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Tranent is a town in East Lothian, in the south-east of Scotland. It is near the A1 road, 2 miles southeast of Prestonpans and about 9 miles east of Edinburgh, it is one of the oldest towns in East Lothian, built on a gentle slope, about 90 metres above sea level. The population of the town is 12,582, an increase of over 4,000 since 2001, making it the second most populated town in East Lothian after Musselburgh. Tranent was a major mining town, but now serves as a commuter town for Edinburgh; the name is thought to be of Brythonic origin containing the elements Tre and Nant, meaning town over the stream Travernant. Tranent was once an important mining town, coal was first worked there in the thirteenth century by the monks of Newbattle Abbey who mined a nearby 2.5m / 7ft thick coal deposit called the'Great Seam'. The history of coal mining in Scotland is mirrored in the history of the coal heughs and pits of Tranent. Tranent is now a commuter town supporting the south east of Scotland and, more Edinburgh.

The Massacre of Tranent took place in 1797, when local people were killed by soldiers after protesting against conscription into the British Army. One of the 12 victims, Jackie Crookston, is depicted on the memorial that commemorates the dead in Tranent's Civic Square. In connection with the annual commemoration of the Battle of Prestonpans there are plans to recreate a small portion of the Tranent to Cockenzie Waggonway which dates back to 1722. There is a long history of settlement in Tranent dating back to prehistory. There are several historic buildings in and around the town, including the ruins of the old parish church, parts of which date from the 11th century and, demolished in 1797, while a few miles south-west of the town stands Fa'side Castle, sometimes known as Falside or Fawside, a fourteenth-century L-shaped tower house. Isabella Begg nee Burns, the youngest sister of Robert Burns, moved to Tranent from Ormiston with her family after her son William resigned his post as the schoolmaster.

She supported her family with the help of Isabella, working as dressmakers. In 1843 she moved to Bridge House in South Ayrshire. Coal was first mined in Tranent Parish when Robert de Quincy granted rights in the early-thirteenth century to the monks of Newbattle to mine at Prestoungrange, part of that parish. Soon many wealthy families in the parish joined the rush to mine coal. Heughs, were being cut throughout the area. Longniddry, St. Germains, Fa'side and Elphinstone, all parts of old Tranent, had their own collieries and for the next 750 years the industry prospered. Other industries grew to employ increasing populations: distilleries, breweries and metal implement works. Quarries opened providing stone for homes. Farming was modernised and mills opened to provide food; the nineteenth century saw a slowdown in industrial growth and industry centralised and moved to larger centres. The coal industry had peaked and the twentieth century brought about a slow, but terminal decline; the last large deep mine closed in 1961 in 2000 the opencast mine at Blindwells closed.

William Dunbar's poem the Lament for the Makaris includes the name Clerk of Tranent as a poet of the fifteenth century, citing him as an author of the Anteris of Gawain. Some examples of such works exist. Since 1934 Tranent has held a Gala Week, arranged by local volunteers who are part of the Gala Committee. Events during the gala week include the crowning of the Queen, accompanied by 29 other children from the town, the celebrations on the fields at Ross High School and the grand parade, made up of local groups and people and which goes through the town. Tranent Gala is funded by donations and fundraising; the Gala was first formed in 1934 by the miners of Tranent who aimed to form a special event for people in the town. The town has two supermarkets. On the east of the town's High Street, there is an Asda supermarket which opened in August 2015. There is an Aldi supermarket on the far east side of the town which opened in October 2015; the store is the second largest Store that Aldi operates in Scotland and the largest in the county of East Lothian.

The town has a Farmfoods store. There are many small convenience stores in Tranent. On the town's High Street, convenience stores include Thomsons Convenience Store and an Edinburgh Evening News store. On the south side of the town, in the Windygoul area, there is a Co-operative food store and in the west of the town, there is a Day-Today store; the town has many football pitches and rugby pitches. The town is home to four children's play-parks. There are three bookmakersLadbrokes and William Hill; the town's leisure centre "The Loch Centre" has a swimming pool, children's soft play area, fitness gym and sports halls. There is a major youth club in the town: "Recharge" supports teens and young adults from the area. A cinema and community centre is located in the town centre: the "Fraser Centre" was formed in 2011 and "aims to provide a Learning, Development and Entertainment Centre at the heart of the Community of Tranent". Tranent is home to many take-away food establishments such as Mr Crolla's, Joe's & Marmaris Grills, Atlaf Khan & The Hill Station and The Tranent Villa, Canton Express & Gourmet Palace.

