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Transistor count

The transistor count is the number of transistors on an integrated circuit. It refers to the number of MOSFETs on an IC chip, as all modern ICs use MOSFETs, it is the most common measure of IC complexity. The rate at which MOS transistor counts have increased follows Moore's law, which observed that the transistor count doubles every two years; as of 2019, the largest transistor count in a commercially available microprocessor is 39.54 billion MOSFETs, in AMD's Zen 2 based Epyc Rome, a 3D integrated circuit fabricated using TSMC's 7 nm FinFET semiconductor manufacturing process. As of 2018, the highest transistor count in a graphics processing unit is Nvidia's GV100 Volta with 21.1 billion MOSFETs, manufactured using TSMC's 12 nm FinFET process. As of 2019, the highest transistor count in any IC chip is Samsung's 1 TB eUFS V-NAND flash memory chip, with 2 trillion floating-gate MOSFETs; as of 2019, the highest transistor count in a non-memory chip is a deep learning engine called the Wafer Scale Engine by Cerebras, using a special design to route around any non-functional core on the device.

In terms of computer systems that consist of numerous integrated circuits, the supercomputer with the highest transistor count as of 2016 is the Chinese-designed Sunway TaihuLight, which has for all CPUs/nodes combined "about 400 trillion transistors in the processing part of the hardware" and "the DRAM includes about 12 quadrillion transistors, that's about 97 percent of all the transistors." To compare, the smallest computer, as of 2018 dwarfed by a grain of sand, has on the order of 100,000 transistors, the one programmable, with the fewest transistors has 130 transistors or fewer. In terms of the total number of transistors in existence, it has been estimated that a total of 13 sextillion MOSFETs have been manufactured worldwide between 1960 and 2018, accounting for at least 99.9% of all transistors. This makes the MOSFET the most manufactured device in history. Among the earliest products to use transistors were portable transistor radios, introduced in 1954, which used 4 to 8 transistors advertising the number on the radio's case.

However, early junction transistors were bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, limiting the transistor counts and restricting their usage to a number of specialised applications. The MOSFET, invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959, was the first compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses; the MOSFET made it possible to build high-density integrated circuits, enabling Moore's law and large-scale integration. Atalla first proposed the concept of the MOS integrated circuit chip in 1960, followed by Kahng in 1961, both noting that the MOSFET's ease of fabrication made it useful for integrated circuits; the earliest experimental MOS IC to be demonstrated was a 16-transistor chip built by Fred Heiman and Steven Hofstein at RCA Laboratories in 1962. Further large-scale integration was made possible with an improvement in MOSFET semiconductor device fabrication, the CMOS process, developed by Chih-Tang Sah and Frank Wanlass at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1963.

A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit on a single integrated circuit. It is a multi-purpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, provides results as output; the development of MOS integrated circuit technology in the 1960s led to the development of the first microprocessors. The 20-bit MP944, developed by Garrett AiResearch for the U. S. Navy's F-14 Tomcat fighter in 1970, is considered by its designer Ray Holt to be the first microprocessor, it was a multi-chip microprocessor, fabricated on six MOS chips. However, it was classified by the Navy until 1998; the 4-bit Intel 4004, released in 1971, was the first single-chip microprocessor. It was made possible with an improvement in MOSFET design, MOS silicon-gate technology, developed in 1968 at Fairchild Semiconductor by Federico Faggin, who went on to use MOS SGT technology to develop the 4004 with Marcian Hoff, Stanley Mazor and Masatoshi Shima at Intel.

All chips over e.g. a million transistors have lots of memory cache memories in level 1 and 2 or more levels, accounting for most transistors on microprocessors in modern times, where large caches have become the norm. The level 1 caches of the Pentium Pro die accounted for over 14% of its transistors, while the much larger L2 cache was on a separate die, but on-package, so it's not included in the transistor count. Chips included more levels, L2 or L3 on-chip; the last DEC Alpha chip made has 90% of it for cache. While Intel's i960CA small cache of 1 KB, at about 50,000 transistors, isn't a big part of the chip, it alone would have been large in early microprocessors. In the ARM 3 chip, with 4 KB, the cache was over 63% of the chip, in the Intel 80486 its larger cache is only over a third of it because the rest of the chip is more complex. So cache memories are the largest factor, except for in early chips with smaller caches or earlier chips with no cache at all; the inherent complexity, e.g. number of instructions, i

