A townland is a small geographical division of land used in Ireland and in the Western Isles in Scotland. The townland system is of Gaelic origin, pre-dating the Norman invasion, most have names of Irish Gaelic origin. However, some townland names and boundaries come from Norman manors, plantation divisions, or creations of the Ordnance Survey; the total number of inhabited townlands in Ireland was 60,679 in 1911. The total number recognised by the Irish Place Names database as of 2014 was 61,098, including uninhabited townlands small islands. In Ireland a townland is the smallest administrative division of land, though a few large townlands are further divided into hundreds; the concept of townlands is based on the Gaelic system of land division, the first official evidence of the existence of this Gaelic land division system can be found in church records from before the 12th century, it was in the 1600s that they began to be mapped and defined by the English administration for the purpose of confiscating land and apportioning it to investors or planters from Britain.

The term "townland" in English is derived from the Old English word tun. The term describes the smallest unit of land division in Ireland, based on various forms of Gaelic land division, many of which had their own names; the term baile, anglicised as "bally", is the most dominant element used in Irish townland names. Today the term "bally" denotes an urban settlement, but its precise meaning in ancient Ireland is unclear, as towns had no place in Gaelic social organisation; the modern Irish term for a townland is baile fearainn. The term fearann means "land, quarter"; the Normans left no major traces in townland names, but they adapted some of them for their own use seeing a similarity between the Gaelic baile and the Norman bailey, both of which meant a settlement. Throughout most of Ulster townlands were known as "ballyboes", represented an area of pastoral economic value. In County Cavan similar units were called "polls", in Counties Fermanagh and Monaghan they were known as "tates" or "taths".

These names appear to be of English origin, but had become naturalised long before 1600. In modern townland names the prefix pol- is found throughout western Ireland, its accepted meaning being "hole" or "hollow". In County Cavan, which contains over half of all townlands in Ulster with the prefix pol-, some should be better translated as "the poll of...". Modern townlands with the prefix tat- are confined exclusively to the diocese of Clogher, which covers Counties Fermanagh and Monaghan, the barony of Clogher in County Tyrone), cannot be confused with any other Irish word. In County Tyrone the following hierarchy of land divisions was used: "ballybetagh", "ballyboe", "sessiagh", "gort" and "quarter". In County Fermanagh the divisions were "ballybetagh", "quarter" and "tate". Further subdivisions in Fermanagh appear to be related to liquid or grain measures such as "gallons", "pottles" and "pints". In Ulster the ballybetagh was the territorial unit controlled by an Irish sept containing around 16 townlands.

Fragmentation of ballybetaghs resulted in units consisting of four and twelve townlands. One of these fragmented units, the "quarter", representing a quarter of a ballybetagh, was the universal land denomination recorded in the survey of County Donegal conducted in 1608. In the early 17th century 20 per cent of the total area of western Ulster was under the control of the church; these "termon" lands consisted of ballybetaghs and ballyboes, but were held by erenaghs instead of sept leaders. Other units of land division used throughout Ireland include: In County Tipperary, "capell lands" and "quatermeers". A "capell land" consisted of around 20 great acres. In the province of Connacht, "quarters" and "cartrons", a quarter being reckoned as four cartrons, each cartron being 30 acres; the quarter has been anglicised as "carrow", "carhoo" or "caracute". In County Clare, as in Connacht, "quarters", "half-quarters", "cartrons" and "sessiagh". Here a "half-quarter" equated to around 60 acres, a "cartron" equated to around 30 acres and a "sessiagh" was around 20 acres."Cartrons" were sometimes called "ploughlands" or "seisreagh".

