A trailer park is a temporary or permanent area for mobile homes and travel trailers. Advantages include low cost compared to other housing, quick and easy moving to a new area, for example when taking a job in a distant place while keeping the same home. Trailer parks in American culture, are stereotypically viewed as lower income housing for occupants living at or below the poverty line who have low social status and lead a desultory and deleterious lifestyle. Despite the advances in trailer home technology, the trailer park image survives as evoked by a statement from Presidential adviser James Carville who, in the course of one of the Bill Clinton White House political scandals, suggested "Drag $100 bills through trailer parks, there's no telling what you'll find," in reference to Paula Jones, it is seen in the Canadian mockumentary Trailer Park Boys. Tornadoes and hurricanes inflict serious damage on trailer parks because the structures are not secured to the ground and their construction is less able to withstand high wind forces than regular houses.
However, most modern manufactured homes are built to withstand high winds, using hurricane straps and proper foundations. The negative perception of trailer parks was not improved by the creation of emergency trailer parks by the Federal Emergency Management Agency for the displaced victims of Hurricane Katrina, the quality and temporary nature of, disputed. Many stereotypes have been developed regarding people who live in trailer parks, which are similar to stereotypes of the poor and the term trailer trash is used as an adjective in the same vein as the derogatory American terms white trash or ghetto. Though trailer parks appear throughout the United States, they are associated with the Deep South and rural areas. More referred to in the U. S. as "mobile home parks" or "manufactured housing communities", the stereotypes are just that. Age-Restricted communities exist in many locales that permit mobile home parks as "55+ parks" in keeping with the Housing for Older Persons Act. At least one homeowner in these age-restricted communities must be age 55 or over and persons under the age of 18 are permitted to live there.
These can be gated communities with amenities such as swimming pools, clubhouses and on-site maintenance. Homes are permanently installed on foundations. However, in certain circumstances residents may not own the land. Mobile home parks in the U. S. have become an attractive investment for large financial firms, such as Carlyle Group, Apollo Global Management and TPG Capital. Over 100,000 US mobile home sites were estimated to be owned by large firms in 2019. One firm, Stockbridge Capital Group, owner of about 200 mobile-home parks throughout the US "saw a return on investment of more than 30 percent between late 2016 and the end of 2017." The company's expansion into this market was facilitated by $1.3 billion in financing from Fannie Mae, which has called mobile homes "inherently affordable." Profitability for the firms owning the parks has in some cases been tied to rent increases, has not translated into good maintenance of the mobile homes. In Europe in Germany and Spain, where trailer parks are less common as'normal' accommodation, disputed trailer parks exist that squat on land near urban centers.
Names for such phenomena include Wagenburg, Wagendorf or Bauwagenplatz and people living there are associated with certain ethnic groups such as Romani, or with the punk movement, New age travelers, Irish travelers and a do-it-yourself punk ethic. On the whole, trailer parks are much less common in these countries than they are elsewhere and in United States and are much less emblematic of a distinct lifestyle and membership to a certain social class. In Germany, the Netherlands and some other European countries local law allows for normal camping at RV parks for a short time and seasonal camping for holiday makers, long-time camping with hardly movable travel trailers. Sometimes the inhabitants cultivate a garden; some cities allow a long-time camping lot to be the regular address registered with the authorities. Many of mobile home plots are offered by RV parks that allow for all sorts of camping and offer extra plots for mobile homes; the cost for such a plot tends to be between 400 € and 1.500 € a year, depending on the location and facilities.
In France, living in a trailer or mobile home for more than three months is prohibited by law if the resident owns the land. In the United Kingdom, "trailers" are known as static caravans, are used for one of two purposes: firstly as holiday homes, designed for short-term living. Both types of trailers enjoy good amenities and are surrounded by manicured gardens. In Australia, there is no differentiation between a trailer park and an RV park; the term "caravan park" is used to refer to both. In New Zealand, the suburb of Favona in Auckland is an area. RV park Shanty town Trailer Park Boys Trailer trash, a derogatory term for white people who live in trailer parks Sullivan, Esther. "Moving Out: Mapping Mobile Home Park Closures to Analyze Spatial Patterns of Low-Income Residential Displacement". City & Community. Wiley. 16: 3
The Vermont Lake Monsters are a Minor League Baseball team in the Class A Short Season New York–Penn League affiliated with the Oakland Athletics. The team plays its home games at Centennial Field, one of the oldest minor league stadiums, on the University of Vermont campus in Burlington, Vermont; the team was located in Jamestown, New York, from 1977 to 1993. In 1993, Burlington businessman Ray Pecor, Jr. the owner of Lake Champlain Transportation Company in Burlington since 1976, purchased the Jamestown Expos and moved the franchise to Burlington, retaining the Expos name. The Vermont Expos played their first game at Centennial Field on June 16, 1994. More than 5,000 people attended the home opener—a 6-5 loss to the Pittsfield Mets; the Montreal Expos announced on September 29, 2004, that they would move to Washington, D. C. after the 2004 season. They would rename themselves the Washington Nationals. Minor League Baseball gives clubs 60-days after the end of the season to change their names and logos.
