Tire recycling, or rubber recycling, is the process of recycling waste tires that are no longer suitable for use on vehicles due to wear or irreparable damage. These tires are a challenging source of waste, due to the large volume produced, the durability of the tires, the components in the tire that are ecologically problematic; because tires are durable and non-biodegradable, they can consume valued space in landfills. In 1990, it was estimated; as of 2015, only 67 million tires remain in stockpiles. From 1994 to 2010, the European Union increased the amount of tires recycled from 25% of annual discards to nearly 95%, with half of the end-of-life tires used for energy in cement manufacturing. Newer technology, such as pyrolysis and devulcanization, has made tires suitable targets for recycling despite their bulk and resilience. Aside from use as fuel, the main end use for tires remains ground rubber; the tire life cycle can be identified by the following six steps: Product developments and innovations such as improved compounds and camber tire shaping increase tire life, increments of replacement, consumer safety, reduce tire waste.
Proper manufacturing and quality of delivery reduces waste at production. Direct distribution through retailers, reduces inventory time and ensures that the life span and the safety of the products are explained to customers. Consumers' use and maintenance choices like tire rotation and alignment affect tire wear and safety of operation. Manufacturers and retailers set policies on return and replacement to reduce the waste generated from tires and assume responsibility for taking the'tire to its grave' or to its reincarnation. Recycling tires by developing strategies that combust or process waste into new products, creates viable businesses, fulfilling public policies. Tires are not desired at due to their large volumes and 75 % void space. Tires can trap methane gases, bubble to the surface. This'bubbling' effect can damage landfill liners that have been installed to help keep landfill contaminants from polluting local surface and ground water. Shredded tires are now being used in landfills, replacing other construction materials, for a lightweight back-fill in gas venting systems, leachate collection systems, operational liners.
Shredded tire material may be used to cap, close, or daily cover landfill sites. Scrap tires as a back-fill and cover material are more cost-effective, since tires can be shredded on-site instead of hauling in other fill materials. Tire stockpiles create a great safety risk. Tire fires can occur burning for months and creating substantial pollution in the air and ground. Recycling helps to reduce the number of tires in storage. An additional health risk, tire piles provide harborage for vermin and a breeding ground for mosquitoes that may carry diseases. Illegal dumping of scrap tires pollutes ravines, woods and empty lots. Tire amnesty day events, in which community members can deposit a limited number of waste tires free of charge, can be funded by state scrap tire programs, helping decrease illegal dumping and improper storage of scrap tires. Tire storage and recycling are sometimes linked with illegal activities and lack of environmental awareness. Although tires are burnt, not recycled, efforts are continuing to find value.
Tires can be reclaimed into, among other things, the hot melt asphalt as crumb rubber modifier—recycled asphalt pavement, as an aggregate in portland cement concrete Efforts have been made to use recycled tires as raw material for new tires, but such tires may integrate recycled materials no more than 5% by weight, tires that contain recycled material are inferior to new tires, suffering from reduced tread life and lower traction. Tires have been cut up and used in garden beds as bark mulch to hold in the water and to prevent weeds from growing; some "green" buildings, both private and public, have been made from old tires. Pyrolysis can be used to reprocess the tires into fuel gas, solid residue, low-grade carbon black, which cannot be used in tire manufacture. A pyrolysis method which produces activated carbon and high-grade carbon black has been suggested. Old tires can be used as an alternative fuel in the manufacturing of Portland cement, a key ingredient in concrete. Whole tires are introduced into cement kilns, by rolling them into the upper end of a preheater kiln, or by dropping them through a slot midway along a long wet kiln.