Thomas Larcom, the first Director of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, made a study of the ancient land divisions of Ireland and summarised the traditional hierarchy of land divisions thus: 10 acres – 1 Gneeve. This hierarchy was not applied uniformly across Ireland. For example, a ballybetagh or townland could contain less than four ploughlands. Further confusion arises when it is taken into account that, while Larcom used the general term "acres" in his summary, terms such as "great acres", "large acres" and "small acres" were used in records. Writing in 1846, Larcom remarked that the "large" and "small" acres had no fixed ratio between them, that there were various other kinds of acre in use in Ireland, including the Irish acre, the English acre, the Cunningham acre, the plantation acre and the statute acre; the Ordnance Survey maps used the statute acre measurement. The quality and situation of the land affected the

William E. Adams

For the New York politician, see William E. Adams. For racehorse trainer William E. Adams, see Smiley Adams. William Edward Adams was a Major in the United States Army, killed in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War, he received the Medal of Honor. On May 25, 1971, Adams volunteered to fly a helicopter to rescue three wounded Americans encircled in a fort in Kontum Province, he did this knowing full well that the clear weather allowed North Vietnamese AA gunners to see their targets. His aircraft was bombarded by AA fire; as he was leaving, his aircraft was shot down, Adams was killed. He was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously in 1972. Adams was born in Wyoming, he attended Wentworth Military Academy in Lexington, where he graduated in the junior college Class of 1959. Three years Williams graduated from Colorado State University as a member of the Class of 1962, he joined the U. S. Army in Kansas City, Missouri, he began his tour in Vietnam on Monday, July 6, 1970. On May 25, 1971, Adams, a major, volunteered to fly a armed helicopter mission to rescue three wounded soldiers from a besieged firebase in Kontum Province, despite the clear weather which would provide the numerous enemy anti-aircraft around the location with clear visibility.

Despite fire from machine gun emplacements and rockets, Adams succeeded in landing at the firebase while supporting helicopter gunships attacked the enemy positions. After take off, the helicopter was hit by fire. Adams momentarily regained control and attempted to land, however the helicopter exploded in mid air and crashed. Adams, 31 at the time, was killed, he is buried at Fort Logan National Cemetery in Colorado. His grave can be found in plot P O, Grave 3831; the Vietnam War Memorial on the campus of Wentworth Military Academy, is the same make and model helicopter that Adams was flying when he was killed. He is listed on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial on panel 03W, row 054. Citation: Maj. Adams distinguished himself on 25 May 1971 while serving as a helicopter pilot in Kontum Province in the Republic of Vietnam. On that date, Maj. Adams volunteered to fly a armed helicopter in an attempt to evacuate 3 wounded soldiers from a small fire base, under attack by a large enemy force, he made the decision with full knowledge that numerous antiaircraft weapons were positioned around the base and that the clear weather would afford the enemy gunners unobstructed view of all routes into the base.

As he approached the base, the enemy gunners opened fire with heavy machine guns, rocket-propelled grenades and small arms. Undaunted by the fusillade, he continued his approach determined to accomplish the mission. Displaying tremendous courage under fire, he calmly directed the attacks of supporting gunships while maintaining absolute control of the helicopter he was flying, he landed the aircraft at the fire base despite the ever-increasing enemy fire and calmly waited until the wounded soldiers were placed on board. As his aircraft departed from the fire base, it was struck and damaged by enemy anti-aircraft fire and began descending. Flying with exceptional skill, he regained control of the crippled aircraft and attempted a controlled landing. Despite his valiant efforts, the helicopter exploded and plummeted to earth amid the hail of enemy fire. Maj. Adams' conspicuous gallantry and humanitarian regard for his fellow man were in keeping with the most cherished traditions of the military service and reflected utmost credit on him and the U S. Army.