Vermont did not have enough time for an identity change and retained the Expos nickname for the 2005 season. During the 2005 season, the club announced its plan to change the nickname and solicited suggestions from its fans; the team received 30,000 fan suggestions for the new name via a name-the-team contest. The New York Times reported that the two leading contenders were "Green Mountain Boys" and "Lakemonsters". At the end of the contest, the winning name was "Champs", but as the team had not made the playoffs at that point since 1995, management did not think it was appropriate, they announced the new name, "Lake Monsters", revealed the new team colors and uniforms on November 15, 2005. The Expos colors of red and blue were replaced with the Lake Monster colors of navy blue, Columbia blue, lime green; the name references Champ, the legendary Lake Champlain monster, the team's mascot since 1994. The club's last game as the Vermont Expos was on September 8, 2005, they opened the 2006 season as the Vermont Lake Monsters.
The franchise was the last professional ball club. The team's home ballpark, Centennial Field, is 100 miles from the Montreal Expos' last home ballpark Olympic Stadium—closer than the Boston Red Sox' Fenway Park. While baseball fans in Burlington tend to root for the Red Sox, New York Mets, or New York Yankees, Montreal was the closest Major League Baseball team until moving to Washington, D. C. 2005. Fans along the border towns rooted for the Expos until the move. On July 22, 2005, the Vermont Expos held its first "Tribute to the Expos" promotion and honored Andre Dawson at Centennial Field. While the club changed its name to the "Lake Monsters" in 2006, the organization held its second "tribute to the Expos"; the club honored pitcher Dennis Martínez and wore powder-blue Expos uniforms with the Expos name on the front and a Lake Monsters patch on the left sleeve. On August 5, 2007, the Lake Monsters brought Tim Wallach to Burlington. Following the 2010 season, the Lake Monsters ended their affiliation with the Nationals and entered into a new player development contract with the Oakland Athletics.
This marked the first new MLB affiliation in the Lake Monsters' 17-year history. Vermont began its first year as an affiliate of the Oakland A's in June 2011. 1995: Defeated Hudson Valley 2–0 in semifinals. 1996: Defeated Pittsfield 2–0 in semifinals. 2011: Lost to Auburn 2–0 in semifinals. 2017: Defeated Mahoning Valley 2–0 in semifinals. Official Vermont Lake Monsters website BR Bullpen: Vermont Lake Monsters BR Bullpen: Vermont Expos
Chaos Glacier is a glacier 4 nautical miles south of Browns Glacier, flowing westward from Ingrid Christensen Coast into the central part of Ranvik Bay. It was mapped by Norwegian cartographers from air photos taken by the Lars Christensen Expedition, named by John H. Roscoe in a 1952 study of U. S. Navy Operation Highjump aerial photography of this coast; the name alludes to the jumbled, appearance of the terminal glacial flowage. List of glaciers in the Antarctic Glaciology This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Chaos Glacier"
Southeast Europe Transport Community is an regional intergovernmental organisation established after the signing of a treaty on its creation on 9 October 2017. It was established in the context of the Berlin Process. Community's stated goal is development of transport network between the European Union and countries of Southeast Europe in the field of road, inland waterway and maritime transport, its members are European Union and the six Western Balkan parties namely Albania and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Serbia. In December 2017 Belgrade was unanimously elected as the seat of the Community's Permanent Office; the permanent office was open in September 2019. References: Notes: Berlin Process Southeast Europe Stabilisation and Association Process Central European Free Trade Agreement Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe
The Lower Northern Army Division, was a division of the Swedish Army which operated in various forms from 1941 to 1997. Its staff was located in Östersund Garrison in Östersund; the Lower Northern Army Division was raised on 1 August 1941 as the XII Division, a doubling division of the II Army Division. The army division was directly subordinate to the military commander of the II Military District, while the Jämtland Ranger Regiment was responsible for raising and mobilization of the army division staff. On 1 October 1966, the designation was changed from being given in Roman numerals to Arabic numerals, that is, the division was termed the 12th Division. Through the Defence Act of 1977 it was decided that the army would be reduced in 1978 with two army divisions, thereby disbanding the 2nd Army Division and the 16th Army Division. On 1 July 1993, the Lower Norrland Military District and the Upper Norrland Military District were merged and formed the Northern Military District; the army division, together with the Upper Northern Army Division, thus came under the military commander of the Northern Military District.
Through the Defence Act of 1992, the Riksdag decided that the Swedish Armed Forces' war organization should reflect the peace organization. As of 1 July 1994, the army division staff, together with the Upper Northern Army Division, came to be organized as a cadre-organized unit within the Northern Military District. With the new organization, the army division adopted the name Lower Northern Army Division. Prior to the Defence Act of 1996, the Swedish government proposed to the Riksdag that the war organization to be reduced. Where, among other things, the three military districts would be covered by each division staff. Of the six division staffs, three with division units and 13 army brigades would be maintained. Within the Northern Military District, the government proposed that the Lower Northern Army Division should be disbanded. On 13 December 1996, the Riksdag adopted the government's bill, which meant that the Lower Northern Army Division was disbanded on 31 December 1997; the division staff was located at Prästgatan in Östersund.
