The Tower of Hercules is an ancient Roman lighthouse on a peninsula about 2.4 km from the centre of A Coruña, Galicia, in north-western Spain. Until the 20th century, the tower itself was known as the "Farum Brigantium"; the Latin word farum is derived from the Greek Φάρος Pharos for the Lighthouse of Alexandria. The structure overlooks the North Atlantic coast of Spain; the structure, built in the 2nd century and renovated in 1791, is the oldest lighthouse in use today. There is a sculpture garden featuring works by Francisco Leiro; the Tower of Hercules is a National Monument of Spain, has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 27 June 2009. It is the second-tallest lighthouse in Spain, after the Faro de Chipiona; the tower is known to have existed by the 2nd century, built or rebuilt under Trajan on foundations following a design, Phoenician in origin. It is thought to be modeled after the Lighthouse of Alexandria, its base preserves a cornerstone with the inscription MARTI AUG. SACR C. SEVIVS LVPVS ARCHTECTVS AEMINIENSIS LVSITANVS.
EX. VO, permitting the original lighthouse tower to be ascribed to the architect Gaius Sevius Lupus, from Aeminium in the former province of Lusitania, as an offering dedicated to the Roman god of war, Mars; the tower has been in constant use since the 2nd century and is considered to be the oldest extant lighthouse. The base of the building has 8 sides, the tower is 4 sided, continuing to be 8 sided with a final dome on top; the earliest known reference to the lighthouse at Brigantium is by Paulus Orosius in Historiae adversum Paganos written around 415–417: Secundus angulus circium intendit, ubi Brigantia Gallaeciae civitas sita altissimum farum et inter pauca memorandi operis ad speculam Britanniae erigit In 1788, the original 34-metre, three-storey tower was given a neoclassical restoration, including a new 21-metre fourth storey. The restoration was undertaken by naval engineer Eustaquio Giannini during the reign of Charles III of Spain, was finished in 1791. Within, the much-repaired Roman and medieval masonry may be inspected.
The Romans who conquered this region of Spain believed it to be, in a figurative sense, the end of the earth—hence its name, Finisterra. This region is notorious for shipwrecks, earning it the name Costa da Morte, "Coast of Death". Through the millennia many mythical stories of the lighthouse's origin have been told. According to a myth that mixes Celtic and Greco-Roman elements, the hero Hercules slew the giant tyrant Geryon after three days and three nights of continuous battle. Hercules then—in a Celtic gesture—buried the head of Geryon with his weapons and ordered that a city be built on the site; the lighthouse atop a skull and crossbones representing the buried head of Hercules’ slain enemy appears in the coat-of-arms of the city of Coruña. Another legend embodied in the 11th-century Irish compilation Lebor Gabála Érenn—the "Book of Invasions"—King Breogán, the founding father of the Galician Celtic nation, constructed a massive tower of such a grand height that his sons could see a distant green shore from its top.
The glimpse of that distant green land lured them to sail north to Ireland. According to the legend Breogán's descendants stayed in Ireland and are the Celtic ancestors of the current Irish people. A colossal statue of Breogán has been erected near the Tower. Early geographical descriptions on the location of Brigantia point out that the town could be located in Corunna or in the locality of the modern town of Betanzos. There is some debate about this, as the people from Betanzos claim it as a fact that Betanzos was referred to as "the former city of Brigancia" until the 17th century, both in literary accounts as well as in maps, they believe that the name Betanzos is a phonetical evolution from Brigantium > Breganzo > Betanzos. This, could be a false etymology; the Betanzos tradition claims that the port of Betanzos was getting too small for the larger mediaeval ships, that king Alfonso IX of León decided to create a bigger port nearby in the 13th century. The place he chose was an uninhabited place called Clunia, which on evolved to Cruña and Coruña, so to Corunna.
The place name Clunia is believed to come from the Proto-Celtic root * klou̯ni. However, the Coruña tradition maintains that the "port" of Betanzos was far too small for Roman warships to dock at, for example when Julius Caesar visited this area with "more than a hundred triremes", it is demonstrated that Corunna was an important Roman site, as graveyards and other Roman remains have been found in the city centre, demonstrating that the site was inhabited in the Roman period, was deserted only during the early Middle Ages due to Viking attacks, when its people moved inland to O Burgo. The proponents of Corunna explain the different name as a change that occurred in the Middle Ages, point out that the lighthouse, called "Pharum Brigantium", was erected in Corunna, is at least 25 km from Betanzos. Roman architecture Roman engineering Roman technology List of Roman sites in Spain List of World Heritage Sites in Spain List of lighthouses in Spain Specific references General references Torre photo Official website Images of the Roman Tower of Hercules and futuristic visual legends Historical timeline of the Tower of Brigantia, from galicianflag.com
Anne Teresa, Baroness De Keersmaeker is a contemporary dance choreographer. The dance company constructed around her, was in residence at La Monnaie in Brussels from 1992 to 2007. De Keersmaeker did not study dance until her last year of high school, instead studying music the flute, she studied from 1978 to 1980 at Mudra in Brussels, a school with links to La Monnaie and to Maurice Béjart's Ballet of the 20th Century. She has said that the percussionist and her music teacher at MUDRA, Fernand Schirren, was a major influence on her. In 1981, she attended the Tisch School of the Arts at New York University. While at the Tisch she presented her first production, Asch, in Brussels. In 1982 upon her return from the U. S. A. she created four movements to the music of Steve Reich. It was this production that brought her "a breakthrough on the international dance scene, among other places, at the Avignon Festival"; the success of Fase contributed to the foundation of the Rosas in 1983. Rosas danst Rosas - Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker's first choreography for the young company to new compositions of Thierry De Mey and Peter Vermeersch - brought Rosas the international breakthrough as a company.
