3 is a global brand name under which several UMTS-based mobile phone networks and Broadband Internet Providers operate in Hong Kong, Austria, Indonesia, Italy and the United Kingdom. The brand was founded in 2002 in Hong Kong; as of 2018, registered Three customers worldwide numbered over 130 million. All 3-branded network companies are wholly owned subsidiaries of CK Hutchison but the ownership structure varies. CK Hutchison Holdings owns direct majority interests of six networks through 3 Group Europe, including Austria, Italy, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Hutchison Telecommunications Hong Kong Holdings operates the networks in Hong Kong and Macau, while Hutchison Asia Telecom Group operates the network in Indonesia. All 3-branded networks provide 3G service. Hutchison Whampoa no longer holds a 3G licence in Israel, operated under the brand Orange, in Norway where an unused licence was held by 3 Scandinavia. During the launch of the brand in 2002, when Hutchison Whampoa sold its 2G business Orange, the brand name Three represented their new 3G services.
In 2003, CK Hutchison stated that the name refers to their three global telecommunication services: 3G, GSM Dualband and CDMA. The logo, a visual representation of the number "3", was 3D and red in colour. Throughout the years of operation, it has had different versions. In 2009, it was unified into a flat white logo; the company describes the logo's design philosophy as "cool outside and hot inside". 3 Hong Kong is operated by a subsidiary of CK Hutchison. Now providing 4.5G, 4G LTE, 3G, GSM dual-band mobile telecommunications, Wi-Fi services and home entertainment services. In May 2004, its affiliated 2G operator Orange re-branded its services and changed its name to "3 Dualband", referring to the GSM product, "3 CDMA", referring to the CDMA product. On 29 May 2008, Hutchison Telecommunications Limited announced that it has signed an agreement with Apple Inc. to bring the iPhone to Hong Kong that year under 3. In 2012, a partnership with Vodafone was launched and 3 Hong Kong is a member of the Conexus Mobile Alliance.
Ownership: HTIL: 70.9% NTT DoCoMo: 24.1% NEC: 5% 3 Macau is launched in 2000 providing GSM dual-band services. In 2007, they launched 3G services. In 2008, 3 Macau brought the iPhone to Macau an agreement with Apple. Till now, they are providing both 3G and 4G services and is the second largest mobile operator in Macau. 3 Indonesia, operated by PT Hutchison 3 Indonesia, was founded as a company in 2002, received a 3G licence in 2004, began operations on 29 March 2007 in the Jakarta area only. Only after 9 months of operations, 3 acquired about 2.2 million GSM customers. 3 achieved high customer mindshare maintaining at about 90% of awareness level as of April 2009. As of April 2009, 3 Indonesia had about 4.5 million customers on its GSM network. 3 offers both post-paid services. The post-paid service is available in Jakarta and Surabaya area. 3 Indonesia slogan is "Jaringan GSM-mu" "Jaringan Selularmu". Sometimes, 3 use "Mau?" and "Hanya di 3" slogan in their ads. 3 has full GSM coverage in Java, Bali and Riau Islands.
And as of April 2009, Kalimantan is covered in South Kalimantan and Sulawesi is covered in South Sulawesi. The 3 UMTS/HSDPA service is now available in most parts of Java big cities like Jakarta, Bandung.3 Indonesia launched its new unlimited text and MMS service for a fee with Facebook on 8 April 2009, so registered 3 customers can update status, write on wall, or upload new pictures without any more charges. Beside with Facebook, 3 cooperated with Yahoo! to give unlimited chat for a fee by SMS and downloadable app using Yahoo! Messenger service. Both of these are the first of their kind in Indonesia, it is announced that Charoen Pokphand divested its telecommunication business in Indonesia by sale of its share on 3 to Garibaldi Thohir and Northstar Group. The company name is now PT. Hutchison 3 Indonesia. Ownership: Hutchison Asia Telecom Group: 65% Gabrialdi Thohir: 35% 3 Austria started operations in May 2003; the company promised to have 95% population coverage with HSDPA end of 2007. By 2008, 3's 3G coverage reached 94% of the population.
