Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Badge engineering, sometimes called rebadging, is the practice of applying a different badge or trademark to an existing product and subsequently marketing the variant as a distinct product. Due to the high cost of designing and engineering a new model or establishing a brand, economies of scale make it less expensive to rebadge a product once or multiple times than to create different models; the term badge engineering is an intentionally ironic misnomer, in that little or no actual engineering takes place. The term originated with the practice of replacing an automobile's emblems to create an ostensibly new model sold by a different maker. Changes may be confined to swapping badges and emblems, or may encompass minor styling differences, as with cosmetic changes to headlights, tail lights and rear fascias and outer body skins. More extreme examples involve differing drivetrains; the term badge engineered does not apply to vehicles that share a common platform architecture but are uniquely designed so that they may look different from each other.
This is achieved by not sharing visible parts, maintaining a host of underlying parts specific to their respective applications. Although platform sharing involves rebadging, it often extends much further than that, as an automobile platform may be used with many different applications. Rebadging in the automotive industry can be compared with white-label products in other consumer goods industries, such as consumer electronics and power tools; the first case of badge engineering began in 1917 with the Texan automobile assembled in Fort Worth, that made use of Elcar bodies made in Elkhart, Indiana."Probably the industry's first example of one car becoming another" occurred in 1926 when Nash Motors' newly introduced smaller-sized Ajax models were discontinued in 1926 after over 22,000 Ajax cars were sold during the brand's inaugural year. The chairman and CEO of the company, Charles W. Nash, ordered that the Ajax models be marketed as the "Nash Light Six", Nash being a known and respected automobile brand.
Production was stopped for two days so Nash emblems and radiator shells could be exchanged on all unshipped Ajax cars. Conversion kits were distributed at no charge to Ajax owners to transform their cars and protect the investment they had made in purchasing an automobile made by Nash. Starting with the beginning of General Motors in 1923, chassis and platforms were shared with all brands. GMC, a truck builder, began to offer their products branded as Chevrolet, vehicles produced by GM were built on common platforms shared with Chevrolet, Buick and Cadillac. Exterior appearances were upgraded between these vehicle brands. For 1958, GM was promoting their fiftieth year of production, introduced Anniversary models for each brand; the 1958 models shared a common appearance on the top models for each brand. A example was Wolseley Motors after it was bought out by William Morris. After World War I, the "Wolseley started to lose its identity and succumbed to badge engineering." This was repeated with the consolidation of Austin Motor Company and the Nuffield Organisation to form the British Motor Corporation.
The rationalization of production to gain efficiencies "did not extend to marketing" and each "model was adapted, by variation in trim and accessories, to appeal to customer loyalties for whom the badge denoting the company of origin was an important selling advantage...'Badge Engineering', as it became known, was symptomatic of a policy of sales competition between the constituent organizations." The ultimate example of BMC badge engineering was the BMC ADO16, available badged as a Morris, MG, Wolseley and Vanden Plas. Badge engineering occurs when an individual manufacturer, such as General Motors, owns a portfolio of different brands, markets the same car under a different brand, it may be done to expand the ranges of different brands in one market without developing new models, such as selling one car as a Chevrolet, a GMC and a Cadillac by GM in the United States. It may be done to sell the same model in different regions and markets under a different name. For example, cars built by Daewoo, now owned by GM, are no longer badged as Daewoos.