In either case, the high gas temperatures cause instantaneous and smokeless combustion of the tire. Alternatively, tires are chopped into 5–10 mm chips, in which form they can be injected into a precalciner combustion chamber.. Tires can be reused in many ways. In a 2003 report cited by the U. S. EPA, it is stated that markets existed for 80.4% of scrap tires, about 233 million tires per year. Assuming 22.5 pounds per tire, the 2003 report predicts a total weight of about 2.62 million tonnes from tires. New products derived from waste tires generate more economic activity than combustion or other low multiplier production, while reducing waste stream without generating excessive pollution and emissions from recycling operations. Construction materials. Entire homes can be built with whole tires by ramming them full of earth and covering them with concrete, known as earthships, they are used in civil engineering applications such as sub-grade fil
A culvert is a structure that allows water to flow under a road, trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other side. Embedded so as to be surrounded by soil, a culvert may be made from a pipe, reinforced concrete or other material. In the United Kingdom, the word can be used for a longer artificially buried watercourse. Culverts are used both as cross-drains for ditch relief, to pass water under a road at natural drainage and stream crossings. A culvert may be a bridge-like structure designed to allow vehicle or pedestrian traffic to cross over the waterway while allowing adequate passage for the water. Culverts come in many sizes and shapes including round, flat-bottomed, open-bottomed, pear-shaped, box-like constructions; the culvert type and shape selection is based on a number of factors including requirements for hydraulic performance, limitations on upstream water surface elevation, roadway embankment height. If the span of crossing is greater than 12 feet the structure is termed a bridge.
A structure that carries water above land is known as an aqueduct. The process of removing culverts, becoming prevalent, is known as daylighting. In the UK, the practice is known as deculverting. Culverts can be constructed of a variety of materials including cast-in-place or precast concrete, galvanized steel, aluminum, or plastic. Two or more materials may be combined to form composite structures. For example, open-bottom corrugated steel structures are built on concrete footings. Construction or installation at a culvert site results in disturbance of the site soil, stream banks, or streambed, can result in the occurrence of unwanted problems such as scour holes or slumping of banks adjacent to the culvert structure. Culverts must be properly sized and installed, protected from erosion and scour. Many U. S. agencies such as the Federal Highway Administration, Bureau of Land Management, Environmental Protection Agency, as well as state or local authorities, require that culverts be designed and engineered to meet specific federal, state, or local regulations and guidelines to ensure proper function and to protect against culvert failures.
Culverts are classified by standards for their load capacities, water flow capacities, life spans, installation requirements for bedding and backfill. Most agencies adhere to these standards when designing and specifying culverts. Culvert failures can occur for a wide variety of reasons including maintenance and installation related failures, functional or process failures related to capacity and volume causing the erosion of the soil around or under them, structural or material failures that cause culverts to fail due to collapse or corrosion of the materials from which they are made. If the failure is sudden and catastrophic, it can result in loss of life. Sudden road collapses are the result of poorly designed and engineered culvert crossing sites or unexpected changes in the surrounding environment cause design parameters to be exceeded. Water passing through undersized culverts will scour away the surrounding soil over time; this can cause a sudden failure during medium-sized rain events.
Accidents from culvert failure can occur if a culvert has not been adequately sized and a flood event overwhelms the culvert, or disrupts the road or railway above it. Ongoing culvert function without failure depends on proper design and engineering considerations being given to load, hydraulic flow, surrounding soil analysis and bedding compaction, erosion protection. Improperly designed backfill support around culverts can result in material collapse or failure from inadequate load support. For existing culverts which have experienced degradation, loss of structural integrity or need to meet new codes or standards, rehabilitation using a reline pipe maybe preferred versus replacement. Sizing of a reline culvert uses the same hydraulic flow design criteria as that of a new culvert however as the reline culvert is meant to be inserted into an existing culvert or host pipe, reline installation requires the grouting of the annular space between the host pipe and the surface of reline pipe so as to prevent or reduce seepage and soil migration.