Outside the coverage of its own 3G-network it relies on national roaming on the network of T-Mobile Austria. 3 Austria is the first in Austria to offer its customers so called "HD Mobile TV" based on the H.264 encoding standard, won IIR telcon awards for their eBay and X-Series Gold offerings. 3 Austria won a DVB-H license and launched the service in June 2008, with three devices and free usage of Mobile TV. In September 2010 – The number of 1 million customers were exceeded. In November 2011 – 3 Austria launched HD Voice and LTE In January 2012, 3 Austria announced its national roaming agreement with T-Mobile, which will introduce from July 2012. Customers of 3 Austria will be able to roam on T-Mobile's GSM-network where 3's GSM-network is not available. Simultaneous clients of T-Mobile will be able to roam on 3's UMTS-network where T-Mobile's UMTS-network is not available; the roaming agreement with A1 will be continued parallel until year-end. On 3 February
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Vodafone Group plc is a British multinational telecommunications conglomerate, with headquarters in London and Newbury, Berkshire. It predominantly operates services in the regions of Asia, Africa and Oceania. Among mobile operator groups globally, Vodafone ranked 4th in the number of mobile customers as of 2018. Vodafone owns and operates networks in 25 countries, has partner networks in 47 further countries, its Vodafone Global Enterprise division provides telecommunications and IT services to corporate clients in 150 countries. Vodafone has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalisation of £52.5 billion as of 10 February 2016, the eighth-largest of any company listed on the London Stock Exchange. The company has a secondary listing on NASDAQ; the name Vodafone comes from voice data fone, chosen by the company to "reflect the provision of voice and data services over mobile phones". The evolution of Vodafone started in 1982 with the establishment of the Racal Strategic Radio Ltd subsidiary of Racal Electronics, the UK's largest maker of military radio technology, which formed a joint venture with Millicom called'Racal', which evolved into the present day Vodafone.
In 1980, Ernest Harrison, the chairman of Racal Electronics, agreed to a deal with Lord Weinstock of the General Electric Company to allow Racal to access some of GEC's tactical battlefield radio technology. The head of Racal's military radio division, Gerry Whent, was briefed by Ernest Harrison to drive the company into commercial mobile radio. Whent visited a mobile radio factory run by General Electric in Virginia, USA the same year to understand the commercial use of military radio technology. Jan Stenbeck, head of a growing Swedish conglomerate, set up an American company, Inc. and approached Racal's Whent in July 1982 about bidding jointly for the UK's second cellular radio licence. The two struck a deal giving Racal 60% of the new company, Racal-Millicom and Millicom 40%. Due to UK concerns about foreign ownership, the terms were revised, in December 1982, the Racal-Millicom partnership was awarded the second UK mobile phone network license. Final ownership of Racal-Millicom, Ltd was 80% Racal, with Millicom holding 15% plus royalties and venture firm Hambros Technology Trust holding 5%.
According to the UK Secretary of State for Industry, "the bid submitted by Racal-Millicom Ltd… provided the best prospect for early national coverage by cellular radio."Vodafone was launched on 1 January 1985 under the new name, Racal-Vodafone Ltd, with its first office based in the Courtyard in Newbury and shortly thereafter Racal Strategic Radio was renamed Racal Telecommunications Group Limited. On 29 December 1986, Racal Electronics issued shares to the minority shareholders of Vodafone worth GB£110 million, Vodafone became a owned brand of Racal. On 26 October 1988, Racal Telecom, majority held by Racal Electronics, went public on the London Stock Exchange with 20% of its stock floated; the successful flotation led to a situation where Racal's stake in Racal Telecom was valued more than the whole of Racal Electronics. Under stock market pressure to realise full value for shareholders, Racal demerged Racal Telecom in 1991. On 16 September 1991, Racal Telecom was demerged from Racal Electronics as Vodafone Group, with Gerry Whent as its CEO.