During the eighties, Rosas was supported by Kaaitheater of Brussels. Within the framework of Kaaitheater, her oeuvre took shape. Performances such as Elena's Aria, Bartók/Aantekeningen, a staging of Heiner Müller's triptych Verkommenes Ufer/Medeamaterial Landschaft mit Argonauten, Mikrokosmos-Monument Selbstporträt mit Reich und Riley /In zart fliessender Bewegung - Quatuor Nr.4, Ottone and Achterland were produced in collaboration with Kaaitheater. In 1992, La Monnaie's general director Bernard Foccroulle invited Rosas to become the resident company of Brussels' Royal Opera De Munt/La Monnaie. At the start of the residency, Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker set herself three objectives: to intensify the relation between dance and music, to build a repertory, to launch a dance school; that year, Rosas created ERTS and released Rosa - a film of a choreography by Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker to Bartók music directed by Peter Greenaway. That year, Rosas created Mozart Concert Arias, un moto di gioia for the Avignon Festival.
A production made in collaboration with the Orchestre des Champs Elysées, directed by Philippe Herreweghe. In 1993, Rosas created Toccata, to the music of J. S. Bach, for the Holland Festival. In May 1994, the KunstenFESTIVALdes Arts in Brussels premièred Kinok, produced in collaboration with Thierry De Mey and the Ictus Ensemble. At the end of 1994, this collaboration resulted in a new creation: Amor Constante más allá de la muerte. In November 1995, La Monnaie premièred Verklärte Nacht, a choreography, part of a production of Schönberg music Erwartung/Verklärte Nacht. In 1995, Rosas and La Monnaie launched in Brussels a new international school for contemporary dance, the Performing Arts Research and Training Studios, where sixty students coming from some 25 countries are trained, over a three-year period, by more than 50 teachers. In December 1996, three movements to the music of Berg, Schönberg & Wagner was premièred in Seville. At the beginning of 1997, Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker created, together with Steve Paxton and The Wooster Group, 3 solos for Vincent Dunoyer.
In November 1997, Just Before, to a live performance by the Ictus Ensemble of music composed by Magnus Lindberg, John Cage, Iannis Xenakis, Steve Reich, Pierre Bartholomée and Thierry De Mey, was presented in La Monnaie. In February 1998, Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker made her debut as an opera director at La Monnaie with Bartók's Duke Bluebeard's Castle. In August 1998, the Impuls Festival in Vienna premièred Drumming, a production to Steve Reich's composition of the same name. In November Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker created The Lisbon Piece, for the Portuguese Companhia Nacional de Bailado: her first experience as a guest choreographer. In March 1999, Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker created, together with Rosas dancer Cynthia Loemij and Jolente De Keersmaeker and Frank Vercruyssen from the theatre company STAN, Quartett. One month she choreographed and danced a duet with Elizabeth Corbett for the production with/for/by. In May 1999, Rosas premiered I said I, a collaboration with Jolente De Keersmaeker for the direction, with the Ictus Ensemble, Aka Moon and DJ Grazzhoppa for the music composition and execution.
Jan Joris Lamers designed Dries van Noten the costumes. For In Real Time in 2000, Rosas again collaborated with Stan, as well as with the jazz-ensemble Aka Moon for the composition and live interpretation of the music. In January 2001, Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker created Rain, another performance to a score by Steve Reich, his Music for 18 Musicians. 2002 saw the celebration of twenty years of Rosas and ten years of residence at La Monnaie, with the re-run of the text-pieces, the creation of April me and Rain live, the two latter accompanied by Brussels contemporary music ensemble Ictus. A 336 pages book Rosas, if and only if wonder was published and a multimedia exhibition was organised in newly opened halls at the Centre for Fine Arts and was attended by over 15,000 people. Once, a solo to the music of Joan Baez, concluded the celebration year's performances. 2003 showed yet a new evolution: whereas in the past her choreographies had been precise and linked to the music, in Bitches Brew / Tacoma Narrows, De Keersmae
Mount Parnassus is a high mountain summit in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 13,580-foot thirteener is located in Arapaho National Forest, 5.4 miles west-northwest of the Town of Silver Plume in Clear Creek County, United States. Mount Parnassus sits east of the Continental Divide in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains; the summit is located near Interstate 70. The higher Bard Peak, at 13,647 feet, sits nearby, the closest major town is Silver Plume, Colorado, it is in close proximity to Woods Mountain, Mount Sniktau, Engelmann Peak, Robeson Peak, Pettingell Peak. By automobile, Mount Parnassus is about one hour west of Denver. Hikers may reach the summit of the mountain on foot by following the Watrous Gulch Trail, starting at the Herman Gulch Trailhead off of Interstate 70. From the trailhead, visitors must hike 7 miles and gain 3,300 feet in elevation to reach the summit. Mount Parnassus – 1933 Scout Peak List of Colorado mountain ranges List of Colorado mountain summits List of Colorado fourteeners List of Colorado 4000 meter prominent summits List of the most prominent summits of Colorado List of Colorado county high points Mount Parnassus on 13ers.com Mount Parnassus on SummitPost