Grouting serves as a means in establishing a structural connection between the liner, host pipe and soil. Depending on the size and annular space to be filled as well as the pipe elevation between the inlet and outlet, grouting maybe required to be performed in multiple stages or "lifts". If multiple lifts are required a grouting plan is required which defines the placement of grout feed tubes, air tubes, type of grout to be used and if injecting or pumping grout the required developed pressure for injection; as the diameter of the reline pipe will be smaller than the host pipe, the cross-sectional flow area will be smaller. By selecting a reline pipe with a smooth internal surface, with an approximate Hazen-Williams Friction Factor, C, value of between 140-150, the decreased flow area can be offset and hydraulic flow rates increased by way of reduced surface flow resistance. Examples of pipe materials with high C-factors are HDPE. Undersized and poorly placed culverts can cause problems for aquatic organisms.
Poorly designed culverts can degrade water quality via scour and erosion, as well as restrict the movement of aquatic organisms between upstream and downstream habitat. Fish are a common victim in the loss of habitat du
A Jersey barrier, or Jersey wall, is a modular concrete or plastic barrier employed to separate lanes of traffic. It is designed to minimize vehicle damage in cases of incidental contact while still preventing vehicle crossovers resulting in a head-on collision. Jersey barriers are used to reroute traffic and protect pedestrians and workers during highway construction, as well as temporary and semi-permanent protections against landborne attack such as suicide vehicle bombs. A Jersey barrier is known in the western United States as K-rail, a term borrowed from the California Department of Transportation specification for temporary concrete traffic barriers, or colloquially as a Jersey bump. Plastic water-filled barriers of the same general shape are now called Jersey barriers. Jersey barriers were developed in the 1950s, beginning in the U. S. state of New Jersey as separators between lanes of a highway. Over time, they became more modular. Taller barriers have the added advantage of blocking most oncoming headlights.
Although it is not clear when or where the first concrete median barriers were used, concrete median barriers were used in the mid-1940s on US-99 on the descent from the Tehachapi Mountains in the central valley south of Bakersfield, California. This first generation of concrete barriers was developed to minimize the number of out-of-control trucks penetrating the barrier, eliminate the need for costly and dangerous median barrier maintenance in high-accident locations with narrow medians – concerns that are as valid today as they were 50 years ago; the Jersey barrier called New Jersey wall, was developed in the 1950s, at the Stevens Institute of Technology, New Jersey, United States, under the direction of the New Jersey State Highway Department to divide multiple lanes on a highway. A typical Jersey barrier stands 32 inches tall and is made of steel-reinforced poured concrete or plastic. Many are constructed with the embedded steel reinforcement protruding from each end, allowing them to be incorporated into permanent emplacements when linked to one another by sections of fresh concrete poured on-site.
Their widespread use in road construction has led to wide application as a generic, portable barrier during construction projects and temporary rerouting of traffic into stopgap carpool and rush-hour reversing highway lanes. Most of the original barriers constructed in New Jersey in the 50s and early 60s were not "modular". Many of the first installations were much shorter than the heights discussed here about two feet tall; some dividers on county or local roads may have been lower than that since they replaced a raised concrete rumble strip that would dissuade but not prevent traffic crossing from one lane to another. Route 46 had the rumble strip in many places before the higher barrier was installed; these lower dividers are visible in old photographs. When the Bergen Mall was first opened in Paramus, these rumble strip dividers were extensively used on the roadway that separated the grocery stores from the mall proper; the design of the Jersey barrier was intended to minimize damage in incidental accidents and reduce the likelihood of a car crossing into oncoming lanes in the event of a collision.
In common shallow-angle hits, sheet-metal damage is minimized by allowing the vehicle tires to ride up on the lower sloped face. Head-on vehicle collisions are minimized by lifting the vehicle and pivoting it away from oncoming vehicles and back into traffic heading in its original direction. Modern variations include the F-shape barrier; the F-shape is similar to the Jersey barrier in appearance, but is taller, with somewhat different angles. The UK equivalent is the concrete step barrier. First tested in 1968 by the Department of Highways in Ontario, the Ontario Tall Wall is a variant of the Jersey barrier. Standing at 42 inches, it is 10 inches taller than the standard Jersey barrier. In Ontario, the Ministry of Transportation is replacing guiderails with these barriers on 400-series highways; the New Jersey Turnpike Authority developed and tested a similar, but reinforced, design. This barrier design has been credited with containing and redirecting larger vehicles, including semi-trailer trucks.