In July 1996, Vodafone acquired the two-thirds of Talkland it did not own for £30.6 million. On 19 November 1996, in a defensive move, Vodafone purchased Peoples Phone for £77 million, a 181 store chain whose customers were overwhelmingly using Vodafone's network. In a similar move the company acquired the 80% of Astec Communications that it did not own, a service provider with 21 stores. In January 1997, Gerald Whent retired and Christopher Gent took over as the CEO; the same year, Vodafone introduced its Speechmark logo, composed of a quotation mark in a circle, with the O's in the Vodafone logotype representing opening and closing quotation marks and suggesting conversation. On 29 June 1999, Vodafone completed its purchase of AirTouch Communications, Inc. and changed its name to Vodafone Airtouch plc. The merged company commenced trading on 30 June 1999; the acquisition gave Vodafone owner of the largest German mobile network. To gain anti-trust approval for the merger, Vodafone sold its 17.2% stake in Mannesmann's German competitor, E-Plus Mobilfunk.
On 21 September 1999, Vodafone agreed to merge its US wireless assets with those of Bell Atlantic Corp to form Verizon Wireless. The merger was completed on 4 April 2000, just a few months prior to Bell Atlantic's merger with GTE to form Verizon Communications, Inc. In November 1999, Vodafone made an unsolicited bid for Mannesmann, rejected. Vodafone's interest in Mannesmann had been increased by the latter purchase of Orange, the UK mobile operator. Chris Gent would say Mannesmann's move into the UK broke a "gentleman's agreement" not to compete in each other's home territory; the hostile takeover provoked strong protest in Germany, a "titanic struggle" which saw Mannesmann resist Vodafone's efforts. However, on 3 February 2000, the Mannesmann board agreed to an increased offer of £112 billion the largest corporate merger ever; the EU approved the merger in April 2000 when Vodafone agreed to divest the'Orange' brand, acquired in May 2000 by France Télécom. On 28 July 2000, the Company reverted to Vodafone Group plc..
On 17 December 2001, Vodafone introduced the concept of "Partner Networks", by signing TDC Mobil of Denmark. The new concept involved the introduction of Vodafone
Lynchburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 75,568; the 2017 census estimates an increase to 81,000. Located in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains along the banks of the James River, Lynchburg is known as the "City of Seven Hills" or the "Hill City". In the 1860s, Lynchburg was the only major city in Virginia, not recaptured by the Union before the end of the American Civil War. Lynchburg lies at the center of a wider metropolitan area close to the geographic center of Virginia, it is the fifth-largest MSA in Virginia, with a population of 260,320. It is the site of several institutions of higher education, including the University of Lynchburg, Randolph College, Liberty University. Nearby cities include Roanoke and Danville. Monacan people and other Siouan Tutelo-speaking tribes had lived in the area since at least 1270, driving the Virginia Algonquians eastward to the coastal areas. Explorer John Lederer visited one of the Siouan villages in 1670, on the Staunton River at Otter Creek, southwest of the present-day city, as did the Thomas Batts and Robert Fallam expedition in 1671.
Siouan peoples occupied this area until about 1702. The Seneca people, who were part of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy based in New York, defeated them; the Seneca had ranged south while seeking new hunting grounds through the Shenandoah Valley to the West. At the Treaty of Albany in 1718, the Iroquois Five Nations ceded control of their land east of the Blue Ridge Mountains, including Lynchburg, to the Colony of Virginia. First settled by Anglo-Americans in 1757, Lynchburg was named for John Lynch; when about 17 years old, he started a ferry service at a ford across the James River to carry traffic to and from New London, where his parents had settled. The "City of Seven Hills" developed along the hills surrounding Lynch's Ferry. In 1786, Virginia's General Assembly recognized Lynchburg, the settlement by Lynch's Ferry on the James River; the James River Company had been incorporated the previous year in order to "improve" the river down to Richmond, growing and was named as the new Commonwealth's capital.
