Toyohara Chikanobu

Toyohara Chikanobu, better known to his contemporaries as Yōshū Chikanobu, was a prolific woodblock artist of Japan's Meiji period. Chikanobu signed his artwork "Yōshū Chikanobu"; this was his "art name". The artist's "real name" was Hashimoto Naoyoshi. Many of his earliest works were signed "studio of Yōshū Chikanobu". At least one triptych from 12 Meiji exists signed "Yōshū Naoyoshi"; the portrait of the Emperor Meiji held by the British Museum is inscribed "drawn by Yōshū Chikanobu by special request". No works have surfaced that are signed either "Toyohara Chikanobu" or "Hashimoto Chikanobu". Chikanobu was a retainer of the Sakakibara clan of Takada Domain in Echigo Province. After the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate, he joined the Shōgitai and fought in the Battle of Ueno, he joined Tokugawa loyalists in Hakodate, Hokkaidō, where he fought in the Battle of Hakodate at the Goryōkaku star fort. He served under the leadership of Ōtori Keisuke. Following the Shōgitai's surrender, he was remanded along with others to the authorities in the Takada domain.

In 1875, he decided to try to make a living as an artist. He travelled to Tokyo, he found work as an artist for the Kaishin Shimbun. In addition, he produced nishiki-e artworks. In his younger days, he had studied the Kanō school of painting, he studied with a disciple of Keisai Eisen and he joined the school of Ichiyūsai Kuniyoshi. After Kuniyoshi’s death, he studied with Kunisada, he referred to himself as Yōshū. Like many ukiyo-e artists, Chikanobu turned his attention towards a great variety of subjects, his work ranged from Japanese mythology to depictions of the battlefields of his lifetime to women's fashions. As well as a number of the other artists of this period, he too portrayed kabuki actors in character, is well known for his impressions of the mie of kabuki productions. Chikanobu was known as a master of bijinga. Images of beautiful women, for illustrating changes in women's fashion, including both traditional and Western clothing, his work illustrated the changes in coiffures and make-up across time.

For example, in Chikanobu's images in Mirror of Ages, the hair styles of the Tenmei era, 1781-1789 are distinguished from those of the Keiō era, 1865-1867. His works capture the transition from the age of the samurai to Meiji modernity, the artistic chaos of the Meiji period exemplifying the concept of "furumekashii/imamekashii". Chikanobu is a recognizable Meiji period artist, but his subjects were sometimes drawn from earlier historical eras. For example, one print illustrates an incident during the 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake; the early Meiji period was marked by clashes between disputing samurai forces with differing views about ending Japan's self-imposed isolation and about the changing relationship between the Imperial court and the Tokugawa shogunate. He created a range of scenes of the Satsuma Rebellion and Saigō Takamori; some of these prints illustrated the period of domestic unrest and other subjects of topical interest, including prints like the 1882 image of the Imo Incident known as the Jingo Incident at right.

The greatest number of Chikanobu's war prints appeared in triptych format. These works documented the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. For example, the "Victory at Asan" was published with a contemporaneous account of the July 29, 1894 battle. Among those influenced by Chikanobu were Nobukazu and Gyokuei. Examples of battle scenes include: Boshin War 1868–1869 Satsuma Rebellion 1877 Examples of scenes from this war include: Jingo Incident Korea 1882 Examples of scenes from this war include: Sino-Japanese War 1894–1895 Examples of scenes from this war include: Russo-Japanese War 1904–5 Examples of scenes from this war include: Examples of warrior prints include: Examples of "beauty pictures" include: Examples of historical scenes include: Recent history Ancient history Examples of scenic spots include: Examples of portraits include: Examples of "enlightenment pictures" include: Examples of "kabuki scenes/actor portraits" include: Examples of "Memorial prints" include: Examples of "Etiquette and Manners for Women" include: Examples of Emperor Meiji relaxing include: Examples of "Contrast prints" include: Examples of this genre include: Like the majority of his contemporaries, he worked in the ōban tate-e format.

There are quite a number of single panel series, as well as many other prints in this format which are not a part of any series. He produced several series in the ōban yoko-e format, which were then folded cross-wise to produce an album. Although he is best known for his triptychs, single topics and series, two diptych series are known as well. There are, at least, two polyptych prints known, his signature may be found in the line drawings and illustrations in a number of ehon, which were of a historical nature. In addition, there are fan prints uchiwa-e, as well as number of sheets of sugoroku with his signature that still exist and at least three prints in the kakemono-

USS Evans (DD-78)

The first USS Evans was a Wickes-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War I transferred to the Royal Navy as HMS Mansfield. Named for Robley Dunglison Evans, she was launched on 30 October 1918 by Bath Iron Works, Maine; the ship was commissioned on Commander Frank H. Sadler in command. After a training and outfitting period which included a maiden voyage to the Azores, Evans departed Newport, Rhode Island on 10 June 1919 for European waters, where she operated until 22 August, returning to New York, she sailed once more on 11 September, after patrolling off Central America, reached her assigned home port, San Diego, on 14 November. Through the next 2 years, Evans joined in a training schedule which found her ranging the eastern Pacific from Valparaíso, Chile, to Astoria, Oregon, she was placed in reserve at San Diego 6 October 1921, decommissioned on 29 May 1922. Recommissioned on 1 April 1930, she operated out of San Diego for 6 months was assigned to duty training members of the naval reserve out of New York City, where she arrived 6 December 1930.