C. Michael Smith

C. Michael Smith is a clinical psychologist and scholar whose medical anthropological and theoretical work has focused on the study of healing systems across cultures, he holds that study of indigenous healing systems can help clarify the strengths and weaknesses of our own modern health care systems. C. Michael Smith attended the University of Chicago where he studied with the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur and the cultural psychologist Sudhir Kakar, he took two doctorates under Robert L. Moore, he holds a certificate in Analytical Psychology from the CG Jung Institute of Chicago. He is director and founder of Crows Nest Center for Shamanic Studies USA, France and Belgium and has taught at Center Trimurti in Cogolin, France 2009-2011, is teaching at Institut Resources in Bruxelles, Belgium, his special area of focus has been in bridging indigenous American medicine systems with depth psychology. He is author of Jung and Shamanism in Dialogue and Psychotherapy and the Sacred, for which he won a NAAP Gradiva Nominee Award in 1996.

Smith's work has been an interdisciplinary enterprise in applying the phenomenological-hermeneutic and dialogic method of inquiry, learned while a student of the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur at the University of Chicago. This methodology was combined with medical-anthropological methods of analysis and interpretation of healing systems across cultures, derived from his studies with Sudhir Kakar at Chicago, he combined all this with the scheme of "ritual process and leadership in establishing and maintaining the boundaries of transformative sacred space" created by his doctoral chair, the Jungian analyst and theorist Robert L. Moore, of the Chicago Theological Seminary. Smith credits these three figures with giving his own scholarly and practical work, its orientation and thrust. Smith has defined medical-anthropology thus: Medical anthropology is a multi-disciplinary field examining the relationship between culture and health care systems, the way disease is engendered, managed and treated within a given society.

From his first publication in 1981, "Theology and the Human Story" Smith has shown increasing interest in the applications of sacred story and myth to the problems of human suffering. In his medical anthropological writing he has extended this interest into identifying all manner of sacred resources within a cultural or religion bond context. Smith has been interested in the clinical applications of his study of health care systems across cultures, he advocates that the study of other cultural health care systems can illuminate the strengths and weaknesses of our own. Smith contends that there is an unacknowledged public grieving over the loss of the role of the sacred in modern western psychological and psychiatric practices, claiming that modern people are disappointed when their problems and suffering are not placed in a context of ultimate meaning. In Psychotherapy and the Sacred, he criticized American psychotherapy professions for lack of understanding and skill in working with the spiritual and religious needs of the patient.

Smith criticized the field of transpersonal psychology for an over-emphasis on Eastern mysticisms and practices, claiming that more attention needed to be given to western religious traditions, to the indigenous American and shamanic peoples of the circumpolar regions, of the Americas, North and South. While acknowledging the great value of Eastern resources, Smith has been more interested in Western and indigenous forms of healing, he claims they have much spiritual healing wisdom that can address some of the maladies and problems in living that are widespread in modern culture. Much of Smith's focus developed into the role of the sacred, the sacred center, or axis mundi, he claims it is found, phenomenologically and experientially, within the psyche, within the cultural and religious institutions. Smith contends that we need a psychological model that has included within it the spiritual center of the client, an interior axis mundi. If the sacred is built solidly into our psychological theories, it may enter legitimately into our therapeutic and clinical practices.

In Psychotherapy and the Sacred, Smith describes how this sacred center is addressed in various traditional cultures: India, Africa, 18th Century German pastoral care system, a rare modern American example of a Pastoral Psychotherapy of a Psychosis. Smith draws on his Jungian theory and the process philosophy inspired by A. N. Whitehead, to develop a theory of the sacred as integral to the psyche and its health, he focuses on Jung's concept of the archetypal Self, its Spiritus Rector function as the most model of how the sacred can be present and effective in the psyche, support clinical healing efforts. The spiritus rector is the central interior wisdom directing the psyche as a whole in its quest for wholeness and health, it is a precursor. Smith emphasizes the interior axis mundi as this spiritus rector function at work in the psyche in his subsequent work. In his most well-known book and Shamanism in Dialogue he used the dialogic method to build a theoretical bridge between shamani