Shallow-draft James River bateau provided a easy means of transportation through Lynchburg down to Richmond and to the Atlantic Ocean. Rocks, downed trees, flood debris were constant hazards, so their removal became expensive ongoing maintenance. Lynchburg became a tobacco trading commercial, much an industrial center; the state built a canal and towpath along the river to make transportation by the waterway easier, to provide a water route around the falls at Richmond, which prevented through navigation by boat. By 1812, U. S. Chief Justice John Marshall, who lived in Richmond, reported on the navigation difficulties and construction problems on the canal and towpath; the General Assembly recognized the settlement's growth by incorporating Lynchburg as a town in 1805. In between, Lynch built Lynchburg's first bridge across the James River, a toll structure that replaced his ferry in 1812. A toll turnpike to Salem, Virginia was begun in 1817. Lynch died in 1820 and was buried beside his mother in the graveyard of the South River Friends Meetinghouse.
Quakers abandoned the town because of their opposition to slaveholding. Presbyterians adapted it as a church, it is now preserved as a historic site. To avoid the many visitors at Monticello, Thomas Jefferson in 1806 developed a plantation and house near Lynchburg, called Poplar Forest, he visited the town, noting, "Nothing would give me greater pleasure than to be useful to the town of Lynchburg. I consider it as the most interesting spot in the state." In 1810, Jefferson wrote, "Lynchburg is the most rising place in the U. S.... It ranks now next to Richmond in importance...."Early Lynchburg residents were not known for their religious enthusiasm. The established Church of England built a log church in 1765. In 1804, evangelist Lorenzo Dow wrote: "...where I spoke in the open air in what I conceived to be the seat of Satan's Kingdom. Lynchburg was a deadly place for the worship of God'." That referred to the lack of churches, corrected the following year. Itinerant Methodist Francis Asbury visited the town.
Lynchburg hosted the last Virginia Methodist Conference. As Lynchburg grew and other "rowdy" activities became part of the urban mix of the river town, they were ignored, if not accepted in a downtown area referred to as the "Buzzard's Roost." Methodist preacher and bishop John Early became one of Lynchburg's civic leaders. On December 3, 1840, the James River and Kanawha Canal from Richmond reached Lynchburg, it was extended as far as Buchanan, Virginia in 1851, but never reached a tributary of the Ohio River as planned. Lynchburg's population exceeded 6,000 by 1840, a water works system was built. Floods in 1842 and 1847 wreaked havoc with the towpath. Both were repaired. Town businessmen began to lobby for a railroad, but Virginia's General Assembly refused to fund such construction. In 1848 civic boosters began selling subscriptions for the Lynchburg and Tennessee Rail
Telefónica UK Limited is a telecommunications services provider in the United Kingdom, owned by the Spanish multinational Telefónica, is headquartered in Slough. With 25 million subscribers, O2 is the second-largest mobile network operator in the United Kingdom after EE, with Vodafone in third place. O2 was formed in 1985 as a 60:40 joint venture between BT Group and Securicor. In 1999, BT Group acquired Securicor's share of Cellnet and the company was rebranded as BT Cellnet. In June 2000, BT Cellnet launched. BT Cellnet, together with BT Group's mobile telecommunications businesses in Germany and the Netherlands, was part of the BT Wireless division; this was spun off from the BT Group in 2002 to form a new holding company, mmO2 plc, which introduced the new "O2" brand for the businesses. In 2005, mmO2 plc was renamed O2 plc. O2 plc was purchased by the Spanish telecommunications company Telefónica in 2006 for £18 billion. Under the terms of the acquisition, Telefónica agreed to retain the "O2" brand and the company's UK headquarters.