The states of New York and New Jersey have adopted the taller barrier for their roads, as compared to the standard 32 inches suggested by the Federal Highway Administration. Designs with two rectangular notches at the bottom allow for forklift-style lifting by front-end loaders. Barriers meant for short-term placement in military and security barrier uses, might include steel rebar loops embedded in the top surface for rapid hook-and-cable system lifting; the 2010 G-20 Toronto summit used modified modular Jersey barriers with wired fencing bolted onto the concrete. The fence used the barrier as sturdy base to prevent protesters from toppling the fence around the security zone at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre; the U. S. military nicknamed the devices as "Qaddafi Blocks" after truck bomb attacks in Beirut in 1983 resulted in more widespread use in military installations. Sometimes they are deployed to form a chicane to slow vehicular traffic arriving at military installations or other secure areas.
In the Philippines, jersey barriers were used for security and crowd control along the route of the papal co
Highways in the Czech Republic
Highways in the Czech Republic are managed by the state-owned Road and Motorway Directorate of the Czech Republic – ŘSD ČR, established in 1997. The ŘSD manages and maintains 1,250 km of motorways, whose speed limit is of 130 km/h or 80 mph; the present-day national motorway network is due to be of about 2,000 km before 2030. In 2018, for motorcars with a maximum authorized mass of up to 3.5 tonnes, motorways in the Czech Republic are subject to a time-based fee paid with the purchase of a windscreen toll vignette with a validity of either 10 days, 1 month or 1 year. Said, a motorway road sign means that a toll vignette is obligatory. Only sections not subject to vignette are designated with an additional road sign; as of 1 January 2007 a new system of electronic toll aka a distance toll for vehicles with a weight exceeding 12 tons has been introduced for motorways and some roads of the first class cca 200 km. As of 1 January 2010, this applies to vehicles over 3.5 tons. There is an ongoing public discussion on imposition of electronic toll for all vehicles.
First informal plans of a motorway in Czechoslovakia date back to 1935 and was to link Prague through Slovakia with Czechoslovak easternmost territory of Carpathian Ruthenia being Velykyy Bychkiv its end on the Czechoslovak - Romanian border. The definitive route, including a Prague ring motorway, was approved shortly after the Munich Agreement on 4 November 1938 for a planned speed limit of 120 km/h. Nazi authorities made the second Czecho-Slovak Republic a German satellite state, build up a part of the Reichsautobahn Breslau - Vienna as an extraterritorial German motorway with border checkpoints at each motorway exit. However, only a construction of the route within Bohemia and Moravia was initiated, but never finished, it still sporadically appears in some current Czech motorway plans. On 1 December 1938 the Nazi Germany had initiated a construction of so-called Sudetenautobahn in the route Streitau – Eger – Carlsbad – Lobositz – Böhmisch Leipa – Reichenberg – Görlitz; the autobahn has never been finished, but some remnants in the landscape close to Pomezí nad Ohří, Cheb/Eger and Liberec/Reichenberg are still prominent and a not finished part from Svárov via Machnín to Chrastava was used in the construction of the road for motorcars I/35.
After the breakdown of Czechoslovakia following a declaration of independence of the Slovak Republic and of the short-lived Carpatho-Ukraine, a prelude to the German occupation of Bohemia and Moravia on 15 March 1939, a decision to build the motorway only to the Slovak border was adopted. The technical parameters of motorways were adjusted to those of German Reichsautobahn as Czech motorways should be integrated within the German Reichsautobahn network; the project for the first segment Prague - Lužná was ready in January 1939, the construction in Moravia began on 24 January in Chřiby on the Zástřizly - Lužná segment. The construction in Bohemia from Prague on began on 2 May 1939, with switch to right-hand traffic in Bohemia and Moravia gone without a hitch; the motorway should have reached Brno in 1940, but building materials and labour shortage due to an absolute priority of the nazi armament industry delayed the work. The construction in the route of approx. 77 km from Prague towards Brno advanced notably when a prohibition of all civil constructions by German authorities came into force in 1942.
