The Pittsburgh Press, published from 1884 to 1992, was a major afternoon daily newspaper in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US. At one time, the Press was the second largest newspaper in Pennsylvania, for four years starting in 2011, the brand was revived and applied to an afternoon online edition of the Post-Gazette. Originally The Evening Penny Press, the changed to The Pittsburg Press in 1887. The paper referred to the city and its sports teams as Pittsburg until August 1921, in 1923, the Press was acquired by the Scripps-Howard Syndicate. During the 1960s, it entered into a Joint Operating Agreement with the competing Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, the Post-Gazette had previously purchased and merged with the Hearst Corporations Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph leaving just itself and the much larger Pittsburgh Press. The JOA was to be managed by the Pittsburgh Press owners as the Press had the larger circulation and was the stronger of the two papers. Under the JOA, the Post-Gazette became a 6-day morning paper, and this arrangement was in effect until Scripps began bargaining with the Teamsters union, whose contract with the Press expired in 1991.
In return, Scripps received The Monterey County Herald, the sale required a ruling by the U. S. Department of Justice as the JOA was regulated by the Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970. The outcome was a surprise to people in Pittsburgh, as the Press had a much higher profile. Before the 1992 strike, many assumed that the smaller Post-Gazette would cease publication when the JOA expired, the departure of the Press meant that Scripps was exiting the Pittsburgh market entirely. Block Communications announced on November 14,2011 that it was bringing back the Press in an edition for the afternoon. Although published electronically, the new Press was formatted with a fixed layout replicating that of a printed newspaper. The experiment ended with the issue of September 25,2015, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette current owner of the Press name and present day heir to its archives
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and auto maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895
Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs commonly use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, the first FR car was an 1895 Panhard model, so this layout was known as the Système Panhard in the early years. The layout has the advantage of minimizing mechanical complexity, as it allows the transmission to be placed in-line with the output shaft. In comparison, a vehicle with the engine over the driven wheels eliminates the need for the drive shaft, in order to reduce the relative weight of the drive shaft, the transmission was normally split into two parts, the gearbox and the final drive. The gearbox was produced with its highest gear being 1,1. The final drive, in the axle, would reduce this to the most appropriate speed for the wheels. As power is the product of torque and angular velocity, spinning the shaft faster for any given power reduces the torque, in an era when gasoline was cheap and cars were heavy, the mechanical advantages of the FR drivetrain layout made up for any disadvantage in weight terms.
It remained almost universal among car designs until the 1970s, after the Arab oil embargo of 1973 and the 1979 fuel crises, a majority of American FR vehicles were phased out for the FF layout – this trend would spawn the SUV-van conversion market. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, most American companies set as a priority the eventual removal of rear-wheel drive from their mainstream, chrysler went 100% FF by 1990 and GMs American production went entirely FF by 1997 except the Corvette and Camaro. This configuration is referred to as a transaxle since the transmission. In Europe, front-wheel drive was popularized by small cars like the Mini, Renault 5 and Volkswagen Golf, upscale marques like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Jaguar remained mostly independent of this trend, and retained a lineup mostly or entirely made up of FR cars. Japanese mainstream marques such as Toyota were almost exclusively FR until the late 1970s, toyotas first FF vehicle was the Toyota Tercel, with the Corolla and Celica becoming FF while the Camry was designed as an FF from the beginning.
The Supra, Cressida and Century remained FR, luxury division Lexus has a mostly FR lineup. Subarus BRZ is an FR car, currently most cars are FF, including all front-engined economy cars, though FR cars are making a return as an alternative to large sport-utility vehicles. In North America, GM returned to production of FR-based luxury vehicles with the 2003 Cadillac CTS, as of 2012, all but the SRX and XTS are FR-based vehicles. Chevrolet reintroduced the FR-based Camaro in 2009, and the Caprice PPV in 2011, Pontiac had a short run with the FR-based G8 and Pontiac Solstice. A Chevrolet replacement for the G8 called the Chevrolet SS was released in 2013, chrysler and Dodge reintroduced the 300 and Charger on a FR platform
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
A microcar is the smallest automobile classification, usually applied to very small cars. Such small cars were referred to as cyclecars until the 1940s. More recent models are called bubble cars due to their bubble-shaped appearance. The definition of a microcar has varied considerably in different countries, since there are usually tax and/or licensing advantages to the classification, multiple restrictions are often imposed, starting with engine size. The Bruce Weiner Microcar Museum says Engine sizes of 700cc and less and 2 doors or less, may have all gears operable in reverse as well as in forward gear such as the Messerschmitt KR200. Fitted with lifting bodywork instead of doors, less than 85 cubic feet/2400 litres interior volume. There are a variety of trucks, usually of the forward control or van style to provide more cargo room. These might be used for local deliveries on narrow streets where standard small pickup trucks would be inconvenient, a motorised quadricycle is a four-wheeled vehicle that can be registered as a motorcycle.