O2 plc became Telefónica Europe. Between 1985 and 1989, John Carrington was the CEO of British Telecom's Mobile Division and the Chairman of Cellnet, it was during this period that Carrington launched Cellnet's first cellular service, following the innovative development work by BT Spectrum, who initiated the chain of cells between London Heathrow and BT Tower in January 1985. Cellnet was established in 1985 as a joint subsidiary of BTCR, British Telecom Cellular Radio, providing the engineering knowledge, TSCR, Telecom Securicor Cellular Radio Limited, providing the financial investment, resulting in a 60:40 joint venture between British Telecommunications and Securicor; the equipment used was a Motorola system designed for the American Advanced Mobile Phone System and had to be adapted for the British system, Total Access Communication. The system was so unready that the initials that Motorola used to designate the network exchanges, EMX, became popularly known as'European Motorola Experiment' and the exchanges had to be programmed in machine code loaded by tape.
In the early days of the system, mobile calls cost £1 per minute. After months of rumours and speculation, Peter Bonfield publicly announced on 27 July 1999 that BT had agreed to buy Securicor's 40 per cent share of Cellnet for £3.15 billion. Cellnet had five million customers at the time of its acquisition; the company was rebranded as BT Cellnet, it became a part of BT Wireless, a group of companies owned by BT. BT announced on 3 September 2001 that the BT Wireless business would be spun off from the main group as a newly listed holding company, mmO2 plc, operating under the "O2" brand. Shareholders approved the plan at an extraordinary general meeting on 23 October 2001. BT Cellnet relaunched as "O2" on 18 June 2002, along with other former BT subsidiaries: Esat Digifone in Ireland, Viag Interkom in Germany and Telfort Mobiel in the Netherlands; the rebranding was supported by a European advertising campaign, which began on 16 April 2002, across all four countries, at a cost of £130 million.
The main launch campaign ran from 18 June and was developed by Vallance Carruthers Coleman Priest, working alongside brand consultancy Lambie-Nairn, creators of the "O2" brand identity. In March 2005, mmO2 restructured the company was relisted as O2 plc.. On 30 November 2005, O2 agreed to a takeover by Telefónica, a Spanish telecommunications company, for £17.7 billion in cash. It went through in 2006. According to the merger announcement, O2 retained its name and continued to be based in the United Kingdom, keeping both the brand and the management team; the merger became unconditional on 23 January 2006. Following the acquisition of O2, Telefónica undertook a corporate organisational change that saw the merging of its fixed and mobile businesses in Spain, the transfer of Telefónica's non-Spanish European telecommunications properties into the O2 brand. Thus, the Český Telecom and Eurotel operations in the Czech Republic as well as the Telefónica Deutschland business in Germany were brought under the control of O2, which retained its UK-registered public company status with its own board of directors and corporate structures and processes.
Telefónica chose to keep its existing mobile phone operations in the rest of the world under the brand Movistar. This name is used in Spain and in most of the Latin American countries, operated by a separate management team. On 15 July 2009, O2 entered the financial services industry with the launch of O2 Money, the first step in the process of incorporating financial services into mobile phones. Future plans included manufacturing Near Field Communication technology in mobile phones in the United Kingdom. O2 and Vodafone signed a deal in June 2012 which will see the two companies'pool' their network technology, creating a single national grid of 18,500 transmitter sites. Both networks will continue to carry their own independent mobile spectrum. In July 2012, O2 had to apologise to 8 million customers after a network switching subsystem failure led to a 24-hour blackout of the service across the UK and Ireland; the problem, which prevented a third of its customers' phones registering on the network affected customers of MVNO networks Tesco Mobile and Giffgaff.
To apologise for this, O2 announced that it would be giving hundreds of thousands of its customers compensation for the issue. Pay monthly customers received a 10 per cent discount on their bill whereas Pay As You Go users received a 10 per cent refund on their first top up in September. On 24 November 2014, it was reported that BT were in talks to buy back O2
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011. Motorola Solutions is considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off. Motorola Mobility was sold to Google in 2012, acquired by Lenovo in 2014. Motorola designed and sold wireless network equipment such as cellular transmission base stations and signal amplifiers. Motorola's home and broadcast network products included set-top boxes, digital video recorders, network equipment used to enable video broadcasting, computer telephony, high-definition television, its business and government customers consisted of wireless voice and broadband systems, public safety communications systems like Astro and Dimetra. These businesses are now part of Motorola Solutions.