Potter's sandwich shop, Snak Shack and Baguette Express are located within the town. Restaurants in t

David Paton (artist)

David Paton was a Scottish artist active between 1660–1700. He is known for his high quality Portrait miniatures and is considered one of the best draughtsmen in late seventeenth-century Britain, he worked in plumbago and sepia, but painted portraits in oil. His earliest known works are copies of oils in the collection of Charles I by Giovanni Cariani and Titian dating from 1667. Paton copied works of older contemporary Samuel Cooper including the famous 1665 large rectangular miniature of Charles II. One copy and dated 1668, is at Ham House, the other, a year is in the collection of the duke of Buccleuch. A copy by Paton after the miniature of William Murray, 1st Earl of Dysart, attributed to David des Granges, is at Ham House as are both the original and Paton's copy of John Hoskins' large rectangular limning of Murray's wife. Paton is known to have been in Italy in the 1670s and 1680s with The Hon. William Tollemache, the youngest son of his patron, Murray's daughter. Paton's self-portrait, a miniature dated 1683, is held in the collection of the Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Following the tour, Paton appears to have worked in Edinburgh. Paton's most notable work, The Yester Lords dates from this period, now thought to depict John Maitland, his younger brother Charles and not, as believed, members of the Hay family, who lived at Yester House. Paton's other works of the period include Jacobite leader John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, Charles II. Three groups, each containing five small medallion portraits, which were at Hamilton Palace, bear his name and the date 1693. In 1698 he received £2 18s. For a picture for James Douglas, 2nd Duke of Queensberry, £5 16s. From the same source the year after. A portrait of General Tam Dalyell of the Binns was ascribed to Paton. Other works include a portrait of Sir Isaac Newton sent to Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1708, his last documented work

Claire Palley

Claire Dorothea Taylor Palley, OBE is a South African academic and lawyer who specialises in constitutional and human rights law. She became a professor of law at Queen's University Belfast in 1970, making her the first woman to be a law professor in the UK, was the first to become a dean of a law school in the UK in 1971 at Queen's University Belfast, she moved to become a professor of law at the University of Kent in 1973, was Principal of St Anne's College, from 1984 to 1991. She advised on constitutional law in Southern Rhodesia and Northern Ireland, served as the UK's representative on the United Nations Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. Palley was born into a Jewish family, her father Arthur Aubrey Swait was born in England in 1895. He served in the First World War as a cyclist before being commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Royal Flying Corps, he emigrated to South Africa and married Cecile Audrey Nathan in Johannesburg in December 1929.

She had one younger sister, Anne Christine, who as Anne Routier, became a National Party Member of Parliament in South Africa, served on the Constitution Commission and the South African Human Rights Commission. She grew up in Durban, attended Durban Girls' College, she started to study microbiology at the University of Cape Town, but switching to study law in her first year. She graduated with a BA and an LLB, she married Ahrn Palley in 1952. They opposed apartheid, moved to Southern Rhodesia in the late 1950s. Ahrn Palley was elected as an MP in Southern Rhodesia in 1958 for the opposition Dominion Party, he became an Independent, was reelected in 1962 as the only Independent. He opposed the white-led Rhodesian government from 1962 to 1970, opposed Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965; the Palleys had five sons. They were divorced in 1985. While living in Southern Rhodesia, after starting her family, Palley started to write for the Central African Examiner and other magazines.