They are analogous to mopeds or light motorcycles rather than cars, they can be driven by underage drivers or in some cases even without a license, and they are free of car taxes. Their speed is limited to ca.45 km/h either through a speed or power limit. The economy of operating such a car has often been helped by three-wheeled microcars or cars with very small engines being treated as motorcycles for tax. In some countries, drivers of microcars are exempt from licensing conditions, the microcars may have a special category or may be considered motorcycles and therefore no car driving licence is needed. This assures a certain market among people who do not want to stand for, or who cannot pass an auto drivers licence test. More negatively, at least in Austria and France, motorized quadricycles may be forbidden from motorways. In some European countries, taxes formerly depended on engine displacement and this has given rise to names of such cars as Citroën 2CV and Renault 4CV. Reduced global warming from carbon dioxide emission has now added to this list.
In the UK before October 2000, a person who passed a motorcycle test was automatically granted a full sub-category B1 licence as an additional entitlement with the full Category A licence, since 2000 a provisional car licence has to be requested. Another advantage is the ease of parking, some microcars can be parked perpendicular, where other cars park parallel, or lifted by hand, like a motor scooter, to get into a tight spot
Supermini is a class of automobile larger than a city car but smaller than a small family car. Superminis are usually available in hatchback body styles, the term subcompact car is used for similar cars in North America. The term supermini developed in the U. K. in the 1970s as car manufacturers sought a new design to surpass the influential Mini, launched in 1959, while manufacturers produced new designs, the term was adopted as an informal categorisation. By 1977, the term supermini was used regularly by the British newspaper The Times and that year, two modern superminis - the Ford Fiesta and Vauxhall Chevette - featured among Britains 10 best selling cars. A new British car launch that year was the Chrysler Sunbeam supermini, selling well were the Fiat 127, Renault 5 and Volkswagen Polo, as well as the Japanese built Datsun Cherry and the Peugeot 206. In October 1984, the Consumers Association used the term in its annual Car Buying Guide and it gave an explanation at the start of a section entitled Small Hatchbacks.
It said small hatchbacks were known popularly as superminis and while similar to the Mini they were more spacious inside and this definition made clear that a supermini was something larger than a Mini yet smaller than a typical car of the time. In its 1984 report, it included such cars as the Austin Metro, Vauxhall Nova, the Fiat Uno, launched during the first half of 1983, was widely praised for its high roof which set new standards for interior space and practicality in this size of car. The Peugeot 205, launched in 1983, won plaudits for its styling and excellent ride. By the mid-80s, the term had become established as a car classification term. After the arrival of the hugely popular Fiat Uno and Peugeot 205 in 1983, launched as replacement for the strong-selling, long-running Renault 5. The Fiat Punto, which replaced the Uno at the beginning of 1994, both the Clio and Punto were European Car of the Year award winners. The Peugeot 205 was gradually phased out following the launch of the smaller 106 in 1991 and the larger 306 in 1993, finally ceasing production in 1998 on the launch of the Peugeot 206.
