city proper" of Philadelphia, such as Southwark and Moyamensing in the south, the Northern Liberties District, Spring Garden and Penn District to the north, West Philadelphia and Blockley to the west — which combined with the City of Philadelphia formed one continuously urban area, the whole group being known abroad as Philadelphia. Besides these, there were a number of other outlying townships and settlements throughout the county. Over time, as the population expanded out from the City of Philadelphia, those closer to the City of Philadelphia became absorbed into Philadelphia.

During this period, the city government of Philadelphia and the county government of Philadelphia acted separately. By the mid-19th century, a more structured government bureaucracy was needed. A reform charter, on February 2, 1854, defined all the boroughs and districts of the County of Philadelphia as being within the City of Philadelphia, thus abolishing the patchwork of cities and townships that had comprised Philadelphia County since its founding; the city-county consolidation was a result of the inability of a colonial-type government by committees to adapt to the needs of a growing city for new public services, for example, better streets, transportation and schools. The newly integrated districts had marked characteristics between them, but over time, after the consolidation, these characteristics were integrated into the City of Philadelphia. Presently, the names of some of these old districts survive as the names of neighborhoods in the city, with their boundaries matching their historic boundaries.

During 1951, a new law known as the Home Rule Charter merged county offices completely. This new charter provided the city with a common structure and outlined the "strong mayor" form of government, still used; the county offices were merged with the city government during 1952 eliminating the county as a government. Though the county no longer has a government structure by law, in both the Unconsolidated Pennsylvania Statutes and The Philadelphia Code and Charter, the County of Philadelphia is still an entity within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, it is thus subject to the laws of the Commonwealth concerning counties. Exceptions include restrictions stated in the Home Rule Charter of Philadelphia, Act of Consolidation, 1854, subsequent legislation; the county is the only First Class County, meaning it had a population of 1.5 million or more at the last census, in the Commonwealth. Philadelphia has become racially and ethnically diverse over the years, this process continues. Since 1990, thousands of immigrants from Latin America and Europe have arrived in the county.

Presently, the city has some of the largest Irish, German, Puerto Rican, Vietnamese, Ukrainian, Chinese, Arab and Cambodian populations in America. The county has the fourth largest concentration of African Americans in North America, including large nu

Steinfurter Bagno

The Steinfurter Bagno is a park near the town of Burgsteinfurt in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It was founded in 1765 by Count Charles Paul Ernest of Bentheim-Steinfurt with the intention to create a summer residence for his family; the initial design followed the tradition of the French garden which imposes strict order and symmetry on the layout. Following the succession of Count Louis in 1780, the park saw the addition of various buildings and structures, among them the so-called Greece and Egypt, the imitation of Oriental and Far-Eastern styles; the oldest surviving layout dates back to 1787 which features 105 buildings, bridges, islands and paths cramped onto an area of just 125 ha. In years, criticism on the excessive density of objects and architectural styles and the rise of the English garden brought about substantial change to the Bagno. Buildings and other objects were removed, new ones constructed; the Bagno developed into the most prominent park of Westphalia boasting extraordinary fountains, a known chapel, a lake navigated by a fleet of small yet pompous ships.

In a rather modern move, the Count opened the park to the general public. The park experienced a sudden change in 1806. Count Louis traveled to Paris to talk to the French emperor in person and reclaim his position, but to no avail, his son Alexius maintained the park on scant means, saw himself forced to demolish a number of buildings for want of money for their maintenance. By 1828 only 16 of the 39 buildings counted in 1806 remained. State contributions of 4.1 million Euros helped reshape the Bagno in 2004. In 2006 the park became a member of the European Garden Heritage Network. Döhmann, Karl Georg. Harry Günther, Leipzig 1993 ders.. Potsdam 1993 Lübbers, Wolfgang. 67, Münster 1989 Description on the European Garden Heritage Network website Description by the local tourist information Website of the concert hall