She became a lecturer at the University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1959, which taught London University degrees, she helped to establish a law school there. She studied for a doctorate while teaching and raising her young family, she became an Advocate in South Africa and Rhodesia, was called to the Bar in England at Middle Temple. Palley's husband encouraged her to move with the children to the UK, to escape the hostile political regime and social ostracism in Southern Rhodesia, she was appointed as a lecturer in law at Queen's University Belfast in 1965, became a reader in 1967, was appointed professor of public law in 1970. At the time, according to the 1970 Commonwealth Universities Yearbook, there were 430 men in full-time and 77 in part-time university positions, but 41 full-time and 3 part-time women. Palley was Dean of the Faculty of Law at Queen's University Belfast from 1971 to 1973, she moved to become professor of law at the University of Kent at Canterbury from 1973 to 1984, was master of Darwin College, Kent from 1974 to 1982.

She was Principal of St Anne's College, from 1984 to 1991. The Claire Palley Building at St Anne's College, completed in 1992, was named in her honour, she was awarded the OBE in 1998, received an honorary LLD from Queen's University Belfast in 1991. Palley advised the African National Council on constitutional law at the Geneva Conference on Rhodesia in 1976, she was a constitutional adviser to the President of Cyprus from 1980 to 1994 and again from 1999 to 2004. She advised on the constitution of Northern Ireland, she has served as a member of the Lord Chancellor's Committee on Legal Education, was a trustee and a member of the council of the Minority Rights Group from 1975 to 1994, was the UK's representative on the United Nations Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities from 1998 to 1998. Palley's life is characterised by the rule of law, it is her determination and success which led her to deliver the prestigious Hamlyn Lectures in 1990, where she put forward a strong argument for widespread education in human rights.

In 1978, she devoted her book, Constitutional Law and Minorities, to a philosophical and practical response to the complex issues surrounding the protection of human rights. Constitutional Law and Minorities The United Kingdom and Human Rights Cownie, Fiona. "The United Kingdom's First Woman Law Professor: An Archerian Analysis". Journal of Law and Society. 42: 127–149. Doi:10.1111/j.1467-6478.2015.00701.x. Sleeman, Elizabeth; the International Who's Who of Women 2002. Psychology Press. P. 431. ISBN 978-1-85743-122-3. "Women law professors". The Times. London. 28 June 1975. P. 13. Portraits of Claire Palley at the National Portrait Gallery

Downer EDI Rail GT46C

The GT46C is a model of diesel electric locomotive designed and built by Clyde Engineering using Electro-Motive Diesel components. Entering service from 1997 for a number of Australian rail freight operators, those built for Westrail are known as the Q class, those for FreightLink are the FQ class and a single unit for Freight Australia is the V class. In May 1996 Westrail ordered 15 GT46Cs from Clyde Engineering as part of an order that included nine narrow gauge S class locomotives; the order was extended to 19. All were assembled at a facility established by Clyde Engineering within Westrail's Forrestfield Depot to fulfill the contract with components manufactured at Clyde's Kelso and Somerton plants. All were included in the sale of Westrail to Australian Railroad Group in December 2000 and again to QR National in June 2006. Numbered as the Q class, they were reclassified as the 4000 class. Following the destruction of two G class locomotives in 1999, Freight Australia ordered a single GT46AC from EDI Rail who had purchased Clyde Engineering.

It was built at their Cardiff Locomotive Workshops in 2002. Numbered V544, it was named after Deputy Prime Minister Tim Fischer, it was included in the sale of the business to Pacific National in February 2004. The locomotive operated interstate freight duties the SCT Logistics service from Melbourne to Perth. In late 2007 it moved to haul Leigh Creek to Port Augusta coal trains in South Australia, servicing the Playford B and Northern power stations; as of March 2014 V544 has been stored at Port Augusta workshops after a major engine failure. In 2003 four were built by EDI Rail at Port Augusta for FreightLink, they were purchased for use on the Adelaide-Darwin railway. The first two units were painted in Indigenous Australian liveries, the other two are in FreightLink red. All were included in the sale of FreightLink to Wyoming Australia. Q4001: Aurizon pineapple livery Q4002: Aurizon pineapple livery Q4003: Aurizon Canary livery Q4004: ARG Orange with black stripes Q4005: ARG Orange with black stripes Q4006: Aurizon pineapple livery Q4007: Aurizon pineapple livery Q4008: Aurizon pineapple livery Q4009: Aurizon pineapple livery Q4010: ARG yellow with a red stripe Q4011: Aurizon pineapple livery Q4012: ARG yellow with a red stripe Q4013: ARG yellow with a red stripe.