Abdul Cader Asmal

Abdul Cader Asmal is a retired physician, credentialed to practice Medicine in South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States. He is an activist for Islam condemning both ISIS and Islamophobia alike. In promoting the ‘middle path’ of Islam Asmal has partnered with interfaith coalitions of many traditions. In the medical field, he was recognized for his academic achievements in obtaining the following credentials: an MB BS, MD, PhD, FCP, FRCP and Board Certification in Internal Medicine, in Endocrinology and Metabolism. In his pursuit of promoting the image of Islam he was elected as President of the Islamic Center of Boston, the Islamic Council of New England and its Communications’ Director. For his Interfaith work, he was a Director of Inter-Religious Center for Public Life, is on the Board of the Cooperative Metropolitan Ministries and serves on the Needham Clergy Association and the Human Rights’ Committee. Asmal was born in Durban, South Africa on July 2, 1938, his mother passed away shortly after his birth.

His primary school was a segregated government-aided Methodist school and his middle school was a Government-aided Hindu one. His high school was for Indians, he was admitted to the White Universities of Capetown and Witwatersrand to study medicine, but because of his non-White status, government policy denied him permission to study at these White universities. Asmal was accepted at the University of London where he obtained his medical degree in 1963, he completed his residency at the non-White King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban. In 1967, he passed the Board Certification in Internal Medicine at the College of Medicine. In 1969, he was awarded a scholarship to conduct research into diabetes at Guys Hospital in London. While there he passed the Internal Medicine board examination and completed his MD thesis in 1972. Between 1972 and 1980, Asmal served as the physician in charge of diabetes at the King Edward VIII Hospital and its affiliated University of Natal. In 1980, he obtained his PhD from the University of London and was awarded the chance to study diabetes at the Joslin Clinic in Boston.

To qualify for entry into and work in the United States he first had to complete the ECFMG and the Visa Qualifying Examinations which he did between 1978 and 1980. During his employment at the Joslin Clinic, Asmal was credentialed by the American Board of Internal Medicine in 1983 and by the Board in Endocrinology and Metabolism in 1985. Between 1980 till his retirement in 2010, Asmal was at one time or another on the staff of the New England Deaconess Hospital, the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and the Massachusetts General Hospital and was concomitantly on the Faculty of Harvard Medical School. 1969: British Council Scholarship 1980: South African Medical Councils Research Award 1994: Harvard Pilgrim Outstanding Physician Award 1999: Partners Award for Outstanding Performance and Dedication and Consistency in Care and Administration 2003: Fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians London Royal College of Physicians,: In Recognition of 30 Years Clinical Excellence 2006 and 2008: Excellence in Primary Care Award Blue Cross & Blue Shield Sustained Excellence in Primary Care During his medical career Asmal had published more than 80 medical papers and delivered speeches at scientific conferences in London, Brussels, Marbella Spain, New Delhi.

Asmal was elected as President of the Islamic Center of Boston, The Islamic Council of New England and its Communications Chairman. He introduced the forum of Intra-Muslim Dialogue to improve communications between different contingents, his pluralistic activities includes work the Massachusetts Council of Churches, the Archdiocese of Boston, the Jewish Communities Relations Council, after the events of 9/11, wrote a series of articles emphasizing that Al Qaeda should be separated from the conversation of true Islam. He still serves on the Islamic Council, as well as Needham Clergy Association, the Needham Human Rights Committee and a Director on the Board of the Cooperative Metropolitan Ministries. For his work within the Muslim community he was given awards by the Islamic Council in 1992, 1997, 2010 and 2015, by the Islamic Center of Boston Cultural Center in 2004 1994 Jewish Community Relations Council’s accolade ‘A Partner for the Future’. 2014 ‘Lifetime Achievement Award’ by the Islamic Circle of North America.