Google sold Motorola Home to the Arris Group in December 2012 for US$2.35 billion. Motorola's wireless telephone handset division was a pioneer in cellular telephones. Known as the Personal Communication Sector prior to 2004, it pioneered the "mobile phone" with DynaTAC, "flip phone" with the MicroTAC, as well as the "clam phone" with the StarTAC in the mid-1990s, it had staged a resurgence by the mid-2000s with the Razr, but lost market share in the second half of that decade. It focused on smartphones using Google's open-source Android mobile operating system; the first phone to use the newest version of Google's open source OS, Android 2.0, was released on November 2, 2009 as the Motorola Droid. The handset division was spun off into the independent Motorola Mobility. On May 22, 2012, Google CEO Larry Page announced that Google had closed on its deal to acquire Motorola Mobility. On January 29, 2014, Page announced that, pending closure of the deal, Motorola Mobility would be acquired by Chinese technology company Lenovo for US$2.91 billion.
On October 30, 2014, Lenovo finalized its purchase of Motorola Mobility from Google. Motorola started in Chicago, Illinois, as Galvin Manufacturing Corporation in 1928 when brothers Paul V. and Joseph E. Galvin purchased the bankrupt Stewart Battery Company's battery-eliminator plans and manufacturing equipment at auction for $750. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation set up shop in a small section of a rented building; the company had $565 in five employees. The first week's payroll was $63; the company's first products were the battery eliminators, devices that enabled battery-powered radios to operate on household electricity. Due to advances in radio technology, battery-eliminators soon became obsolete. Paul Galvin learned that some radio technicians were installing sets in cars, challenged his engineers to design an inexpensive car radio that could be installed in most vehicles, his team was successful, Galvin was able to demonstrate a working model of the radio at the June 1930 Radio Manufacturers Association convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
He brought home enough orders to keep the company in business. Paul Galvin wanted a brand name for Galvin Manufacturing Corporation's new car radio, created the name “Motorola” by linking "motor" with "ola", a popular ending for many companies at the time, e.g. Moviola, Crayola; the company sold its first Motorola branded radio on June 23, 1930, to Herbert C. Wall of Fort Wayne, for $30. Wall went on to become one of the first Motorola distributors in the country; the Motorola brand name became so well known that Galvin Manufacturing Corporation changed its name to Motorola, Inc. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation began selling Motorola car-radio receivers to police departments and municipalities in November 1930; the company's first public safety customers included the Village of River Forest, Village of Bellwood Police Department, City of Evanston Police, Illinois State Highway Police, Cook County Police with a one-way radio communication. In the same year, the company built its research and development program with Dan Noble, a pioneer in FM radio and semiconductor technologies, who joined the company as director of research.
The company produced the hand-held AM SCR-536 radio during World War II, vital to Allied communication. Motorola ranked 94th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Motorola went public in 1943, became Motorola, Inc. in 1947. At that time Motorola's main business was selling televisions and radios. In October 1946 Motorola communications equipment carried the first calls on Illinois Bell telephone company's new car radiotelephone service in Chicago; the company began making televisions in 1947, with the model VT-71 with 7-inch cathode ray tube. In 1952, Motorola opened its first international subsidiary in Toronto, Canada to produce radios and televisions. In 1953, the company established the Motorola Foundation to support leading universities in the United States. In 1955, years after Motorola started its research and development laboratory in Phoenix, Arizona, to research new solid-state technology, Motorola introduced the world's first commercial high-power germanium-based transistor.