After the Second World War, the completion only of the first and unfinished 77 km of the motorway Prague - Brno up to Humpolec was approved by the Government in November 1945 and was reinaugurated in 1946. The construction sites of the inaugurated construction of the Sudetenautobahn were abandoned, as well as that of the Breslau - Vienna motorway; the latter was, incorporated in some plans as a future connection motorway between Brno and the D35 motorway. Just finishing of some large bridges and a concrete surface on the 77 km of the Prague - Humpolec motorway lacked when the new communist government decided to discontinue the work in early 1950. Only on 8 August 1967 the Government of the Socialist Republic of Czechoslovakia resolved to continue the construction of motorways by adopting a new motorway plan for the whole country and passed a resolution of continuation of the twice interrupted construction of the motorway Prague - Brno and further Brno - Bratislava; the construction was solemnly inaugurated on 8 September 1967.
Due to a change of technical parameters, some bridges finished. The Prague - Brno motorway, initiated on 2 May 1939, reached Brno in 1980, full 40 years after in the beginning scheduled opening; the pace of construction of highways has always been rather slow up to the present days. The first 100 km of highways on the territory of today's Czech Republic were completed in 1975, 500 km in 1985 and 1,000 in 2007. Funding for the construction of highways was radically reduced after the crisis in 2008 due to draconian budget cuts and is gaining momentum rather for various reasons; the motorways in the Czech Republic, Czech: dáln
Concrete step barrier
A concrete step barrier is a safety barrier used on the central reservation of motorways and dual carriageways as an alternative to the standard steel crash barrier. With effect from January 2005 and based on safety grounds, the UK Highways England policy is that all new motorway schemes are to use high-containment concrete barriers in the central reserve. All existing motorways will introduce concrete barriers into the central reserve as part of ongoing upgrades and through replacement when these systems have reached the end of their useful life; this change of policy applies only to barriers in the central reserve of high-speed roads and not to verge-side barriers. Other routes will continue to use steel barriers. Government policy ensures that all future crash barriers in the UK will be made of concrete unless there are overriding circumstances; the usage of the concrete step barrier has become widespread in Ireland. As of 2017, 530 kilometres of motorways use this barrier; some motorways such as parts of the M8 and M6 have had the crash barrier since their original construction.
Other motorways had it installed as part of their upgrade. Steel guard rails and concrete profile barrier are the barrier systems used in expressways in the territory; the designs of their beam barrier are based in American and Australian designs and concrete based in European standards. Various types of aggregate may undergo chemical reactions in concrete, leading to damaging expansive phenomena; the most common are those containing reactive silica. Amorphous silica is one of the most reactive mineral components in some aggregates containing e.g. opal, flint. Following the alkali-silica reaction, an expansive gel can form, that creates extensive cracks and damage on structural members. Jersey barrier Constant-slope barrier F-shape barrier Road-traffic safety
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A head-on collision is a traffic collision where the front ends of two vehicles such as cars, ships or planes hit each other in opposite directions, as opposed to a side collision or rear-end collision. With railways, a head-on collision occurs most on a single line railway; this means that at least one of the trains has passed a signal at danger, or that a signalman has made a major error. Head-on collisions may occur at junctions, for similar reasons. In the early days of railroading in the United States, such collisions were quite common and gave to the rise of the term "Cornfield Meet." As time progressed and signalling became more standardized, such accidents became less frequent. So, the term still sees some usage in the industry; the origins of the term are not well known, but it is attributed to accidents happening in rural America where farming and cornfields were common. The first known usage of the term was in the mid-19th century; the distance required for a train to stop is greater than the distance that can be seen before the next blind curve, why signals and safeworking systems are so important.