The logos missing on both sides Q4014: ARG yellow with a red stripe Q4015: ARG yellow with a red stripe Q4016: Aurizon canary livery Q4017: Original Westrail yellow with black stripes Q4018: ARG yellow with a red stripe Q4019: ARG yellow with a red stripe Non Q class GT46c Liveries: FQ01-4 GWA Orange and Black. V544 Freight Australia Brunswick Green and Gold "Named Tim Fischer" after the former deputy Prime Minister. New South Wales 90 class locomotive, ancestor model GT46CWM Downer EDI Rail GT46C ACe, derivative model Media related to Downer EDI Rail GT46C at Wikimedia Commons

Back to Earth (Rare Earth album)

Back to Earth is the 8th studio album by rock band Rare Earth, released in 1975. Jerry La Croix replaced departed lead singer Peter Hoorelbeke and Reggie McBride replaced departed bassist Michael Urso, it was the first album of the band moving into a more disco-type musical direction. "It Makes You Happy" – 4:08 "Walking Schtick" – 4:14 "Keeping Me out of the Storm" – 5:22 "Delta Melody" – 4:59 "Happy Song" – 4:54 "Let me Be Your Sunshine" – 2:51 "Boogie With Me Children" – 3:26 "City Life" – 4:56 Jerry La Croix – lead vocals, tenor saxophone, flute Gil Bridges – flute, alto saxophone, backing vocals Ray Monetteguitar Paul Warren – guitar, backing vocals Gabriel Katonakeyboards, backing vocals Reggie McBride – bass, backing vocals Barry Frostdrums, percussion Eddie Guzman – congas, percussionTechnicalRik Pekkonen – engineer

Mụ Giạ Pass

The Mụ Giạ Pass is a mountain pass in the Annamite Range between northern Vietnam and Laos, located 90 km northwest of Đồng Hới, Vietnam. The pass is 418 m above sea level and connects National Road 15 from Tân Ấp in Vietnam to Route 12 in Khammouane Province in Laos; the pass was the principal point of entry into the Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos. A CIA landscape analysis prepared in February 1966 described Route 15 as threading "its way upstream along a narrow, steep-sided valley. To the left rise dog-toothed limestone peaks, to the right is a flat-topped plateau. Dense tropical rain forest covers the entire area frustrating aerial observation; the road is carved out of the steep hillside, for in most places there is not enough room for both road and stream in the constricted bottom of the ravine". Due to its difficult geography, the pass was identified as a choke point, and, as a result, was bombed first as part of Operation Barrel Roll and as part of Operation Rolling Thunder and Operation Commando Hunt.

By March 1966, it was estimated. On 12 April 1966, 29 B-52s attacked the pass for the first time in the largest bombing mission since World War II, using a combination of subsurface and delayed action bombs over a 5 km section, but the pass was not closed by landslides as had been hoped for. A second B-52 strike took place on 26 April but the damage was repaired within 10 hours and convoys were seen using the pass the next day. A CIA report noted that the "Communists will spare no effort to keep it open". Despite frequent bombing, the United States Air Force and United States Navy were never able to put the pass out of operation for any sustained period of time; the North Vietnamese Army constructed several bypass roads around the pass to the east and west of Route 12 in Laos and a series of petrol and lubricants pipelines through the pass. The NVA progressively built up their air defences around the pass, first installing smaller calibre anti-aircraft artillery larger calibre AAA, by 1966 more than 300 AAA sites had been identified around the pass.

By 1972 SAM-2 missiles covered approaches to the pass, forcing B-52s and gunships to keep their distance reducing the interdiction effort. Map of the Mu Gia Pass Map showing the route from Vinh to the Mu Gia Pass