Ericsson is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm. The company offers services and infrastructure in information and communications technology for telecommunications operators, traditional telecommunications and Internet Protocol networking equipment and fixed broadband and business support services, cable television, IPTV, video systems, an extensive services operation. Ericsson had 35% market share in the 2G/3G/4G mobile network infrastructure market in 2012; the company was founded in 1876 by Lars Magnus Ericsson. The company operates in around 180 countries. Ericsson holds over 42,000 granted patents as of December 2016, including many in wireless communications. Lars Magnus Ericsson began his association with telephones in his youth as an instrument maker, he worked for a firm. In 1876, at the age of 30, he started a telegraph repair shop with help from his friend Carl Johan Andersson in central Stockholm and repaired foreign-made telephones.
In 1878 Ericsson began selling his own telephone equipment. His telephones were not technically innovative. In 1878 he made an agreement to supply telephones and switchboards to Sweden's first telecommunications operating company, Stockholms Allmänna Telefonaktiebolag. In 1878, local telephone importer Numa Peterson hired Ericsson to adjust some telephones from the Bell Telephone Company, he analyzed the technology. He was familiar with Bell and Siemens Halske telephones through his firm's repair work for Telegrafverket and Swedish State Railways, he improved these designs to produce a higher-quality instrument to be used by new telephone companies such as Rikstelefon to provide cheaper service than the Bell Group. Ericsson had no patent or royalty problems because Bell had not patented their inventions in Scandinavia, his training as an instrument maker was reflected in the standard of finish and the ornate design of Ericsson telephones of this period. At the end of the year he started to manufacture telephones much like those of Siemens.
Ericsson became a major supplier of telephone equipment to Scandinavia. Its factory could not keep up with demand. Much of its raw materials were imported. Much of the walnut wood used for cabinets was imported from the United States. Stockholm's telephone network expanded that year and the company reformed into a telephone manufacturer; when Bell bought the biggest telephone network in Stockholm, it only allowed its own telephones to be used with it. Ericsson's equipment was sold to free telephone associations in the Swedish countryside and in other Nordic countries; the prices of Bell equipment and services led Henrik Tore Cedergren to form an independent telephone company called Stockholms Allmänna Telefonaktiebolag in 1883. As Bell would not deliver equipment to competitors, he formed a pact with Ericsson to supply the equipment for his new telephone network. In 1918 the companies were merged into Allmänna Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson. In 1884, a multiple-switchboard manual telephone exchange was copied from a design by C. E. Scribner at Western Electric.
This was legal because the device was not patented in Sweden, although in the United States it had held patent 529421 since 1879. A single switchboard could handle up to 10,000 lines; the following year, LM Ericsson and Cedergren toured the United States, visiting several telephone exchange stations to gather "inspiration". They found U. S. switchboard designs were more advanced but Ericsson telephones were equal to others. In 1884, a technician named Anton Avén at Stockholms Allmänna Telefonaktiebolag combined the earpiece and the mouthpiece of a standard telephone into a handset, it was used by operators in the exchanges where operators needed to have one hand free when talking to customers. Ericsson picked up this invention and incorporated it into Ericsson products, beginning with a telephone named The Dachshund; as production grew in the late 1890s, the Swedish market seemed to be reaching saturation, Ericsson expanded into foreign markets through a number of agents. The UK and Russia were early markets, where factories were established improve the chances of gaining local contracts and to augment the output of the Swedish factory.
In the UK, the National Telephone Company was a major customer. The Nordic countries were Ericsson customers. Other countries and colonies were exposed to Ericsson products through the influence of their parent countries; these included Australia and New Zealand, which by the late 1890s were Ericsson's largest non-European markets. Mass production techniques now established. Despite their successes elsewhere, Ericsson did not make significant sales into the United States; the Bell Group and Automatic Electric dominated the market. Ericsson sold its U. S. assets. Sales in Mexico led to inroads into South American countries. South Africa and China were generating significant sales. With his company now multinational, Lars Ericsson stepped down from the company in 1901. Ericsson ignored the growth of automatic telephony in the United States and concentrated