In December 1993, the staff was moved to the former administrative building of Norrland Artillery Regiment, where it remained until it was disbanded on 30 June 1997. The coat of arms of the Eastern Army Division used from 1994 to 1997. Blazon: "Fess wavy vert and azure; the shield surmounted two batons or, charged with open crowns azure in saltire." In 1997, the Nedre norra fördelningens minnesmedalj in silver of the 8th size was established. The medal ribbon is divided in green and blue moiré. 1943–1995:? 1995–1997: Colonel 1st Class Björn Karlsson List of Swedish army divisions Braunstein, Christian. Sveriges arméförband under 1900-talet. Skrift / Statens försvarshistoriska museer, 1101-7023. Stockholm: Statens försvarshistoriska museer. ISBN 91-971584-4-5. LIBRIS 8902928. Braunstein, Christian. Heraldiska vapen inom det svenska försvaret. Skrift / Statens försvarshistoriska museer, 1101-7023. Stockholm: Statens försvarshistoriska museer. ISBN 91-971584-9-6. LIBRIS 10099224. Braunstein, Christian. Utmärkelsetecken på militära uniformer.
Skrift / Statens försvarshistoriska museer, 1101-7023. Stockholm: Statens försvarshistoriska museer. ISBN 978-91-976220-2-8. LIBRIS 10423295. Sandberg, Bo. Försvarets marscher och signaler förr och nu: marscher antagna av svenska militära förband, skolor och staber samt igenkännings-, tjänstgörings- och exercissignaler. Stockholm: Militärmusiksamfundet med Svenskt marscharkiv. ISBN 978-91-631-8699-8. LIBRIS 10413065. Gustafsson, Ingvar. Högre arméledning i Östersund 1910-1997: en minnesskrift med anledning av nedläggningen av Nedre norra arméfördelningen.. LIBRIS 2550691
HMS TB 11 was a Cricket-class coastal destroyer or torpedo-boat of the British Royal Navy. TB 11 was built by the shipbuilder Yarrow from 1905 to 1907, she was used for local patrol duties in the First World War and was sunk by a German mine in the North Sea on 7 March 1916. The Cricket-class was intended as a smaller and cheaper supplement to the large, fast but expensive Tribal-class in coastal waters such as the English Channel. An initial order for twelve ships was placed by the Admiralty in May 1905 as part of the 1905–1906 shipbuilding programme, with five ships each ordered from Thornycroft and J. Samuel White and two from Yarrow. Yarrow's ships were 175 feet 9 inches long overall and 172 feet 0 inches between perpendiculars, with a beam of 18 feet 0 inches and a draught of 5 feet 8 inches; the ships had two funnels. Two oil-fuelled Yarrow water-tube boilers fed steam to three-stage Parsons steam turbines, driving three propeller shafts; the machinery was designed to give 4,000 shaft horsepower, with a speed of 26 knots specified.
Armament consisted of two 12-pounder 12 cwt guns, three 18-inch torpedo tubes. The ships had a crew of 39; the first of Yarrow's two torpedo-boats of the 1905–1906 programme was laid down as HMS Mayfly at their Poplar, London shipyard on 23 November 1905. In 1906, the ships of the class, including Mayfly, were redesignated as torpedo-boats, losing their names in the process, with Mayfly becoming TB 11, she was launched on 29 January 1907, reached a speed of 27.16 knots during sea trials. She was completed in July 1907. In August 1910, TB 11 collided with the sea wall at the eastern entrance to Dover harbour when carrying out a practice night torpedo attack, damaging her stem, she was taken into Sheerness dockyard for repair on 3 August. She was refitted at Sheerness in 1911. TB 11 was sunk by a mine off Longsand Head on the east coast of Britain on 7 March 1916. 23 of her crew was killed. The destroyer Coquette was lost in the same minefield, laid by the German submarine UC-10 on 6 March, shortly before TB 11 was sunk.
Brown, D. K.. Warrior to Dreadnought: Warship Development 1860–1905. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 1-84067-5292. Dittmar, F. J.. British Warships 1914–1919. Shepperton, UK: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0380-7. Friedman, Norman. British Destroyers: From Earliest Days to the Second World War. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-049-9. Gardiner, Robert. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5. Gardiner, Robert. Steam, Steel & Shellfire: The Steam Warship 1815–1905. Conway's History of the Ship. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-564-0. Kemp, Paul; the Admiralty Regrets: British Warship Losses of the 20th Century. Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1567-6. Monograph No. 31: Home Waters Part VI: From October 1915 to May 1916. Naval Staff Monographs. XV. Naval Staff and Staff Duties Division. 1926