Instead, they are now badged as Chevrolets. In Australia and New Zealand, where Daewoo was unsuccessful, they were rebadged as Holden models; the Australian car manufacturing industry experienced major badge reengineering during the 1980s and 1990s as part of the failed Button car plan. In Japan, Toyota and Honda used this approach to expand vehicle production by offering one car at multiple Japanese dealerships. Toyota took the Corolla, exclusive to Toyota Corolla Store locations and sold it as the Toyota Sprinter, exclusive to Toyota Auto Store locations. Nissan followed suit with the Nissan Cedric, sold an identical bodystyle of the Cedric, called the Nissan Gloria, sold the Cedric at Nissan Bluebird Store, while the Gloria was sold at Nissan Prince Store. Honda pursued this marketing approach with the Honda Accord, sold in 1984 at Honda Clio locations and sold it as the Honda Vigor at Honda Verno locations; the difference to this method, as oppose
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
The Citroën C1 is a city car produced by the French manufacturer Citroën since June 2005. The C1 was developed as part of the B-Zero project by PSA Peugeot Citroën, in a joint venture with Toyota; the Peugeot 107 is identical to the C1, other than the front bumper and front and rear lights, while the Toyota Aygo is more differentiated, but still similar like its Asian made facelifted Yaris hatchback and sedan and facelifted third generation Vios. All of them are built at the new facilities of the TPCA joint venture in the city of Kolín, Czech Republic; the project was presented for the first time at the 2005 Geneva Motor Show. The cars are three door or five door hatchbacks measuring 3.40 metres in length. The body was designed by Donato Coco. A notable feature of the five door C1 and 107, though not the Aygo, is the large tail light cluster, which extends from the edge of the rear doors to the rear window, meaning there is no external metal "C-pillar"; the C1 is powered by a 1.0 L three cylinder engine.
A 1.4 L four cylinder HDI diesel engine which has a fuel economy of 68.9 mpg is available. According to the German magazine Der Spiegel, the C1 is the production car with the second-best fuel economy both among petrol engines and among diesel engines. In January 2010, PSA Peugeot Citroën announced that it is recalling "under 100,000 units" of the C1 and the Peugeot 107, following the worldwide recall by Toyota for a faulty sticking accelerator pedal – in which the Aygo is affected. Under certain circumstances, the pedal can stick in a depressed position, or return to the off position; the Vibe, three door or five door, this was the cheapest. Only available with the 1.0i engine. The Rhythm, three door or five door, this trim added remote central locking, colour coded wing mirrors, two side airbags and an engine rev counter; the 1.4 HDi diesel and the 1.0i petrol engines were both available with this trim. The Code, available in both three or five door and with the 1.4 HDi engine, added to the Rhythm specification by including 14 inch alloy wheels, half leather trimmed seats, chrome interior trim inserts and glove box cover.
Special editions The Cool – based on the Vibe, adding Air Conditioning and blue seat fabrics/dashboard inserts, available in Lipizan White or Damas Blue. The Airplay – based on the Rhythm, adding full iPod connectivity, iPod cradle, a 4 GB iPod Nano and coloured dashboard inserts and door pulls. Early models were available with swirling decals; this model was revealed at the 2006 British International Motor Show in July 2006. Designer Franco Sbarro created an extreme C1, called the C1 GT, a design concept that follows the same theme of his previous Xsara Picasso Concept; the extreme bodywork feature wide wheels and gullwing doors, alongside a modified 1.6L 125 PS engine from the C2VTR and C4 WRC rallycar brakes. It's said to have reached over 130 mph. In Portugal, a commercial van version called the Entreprise is offered, equipped with the 1.4L diesel engine and available only in the three door body, for urban use. It's 107 sibling offers an identical version. In the United Kingdom, the Electric Car Corporation has been selling an electric car based on the C1, called the Citroën C1 ev'ie since 30 April 2009.
Its list price on that date was £16,850, "double the cost of the petrol version". In January 2009, the Citroën C1 was facelifted at the same time as the Peugeot Toyota Aygo; the new C1 features a new front bumper incorporating a new grille, in keeping with Citroën's family look. Trim levels were refreshed – basic Vibe models became'VT', Rhythm became'VTR'. Seat fabrics and ventilation controls were changed, all models received colour coded front bumpers and new wheel trims. A special edition "Splash" was available at launch, though this was a limited edition; this was based on the basic "VT". However, it featured CD player, electric front windows; the Splash model was available in Lipizan White. Electra Blue came with white door mirrors, whilst the Lipizan White came with glossy black door mirrors. Engines remained the same, but tweaks mean the 1.0 petrol now emits just 106 g/km of CO2 and able to achieve 72 mpg‑imp fuel consumption. The 1.4 HDi diesel engine remains again only available in the higher specification.