The Mk2 Nissan Micra, built by the Japanese carmaker at its facility near Sunderland. The Fiat 500, launched in 2007 on the 50th anniversary of the original model, a-segment C-segment Economy car Kei car Micro car / Bubble car Mini MPV Mini SUV Vehicle size class
Kei car, K-car, or kei jidōsha, is a Japanese category of small vehicles, including passenger cars and pickup trucks. This especially advantaged class of cars was developed to popularize motorization in the postwar era, while successful in Japan, the genre is generally too specialized and too small to be profitable in export markets. The cars feature yellow license plates, earning them the name yellow-plate cars in English-speaking circles, because regulations only restrict physical size and engine displacement, manufacturers have been able to introduce many advanced technologies to the class. As a result, kei cars are available with forced-induction engines, automatic and CV transmissions, front-, rear-, and four-wheel drive, air conditioning, GPS. These standards originated in the following the end of the Second World War. To promote the growth of the car industry, as well as to offer a delivery method to small business and shop owners. Originally limited to a mere 150 cc in 1949, dimensions, in 1955, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry set forth goals to develop a national car that was larger than kei cars produced at the time.
This goal influenced Japanese automobile manufacturers to determine how best to focus their product development efforts for the kei cars. The small exterior dimensions and engine displacement reflected the driving environment in Japan, power outputs kept climbing, reaching a peak in the 40 PS Daihatsu Fellow Max SS of July 1970. Sales increased steadily, reaching a peak of 750,000 in 1970, Honda and Mazda withdrew from the contracting passenger kei car market, in 1974 and 1976, although they both maintained a limited offering of commercial vehicles. Until 31 December 1974, kei cars used smaller license plates than regular cars, as of 1975, kei cars received the medium-sized standard plates. To set them apart from regular-sized cars, the plates were now yellow and black rather than white, sales had been steadily declining, reaching a low-water mark of 150,000 passenger cars in 1975, 80% less than 1970 sales. Many were beginning to doubt the existence of the kei car. The even stricter emissions standards which were to be introduced in 1975 as part of a program of cleaning the air proved problematic for kei car manufacturers.
This was particularly hard for Daihatsu and Suzuki, which focused on two-stroke engines, tiny Suzuki was worse off, with the companys entire production consisting of two-stroke kei cars. Daihatsu, had both the engineering backing and powerful connections of their owner, Toyota, to aid them in meeting the new requirements. All manufacturers of kei cars were clamoring for relaxing the dimension conditions, in the end, the Japanese legislature relented, increasing the overall length and width restrictions by 200 mm and 100 mm, respectively. Engine size was increased to 550 cc, taking effect from January 1,1976, the new standards were announced on 26 August 1975, leaving very little time for manufacturers to update their offerings
The hood or bonnet is the hinged cover over the engine of motor vehicles that allows access to the engine compartment for maintenance and repair. In British terminology, hood refers to a cover over the passenger compartment of the car. On passenger cars, a hood may be held down by a concealed latch and it is designed to protect a car from thefts and sudden hood opening on the road. The hood release system is common on the most of vehicles and usually consists of interior hood latch handle, hood release cable, the hood latch handle is usually located below the steering wheel, beside the drivers seat or set into the door frame. When a driver pulls a hood latch handle the hood panel pops up, on race cars or cars with aftermarket hoods the hood may be held down by hood pins. A hood may sometimes contain a hood ornament, hood scoop, power bulge, hoods are typically made out of steel, but aluminum is rapidly gaining popularity with auto companies. Aftermarket manufacturers may construct hoods out of fiberglass, carbon fiber, dry carbon, aftermarket hoods are usually sold unpainted or come primered in flat matte black paint.
It means that such hoods require additional painting, to choose a paint that match vehicles original shade and hue, special color code is used. This code is printed in the label that is located under the hood or on the driver side door jamb. Some car owners however prefer to leave their black primed hoods unpainted, carbon fiber custom hoods require no painting, as they already come with protective clear coating. In Japan and Europe, regulations have come into effect in recent years that place a limit on the severity of head injury when struck by a motor vehicle. This is leading to more advanced designs, as evidenced by multicone hood inner panel designs as found on the Mazda RX-8. Other changes are being made to use the hood as an active structure and this may be achieved by mechanical or pyrotechnic devices
The Ford Anglia is a compact car which was designed and manufactured by Ford UK. It is related to the Ford Prefect and the Ford Popular, the Anglia name was applied to various models between 1939 and 1967. A total of 1,594,486 Anglias were produced and it was replaced by the Ford Escort. The first Ford Anglia model, the E04A, was released on 31 October 1939 as smallest model in the UK Ford range and it replaced the Ford 7Y and was a facelifted version of that model. The Anglia was a vehicle aimed at the cheap end of the market. Styling was typically late-1930s, with an upright radiator, there were standard and deluxe models, the latter having better instrumentation and, on pre-war models, running boards. Both front and rear suspensions used transverse leaf springs, and the brakes were mechanical, the two-door Anglia is similar to the longer, four-door, E93A Ford Prefect. A bulge at the back enabled a spare wheel to be removed from its vertical outside stowage on the back of the car and stowed flat on the boot floor, which usefully increased luggage space.