2014 ‘Rabbi Rothman Award ‘For Fostering Interreligious Understanding and Dialogue’ by Andover Newton Theological Seminary. 2015 ‘A Lifetime Achievement Award’ from the Cooperative Metropolitan Ministries. Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus, 12th Edition 1985, Lea and Febiger. C. Asmal, Coma in Diabetes World Book of Diabetes in Practice, Ed LP Krall, Elsevier, 1985. C. Asmal Management of NIDDM Current Clinical Practice, Ed FH Messerli, WB Saunders, 1987. C. Asmal chapters on Obesity and Coma Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide, Ed. A Komaroff. C. Asmal Diabetes Consumption and Sustainability Ed Chapman, Smith Moran, Island Press 2000 An Agenda of Priorities for Muslims in the US, A. C. Asmal ‘Terrorism is not Islamic’: New York Times Op-Ed. August 4, 2005, A. C. Asmal The American Muslim: http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/ – search for articles by A. C. Asmal ‘Who is a Muslim? An intense struggle within the Muslim World for the Soul of Islam’ A. C. Asmal

Putnam County, West Virginia

Putnam County is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,486, its county seat is Winfield. Putnam County is part of the Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, across the Kanawha River from Charleston, West Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly formed Putnam County on March 11, 1848, from parts of Cabell and Mason counties. It was named for Israel Putnam, a hero in the French and Indian War and a general in the American Revolutionary War. George Washington surveyed the area in 1770. Winfield, the county seat, had been founded in 1818 but was incorporated on February 21, 1868, named to honor General Winfield Scott a General during the Mexican American War and early stage of the Civil War. Slavery was a divisive issue in Putnam County during the Civil War. In the Virginia Secession Convention of 1861, Putnam County voters elected James W. Hoge to represent them, he voted against secession on April 17, 1861, when the convention passed the secession ordinance.

However, he returned to Richmond for the second session in June, signed the ordinance. No one from Putnam county attended the Wheeling Convention which led to the creation of the state of West Virginia in 1863. Two minor battles were fought in Putnam County during the Civil War. On July 17, 1861, Confederate soldiers defeated a Union force at the Battle of Scary Creek, before withdrawing to Charleston; the Confederates included a cavalry troop raised by Colonel Albert Gallatin Jenkins, who until Virginia's secession from the Union had represented the area in Congress. Jenkins would be commissioned a brigadier general in 1862, but died of wounds received at the Battle of Cloyd's Mountain in May, 1864; the second skirmish occurred on October 1864, after West Virginia became a Union state. Confederate troops seized and sank a Union steamboat on the Kanawha River near Winfield attacked the courthouse, but the "Battle of Winfield" ended as a Union victory. Putnam County's Civil War soldiers were about evenly split between Union and Confederate, with about four hundred on each side.

Putnam County was one of fifty Virginia counties admitted to the Union as the state of West Virginia on June 20, 1863. That year, its counties were divided into civil townships, with the intention of encouraging local government; this proved impractical in the rural state, in 1872 the townships were converted into magisterial districts. Putnam County was divided into six townships: Buffalo, Grant, Hutton and Union; these became magisterial districts in 1872, the following year two were renamed, with Grant becoming Teays Valley, while Hutton became Pocatalico. Except for minor adjustments, these districts were unchanged until the 1980s, when Buffalo and Union Districts were consolidated into Buffalo-Union District, Teays Valley's name abbreviated to "Teays". A railroad was rebuilt through Putnam County in 1875; the Kanawha River flows north-northwestward through the center of Putnam County. The county terrain consists of wooded hills, carved with drainages; the terrain slopes to the north, with the highest point near its SW corner at 1,129' ASL.

The county has a total area of 350 square miles, of which 346 square miles is land and 4.7 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 51,589 people, 20,028 households, 15,281 families in the county; the population density was 149/sqmi. There were 21,621 housing units at an average density of 62.5/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 97.97% White, 0.56% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. 0.51 % of the population were Latinos of any race. There were 20,028 households out of which 35.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.20% were married couples living together, 8.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.70% were non-families. 20.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.96. The county population contained 25.00% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 30.40% from 25 to 44, 25.50% from 45 to 64, 11.60% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 96.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $41,892, the median income for a family was $48,674. Males had a median income of $40,782 versus $23,532 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,471. About 7.10% of families and 9.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.30% of those under age 18 and 7.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 55,486 people, 21,981 households, 16,176 families in the county; the population density was 160/sqmi. There were 23,438 housing units at an average density of 67.7/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 96.8% white, 0.9% black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 13.2% were American, 12.9% were German, 11.3% were English, 10.6% were Irish.