Note: if the collision occurs at a station or junction, or trains are traveling in the same direction the collision is not a pure head-on collision. September 10, 1874 — Thorpe rail accident, England — telegraph clerk's error. January 26, 1921 — Abermule train collision, Montgomeryshire — failure to observe proper procedures. October 20, 1957 — Yarımburgaz train disaster, near Istanbul, Turkey: 95 killed. November 16, 1960 — Stéblová train disaster, Czechoslovakia: 118 killed. 1969 — Violet Town railway disaster, Australia — dead driver drives through crossing loop. May 27, 1971 — Radevormwald, West Germany — Dahlerau train disaster — A freight train and a passenger train crashed into each other. May 4, 1976 - Schiedam train disaster, The Netherlands: An international train coming from Hook of Holland collided with a commuter train coming from Rotterdam resulting in 24 deaths. August 28, 1979 - Nijmegen train disaster, The Netherlands: Two passenger trains—of which one did not contain passengers—collided head-on near the Kolpingbuurt neighbourhood in Nijmegen resulting in 8 deaths.
July 25, 1980 — Winsum train disaster, The Netherlands: Two trains collide on a single track between Groningen and Roodeschool resulting in 9 deaths. February 8, 1986 — Hinton train collision, Alberta — freight train passed red light due to sleeping crew. February 17, 1986 — Queronque rail accident, Valparaíso Region — Two passenger trains collied due lack of communication between the two stations. October 19, 1987 — Bintaro train crash — two passenger train collided due to signal misunderstanding. 1989/1991 — Glasgow Bellgrove rail crash and Newton rail accident, Scotland — both SPAD’s with track layout at single lead junctions a major contributory factor October 15, 1994 — Cowden rail crash, England. January 14, 1996 — Hines Hill train collision, Australia — Signal passed at danger at a crossing loop causes a head-on collision August 12, 1998 – 1998 Suonenjoki rail collision, Finland – A southbound InterCity train leaves Suonenjoki through a red signal and collides with a northbound freight train.
August 2, 1999 — Gauhati rail disaster — Two express trains collide head-on in. Over 285 people are killed. October 5, 1999 — Paddington train crash - head-on collision at Ladbroke Grove. January 4, 2000 — Åsta accident, Åsta in Åmot, Norway — Two diesel passenger trains collide on the Rørosbanen killing 19; the fire after the collision lasts nearly six hours. January 7, 2005 - Crevalcore train crash - head-on collision in Emilia-Romagna, Italy - 17 killed, 80 injured October 11, 2006 — 2006 Zoufftgen rail crash - head-on collision at Zoufftgen, on the border between France and Luxembourg September 12, 2008 - 2008 Chatsworth train collision- head-on collision in Los Angeles - 25 killed, 135 injured February 15, 2010 - Halle train collision - head-on collision between two trains near Brussels, Belgium - 18 killed, 125 injured January 29, 2011 — Hordorf, Germany — 2011 Saxony-Anhalt train collision - a freight train and a passenger train collided - ten people were killed and 43 people were injured April 21, 2012 - 2012 Sloterdijk train collision - head-on collision between two trains in Sloterdijk, Netherlands - 1 killed, 117 injured February 9, 2016 - Bad Aibling rail accident - 11 dead, 85 injured.
July 12, 2016 - Andria-Corato train collision - head-on collision in Apulia, Italy - 27 dead, 50 injured. With shipping, there are two main factors influencing the chance of a head-on collision. Firstly with radar and radio, it is difficult to tell what course the opposing ships are following. Secondly, big ships have so much momentum that it is hard to change course at the last moment. Head-on collisions are an fatal type of road traffic collision. U. S. statistics show that in 2005, head-on crashes were only 2.0% of all crashes, yet accounted for 10.1% of U. S. fatal crashes. A common misconception is that this over-representation is because the relative velocity of vehicles traveling in opposite directions is high. While it is true that a head-on crash between two vehicles traveling at 50 mph is equivalent to a moving vehicle running into a stationary one at 100 mph, it is clear from basic Newtonian Physics that if the stationary vehicle is replaced with a solid