List of Medal of Honor recipients List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Vietnam War See a photograph of Maj Adams Headstone "Medal of Honor — ADAMS, WILLIAM E." "William E. Adams". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved 2007-10-23

White Cargo

White Cargo is a 1942 film directed by Richard Thorpe and starring Hedy Lamarr and Walter Pidgeon. Released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, it is based on the 1923 London and Broadway hit play by Leon Gordon, in turn adapted from the novel Hell's Playground by Ida Vera Simonton; the play had been made into a British part-talkie titled White Cargo, with Maurice Evans in 1929. The 1942 film, unlike the play, begins in what was the present day, uses a flashback technique. Arriving by seaplane to inspect an isolated but thriving rubber plantation in the African jungle during World War II, Worthing reminisces about the old days, when conditions were much harsher; the film flashes back to 1910. The only four white men within hundreds of miles eagerly await the arrival of the riverboat Congo Queen. Wilbur Ashley and his boss, Harry Witzel, have grown to hate each other. Ashley is going home, the boat is bringing his replacement, for a four-year stint; the other two white men are missionary Reverend Dr. Roberts.

Harry and Langford get off to a bad start, it only goes downhill from there. It takes all of the efforts of Roberts to keep the two men from each other's throats; the situation becomes worse when a seductive native woman, returns. Harry, as resident magistrate, has previously ordered her to leave his district, as a disruptive, amoral influence. Tondelayo begins to work her wiles on Langford. Despite the warnings from all three of the other men, he succumbs to her charms; when Harry orders her expelled once more, Langford decides to marry her. Roberts reveals that she is not a native, but rather half Egyptian and half Arab, in spite of his better judgment, reluctantly joins them in holy matrimony. After five months, Tondelayo has grown bored of her husband. However, when she tries to seduce Harry, he reminds her that she is Mrs. Langford "until death do you part"; that gives her an idea. When her husband becomes sick, the doctor gives her some medicine to give him periodically, she makes him drink some of it instead.

However, Harry suspects. He leaves returns just as she is about to give Langford another dose. Harry forces her to drink the rest of the poison, she collapses on the jungle floor. The doctor takes Langford away on the Congo Queen for better medical treatment, identifying him as white cargo. From the boat comes Langford's replacement: a younger Worthing. Harry forcefully tells him that he will stick around. Returning to the present, Worthing observes. Hedy Lamarr as Tondelayo Walter Pidgeon as Harry Witzel Frank Morgan as The Doctor Richard Carlson as Langford Reginald Owen as Skipper of the Congo Queen Henry O'Neill as Reverend Dr. Roberts Bramwell Fletcher as Wilbur Ashley Clyde Cook as Ted Leigh Whipper as Jim Fish Oscar Polk as Umeela Darby Jones as Darby Richard Ainley as Worthing In 1930 Gordon sold film rights to British International Pictures for£15,000; the company decided to make a sound version and paid Gordon an extra £10,000 for talking rights. The British film version followed the play closely.

MGM hired Gordon to adapt his own play. According to the file on the film in the MPAA/PCA collection at the AMPAS Library, the miscegenation element of Leon Gordon's story caused great censorship difficulties, beginning with the U. S. distribution of a 1929 British screen adaptation of his play titled White Cargo. As noted in articles included in the MPAA/PCA files, in accordance with the MPPDA's 1924 agreement of self-imposed censorship, MPPDA head Will Hays deemed the play unacceptable material for screen adaptation and banned any studios from producing it. In the play, Tondelayo is described throughout as a "negress." The March 1930 New York release of the 1929 British film, directed by J. B. Williams and Arthur Barnes, starring Leslie Faber, Maurice Evans and Gypsy Rhouma, generated complaints from industry insiders, who felt that its distribution in the U. S. violated the spirit of Hays's decree. Tondelayo's ethnicity was changed for this movie to avoid violating the Motion Picture Production Code.

She was turned into half-Egyptian and half-"low cast arab". In Gordon's original script this fact was to be revealed at the end, but the censor requested the information be revealed earlier. In April 1942 MGM announced. Leon Gordon adapted Walter Pidgeon was assigned the lead role; the production ran from May 18 to early June 1942. According to MGM records the film made $1,654,000 in the US and Canada and $1,009,000 elsewhere, earning a profit of $1,240,000. White Cargo on IMDb White Cargo at the TCM Movie Database