She returned to San Diego 26 March 1932, to sail with the Battle Fleet on training cruises and in exercises along the west coast and in Hawaiian and Alaskan waters. Once more out of commission from 31 March 1937 to 30 September 1939, Evans arrived at Key West on 11 December 1939 for neutrality patrol duty in the Antilles, exercises in various parts of the Caribbean. On 24 September 1940, she sailed from Key West for Halifax, Nova Scotia, where she was decommissioned 23 October 1940, transferred to the Royal Navy in the land bases for destroyers exchange. Commissioned as HMS Mansfield, a Town-class destroyer, the destroyer had a international career, for between December 1940 and March 1942. During this time, she raided a fish oil factory in German hands at Øksfjord near Norway, her landing party destroyed the factory's essential machinery, attempted to capture the local quisling leader, but he escaped. With her Norwegian crew, she served on escort duty in the North Atlantic, continuing in this vital assignment after she returned to the Royal Navy.

Mansfield was modified for trade convoy escort service by removal of three of the original 4"/50 caliber guns and one of the triple torpedo tube mounts to reduce topside weight for additional depth charge stowage and installation of hedgehog. Mansfield was transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy, served with the Western Local Escort Force based on Halifax and St. John's. With newer escorts available, in November 1943 the veteran of service in four navies was reduced to care and maintenance service at Halifax, on 22 June 1944 she was paid off, her bell, still lettered "USS Evans", is preserved at the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Lenton, H. T. and Colledge J. J.. British and Dominion Warships of World War II. Doubleday and Company; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Photos NavSource Photos

Semantic prosody

Semantic prosody discourse prosody, describes the way in which certain neutral words can be perceived with positive or negative associations through frequent occurrences with particular collocations. Coined in analogy to linguistic prosody, popularised by Bill Louw. An example given by John Sinclair is the verb set in, which has a negative prosody: e.g. rot is a prime example of what is going to'set in'. Another well-known example is the verb sense of cause, used in a negative context, though one can say that something "caused happiness". Semantic prosody, like semantic preference, can be genre- or register-dependent. For example, erupted has a positive prosody in sports reporting but a negative prosody in hard news reporting. In recent years, linguists have used corpus linguistics and concordancing software to find such hidden associations. Specialised software is used to arrange key words in context from a corpus of several million words of occurring text; the collocates can be arranged alphabetically according to first or second word to the right or to the left.

Using such a method, Elena Tognini-Bonelli found that the word occurred more with negative words or expressions, while broadly appeared more with positive ones. Lexicographers have failed to account for semantic prosody when defining a word, although with the recent development and increasing use of computers, the field of corpus linguistics is now being combined with that of lexicography. Semantic prosodies can be examined cross-linguistically, by contrasting the semantic prosody of near synonyms in different languages such as English and Chinese. If a word with a strong negative semantic prosody co-occurs with a positive word instead of an expected negative word, a range of effects are possible as a result of such a collocational clash: irony, expression of a subtle hidden meaning negative evaluation, poetic or humorous use. There are debates about whether the regular co-occurrence of a particular word with positive/negative words results in that word acquiring a positive or negative connotation.

Clear counter-examples include words with positive connotations that co-occur with negative words, for example ease, tackle. In such cases, the words that follow such verbs are perceived as negative, but not the verbs themselves. Another debate concerns whether the term semantic/discourse prosody only relates to positive/negative meaning or to more complex attitudinal/functional meaning: According to John Sinclair, semantic prosody "expresses something close to the ‘function’ of the item – it shows how the rest of the item is to be interpreted functionally”. However, the narrow definition is much more used in corpus linguistics. Discourse analysis Corpus linguistics Bednarek, M.. Semantic preference and semantic prosody re-examined. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 4: 119-139. Https:// Hunston, S.. Semantic prosody revisited. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 12: 249-268. Louw, Bill Irony in the Text or Insincerity in the Writer? The Diagnostic Potential of Semantic Prosodies.

In Baker, M. Francis, G. & Tognini-Bonelli, E. Text and Technology: In Honour of John Sinclair. Philadelphia/Amsterdam: John Benjamins.pp. 157–76. Partington, A. "Utterly content in each other's company": Semantic prosody and semantic preference. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 9: 131-156. Tognini-Bonelli, E. Corpus Linguistics at Work. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Whitsitt, S.. A critique of the concept of semantic prosody. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 10: 283-305