Some back seat leg room was sacrificed to the luggage space, the Anglia replaced the 7Y saloon, but the van version of the earlier model continued to be built until 1946, after which some very minor changes sufficed to rebaptize the van the E04C. The domestic market engine was the 933 cc straight-four side-valve engine familiar to drivers of predecessor models since 1933, a minor styling change was made in December 1947, with the name “Anglia” now incorporated in the top of the grille surround. A contemporary road test commended the Anglias ability to pull away from 5 or 6 mph in top gear, compulsory driving tests had only recently been introduced in the UK. Most potential buyers would approach the vehicle without the benefit of formal driving tuition, the cars did have synchromesh between second and top gears, but not between first and second, so many would have sought, wherever possible, to avoid en route changes down to first. Production, hindered by the diversion of Fords factory to production during the Second World War.
Initial sales in Britain actually began in early 1940, production was suspended in early 1942, and resumed in mid-1945. The E04A was built in Australia from 1940 to 1945 and was produced in tourer and roadster body styles, the former had a rear seat and the latter was a two-seater convertible. The Australian-built Anglia A54A used the chassis and front panels of the English E04A and was offered in 4-door sedan, coupe utility, the 8HP 933cc engine was used and all models featured running boards. Three different types of radiator grille were fitted to A54A models, both the original and the revised E04A grilles were used and a third style, unique to the A54A, was introduced in 1948. This featured a centrally placed vertical chrome strip, the 1949 model, code E494A, was a makeover of the previous model with a rather more 1940s style front-end, including the sloped, twin-lobed radiator grille
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
A runabout is a car body style that was popular in North America until about 1915. It was a light, basic style with no windshield, top, or doors, runabouts eventually became indistinguishable from roadsters and the term fell out of use in the United States. The approach has evolved into the city car. The runabout was a light, open car with basic bodywork and no windshield, most runabouts had just a single row of seats, providing seating for two passengers. Some had a seat at the rear to provide optional seating for one or two more passengers, those without rumble seats may have had a trunk platform, a box. They differed from buggies and high wheelers mainly by having smaller wheels, early runabouts had their engines under the body toward the middle of the chassis. This sometimes made difficult, as on the Oldsmobile Curved Dash where the body had to be removed in order to access the engine. The Gale runabout dealt with this problem by hinging the body at the rear of the car such that it could be tilted to access the engine, some runabouts had the engine in what became the conventional position at the front of the car.
Runabouts were popular in North America from the late 19th century to about 1915 and they were designed for light use over short distances. By the mid-1910s, they became almost indistinguishable from roadsters, the 1964 GM Runabout was a three wheel concept car first exhibited at Futurama II, part of the 1964 New York Worlds Fair. The car was designed specifically for housewives and had detachable shopping carts built into it, the term runabout is still in use in Britain, denoting a small car used for short journeys. Anderson, Crozier, Gilmour, Grandison, Alice, McKeown, Stibbs, Summers, Elspeth, N.1 a small car used for short journeys Clough, Albert L. New York, NY USA, E. P. Dutton, a general term for a light two-passenger car of the early 1900s. Haajanen, Lennart W. Illustrated Dictionary of Automobile Body Styles, the story of Veteran & Vintage Cars. Chapter One The Pioneer Days 1769 –1904, the Oldsmobile merits its niche in history as the first true example of mass-production, some 3,750 being turned out in 1903 alone.
Despite the Oldsmobiles known reliability, the makers handbook launches out on the first page of text with the alarming suggestion, in Fox, Richard Wightman, Lears, T. J. Jackson. The Power of Culture, Critical Essays in American History, Chicago, IL US, University of Chicago