Of the 21,981 households, 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.4% were non-families, 22.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.51 and the

Ivan Yordanov

Ivan Yordanov is a Bulgarian footballer who plays as a midfielder for Ludogorets Razgrad. Yordanov joined Ludogorets academy in 2017 from Botev 2002, he made his senior debut with the reserves in the Bulgarian Second League on 13 May 2018, playing full 90 minutes in a 4–0 away loss against Montana. On 1 October 2018, Yordanov scored his first goal for Ludogorets II in a 2–2 home draw against Pomorie. In December 2018, he signed a professional contract with the club. Yordanov made his first team debut on 13 July 2019, coming on as a second-half substitute for Dominik Yankov in a 2–0 home league win over Tsarsko Selo; as of 25 September 2019 Ivan Yordanov at Soccerway

Zynoviy Kovalyk

Blessed Zynoviy Kovalyk was a Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest and martyr. Zynoviy Kovalyk was born in the village near Ternopil in Austrian Galicia, his family were peasant workers and like many of that time and place, were devout Christians. It was due to his family's devotion that Zynoviy developed a vocation to the Catholic priesthood while he was still young, he was known to have a good singing voice and a joyful temperament but to be a person of strong character. After teaching in a primary school for a short period of time, he entered the novitiate of the Redemptorists when he was 25 which made him older than most novices of that period. After the novitiate, he studied theology in Belgium, he returned to Ukraine and was ordained a priest on 9 August 1932, celebrating his first Liturgy in his village of Ivachiv on 4 September 1932. Father Zynoviy travelled with Bishop Nicholas Charnetsky to Volhynia to work amongst the Ukrainians of the Orthodox Church in order to promote ecumenism. Father Zynoviy was a preacher.

Indeed, it is said he had a golden mouth, that his preaching drew thousands of people and led them to a greater devotion to Jesus Christ and His mother the Virgin Mary. After several years he went to Stanislaviv to take up the post of provincial bursar although he was very engaged in the traditional Redemptorist practice of conducting missions through the area. Before the Soviet invasion of 1939 he travelled to the Redemptorist monastery in Lviv and assumed the position of bursar. Due to the Communist presence many clergy concentrated on spiritual matters when they gave a homily and avoided issues of freedom and justice; as a preacher, Father Zynoviy showed no reluctance to publicly condemn the falsehoods and atheistic customs being introduced by the Soviets, to preach on matters affecting the everyday lives of the people. Though he was warned by his friends that the Communist authorities were suspicious of him and that he should be less vocal, he is said to have replied, "If it is God's will, I am ready to die, but I cannot be quiet in the face of such injustice."

On the feast of the Dormition of the Mother of God 1940, he gave his last homily, which drew some ten thousand faithful. On 20 December 1940, the Soviet secret police took Fr. Kovalyk from his monastery on account of the sermon he had preached on the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, he was accused of being a spy. For the six months of his incarceration at Brygidki prison, like many others, he was subjected to interrogation and torture. In prison, he continued his ministry by praying with the other prisoners, hearing confessions, giving spiritual exercises, teaching catechism classes, comforting them with religious tales and stories from the Bible. On 22 June 1941, German troops began their offensive against the Soviet Union and the city of Lviv fell seven days later; as the German army advanced, the Soviets guards executed 7,000 prisoners prior to retreat. Witnesses claim that, rather than shoot Father Zynoviy, he was crucified on a corridor wall of the prison, his stomach ripped open and a dead human foetus inserted.

Official Soviet statements claim and not crucified. On 24 April 2001, along with several other Redemptorists, Father Zynoviy Kovalyk was recognised by the Holy See as being a martyr, he was beatified by Pope John Paul II on 27 June 2001 during that pope's pastoral visit to Ukraine. June 27 is the feast of Our Lady of the patroness of the Redemptorists. Biographies of twenty five Greek-Catholic Servants of God at the website of the Vatican Beatification of the Servants of God on June 27, 2001 at the website of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church Francisco Radecki. Tumultuous Times: The Twenty General Councils of the Catholic Church and Vatican II and Its Aftermath. St. Joseph's Media, 2004. Blessed Zenon Kovalyk Patron Saints Index. German language biography *