Three new colours were added to the line up. Citroën made a further facelift in March 2012. Changes included. VTR + became the entry level. Breakdown statistics reported by the German Automobile Club in May 2010 placed the Citroën C1 at the top of the sub small car class, in respect of the low breakdown rates achieved for cars aged between one and four years. Class laggards were the Smart Fortwo; the Euro NCAP score was reduced from 4 stars to 3 stars for the facelift of 2012. At the 2014 Geneva Motor Show, Citroën revealed the new look redesigned version of the C1, built at a factory of the Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile Czech in a
Fifth Gear is a British motoring television magazine series. It was broadcast on Channel 5 from 2002 to 2011, afterwards moving to Discovery Channel in 2012, in 2015 to History, with repeats on ITV4. Since its return in 2018, it has been broadcast on Quest; the show is presented by Tiff Needell, Vicki Butler-Henderson, Jonny Smith and Jason Plato. Fifth Gear was first broadcast on 8 April 2002 as 5th Gear, as a continuation of the original incarnation of the BBC show Top Gear, cancelled in 2001. Top Gear was relaunched that year. Several of Top Gear's ex-presenters, including Quentin Willson, Tiff Needell, Vicki Butler-Henderson, were hired by Channel 5 to present the series; the show's name was restyled as Fifth Gear in 2005. Needell announced the show's second cancellation on 24 May 2016. On 14 June 2018, Needell announced on his official Twitter account that he had been doing some filming work for a new series of Fifth Gear which would air in September on Quest. Repeats of Fifth Gear started being broadcast on UKTV channel Dave in April 2008 and on Discovery Turbo.
The first seven series consisted of a 23-minute programme, not including 7 minutes of adverts. The eighth series returned in the autumn of 2005 in a longer format of 45 minutes, the ninth series was increased to a one-hour airtime slot. For series 17, the show has reverted to the original format of 23 minutes, which including adverts takes the show to half an hour. In Series 21, the show reverted to the previous one-hour airtime slot. At the start of series 10, the show introduced between-feature links filmed at the Ace Cafe in London. In previous series, these links were filmed at the production company offices in Birmingham. Produced by Chrysalis Television, the Birmingham offices were situated on the top floor of the headquarters of 100.7 Heart FM, near Birmingham's Five Ways area. The team moved out when Chrysalis sold its television division to All3Media in September 2003. In series 14, a location change from the Ace Cafe meant link sequences were filmed instead at the Millbrook Proving Ground, along with some of the vehicle testing features.
Tiff Needell Vicki Butler-Henderson Jonny Smith Jason Plato Tom Ford Adrian Simpson Quentin Willson Needell has appeared in all episodes with Butler-Henderson in most. Plato, on Driven replaced Simpson. Short-lived stintsIn 2005, the show's producer, Jon Bentley became a part-time presenter for a year before he went back to being the producer. Tim Lovejoy was hired in September 2006 for series 9 and 10. In August 2008, Tim Shaw became a presenter on the show for series 14. In October 2010, Ben Collins The Stig on BBC's Top Gear, came to Fifth Gear for series 18. Fifth Gear claimed to be'world renowned' for its'infamous' shoot-outs, between priced powerful cars, or cars versus bikes; these shoot outs took place at the Anglesey Circuit on the Isle of Anglesey close to Aberffraw. During the refurbishment of Anglesey, shoot-outs were switched to Castle Combe Circuit. Fifth Gear Episode Guide Ford Focus RS vs. Honda Civic Type-R vs. Seat León Cupra R BMW Z4 3.0i vs. Porsche Boxster Radical SR3 vs. Ariel Atom Nissan 350Z vs. Audi TT 3.2 Quattro BMW M3 CSL vs. BMW M3 Citroën C2 GT vs. Ford SportKa Ford Transit 125 T280 vs. Mercedes-Benz Sprinter 213CDI Škoda Fabia vRS TDi vs. Mini Cooper Lotus Elise 111R vs. Vauxhall VX220 Turbo Ducati 999 vs. Lamborghini Gallardo Honda Civic Type-R vs. Renaultsport Clio 182 Cup Vauxhall Monaro VXR vs. MG ZT260 MINI Cooper S Convertible vs. Smart Brabus Roadster Coupe Mosler MT900S vs. Ducati 999 Mercedes-Benz SL55 AMG vs. Mercedes-Benz SLK55 AMG BMW X5 4.8is vs. Porsche Cayenne S Noble M400 vs.
Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution VIII MR FQ-400 Porsche 911 Carrera S vs. Lotus Exige 240R Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution VI GSR vs. Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution IX FQ-320 Westfield XTR4 vs. Suzuki GSXR1000 Ford Fiesta ST150 vs. Mitsubishi Colt CZT Mazda RX-8 vs. Alfa Romeo GT 3.2 V6 Nissan 350Z vs. Audi TT Sport Quattro 240 Mercedes-Benz CLS55 AMG vs. Jaguar XJR Subaru Legacy 3.0 R spec. B Sports Tourer vs. Volvo V50 T5 SE AWD Lancia Delta Integrale vs. BMW M3 e30. 2006 Mazda MX-5 vs. Mazda MX-5 MkI Subaru Impreza WRX STi Type-UK vs. Subaru Forester STi Vauxhall Astra VXR vs. Ford Focus ST Mercedes-Benz A200T vs. Toyota Corolla Verso T180 BMW M6 vs. BMW M5 Škoda Octavia vRS vs. Volkswagen Golf GTI Volkswagen Golf R32 vs. BMW 130i M Sport Nissan Navara vs. Mitsubishi L200 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution IX MR FQ-360 vs. Stunt Plane Renaultsport Clio 197 vs. Vauxhall Corsa VXR Mini Cooper vs. Suzuki Swift Sport White van Megane shoot-out: Renaultsport Megane 230 F1 Team R26 vs. Ford Transit Connect X-press Hire car shoot-out: Vauxhall Astra 1.6 vs. Ford Focus 1.6 Zetec BMW 335i vs. Audi S5 Honda Civic Type R vs. Honda Civic Type R Audi TT 2.0T S-tronic vs. Audi TT 2.0T manual Ford Gran Torino vs. Dodge Charger Week 1: Lotus Exige S 240 vs. Caterham CSR 260 Superlight Week 2: Renaultsport Clio 197 vs. Rage Buggy R180RT Week 3: Vauxhall VXR8 vs.
Lotus Carlton Week 4: VW Transporter Sportline vs. Mercedes-Benz Vito X Week 5: Fiat Panda 100HP vs. Renault Twingo GT Week 6: Mini One vs. Fiat 500 1.4 Week 7: Ford Fiesta ST vs. Vauxhall Corsa SRi
The A-segment is a category in the passenger car classification system defined by the European Commission. It is used for city cars, the smallest category of passenger cars defined. In Europe the term city car is used; the popularity of the segment increased in the late 1950s, due to the introduction of the Fiat 500 and the BMC Mini. As of 2017, A-segment sales account for 8℅ market share in Europe. In the United States, A-segment cars represented 0.8% of the market and the segment was dominated by the Mini and Fiat 500. In India, traditionally the A-segment cars had clocked the highest sales. However, sales have been in decline in recent years, falling from 70,000 sales per month in 2014 to 47,000 sales per month in 2016. In Italy, A-segment cars represented 36.8 of car sales in the first half of 2018. The top five selling A-segment cars in Europe are the Fiat 500, Fiat Panda, Volkswagen Up!, Hyundai i10 and Toyota Aygo