click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Translatio imperii

Translatio imperii is a historiographical concept that originated from the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of an imperium that invests supreme power in a singular ruler, an "emperor". The concept is linked to translatio studii. Both terms are thought to have their origins in the second chapter of the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew Bible. Jacques Le Goff describes the translatio imperii concept as "typical" for the Middle Ages for several reasons: the idea of linearity of time and history was typical for the Middle Ages; the causality of one reign leading to its successor was detailed by the medieval chroniclers, is seen as a typical medieval approach. Each medieval author described the translatio imperii as a succession leaving the supreme power in the hands of the monarch ruling the region of the author's provenance: Adso of Montier-en-Der: Roman EmpireCarolingian FranksSaxons Otto of Freising: RomeByzantium → Franks → Longobards → Germans.

Continuing with this tradition, the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman authors Geoffrey of Monmouth and Wace linked the founding of Britain to the arrival of Brutus of Troy, son of Aeneas. In a similar way, the French Renaissance author Jean Lemaire de Belges linked the founding of Celtic Gaul to the arrival of the Trojan Francus, the son of Hector; the cardinal point in the idea of the Translatio imperii is the link between the Roman Empire/Byzantine Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. Emperor Constantine I established Constantinople, a New Rome, as a second capital of the Roman Empire in 330. After the death of Emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire was permanently divided into the Western and the Eastern Roman Empire. With the demise of the Western Empire in 476, the Byzantine Empire remained the sole Roman Empire. Byzantine Emperor Constantine V married his son Leo IV to Irene of Athens on 17 December 768, brought to Constantinople by the father on 1 November 768. On 14 January 771, Irene gave birth to a son, Constantine.

Following the deaths of Constantine V in 775 and Leo IV in 780, Irene became regent for their nine-year-old son, Constantine VI. As early as 781, Irene began to seek a closer relationship with the Carolingian dynasty and the Papacy, she negotiated a marriage between her son Constantine and Rotrude, a daughter of the ruling Frankish king, Charlemagne. Irene went as far as to send an official to instruct the Frankish princess in Greek; as Constantine VI approached maturity, the relationship between mother/regent and son/emperor was strained. In 797 Irene deposed her son; some Western authorities considered the Byzantine throne, now occupied by a woman, to be vacant and instead recognized that Charlemagne, who controlled Italy and many of the cities of the Western Roman Empire, had a valid claim to the imperial name. Pope Leo III, crowned Charlemagne as Roman Emperor in 800, an act not recognized by the Byzantine Empire. Irene is said to have endeavored to negotiate a marriage between herself and Charlemagne, but according to Theophanes the Confessor, who alone mentioned it, the scheme was frustrated by Aetios, one of her favorites.

In 802, Empress Irene was deposed by a conspiracy and replaced by Nikephoros I. She died the following year. Pax Nicephori, a peace treaty in 803 between the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne and Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros I, Basileus of the Eastern Roman Empire. Recognition of Charlemagne as Emperor in 812 by Emperor Michael I Rangabe of the Byzantine Empire, after he reopened negotiations with the Franks. In exchange for that recognition, Venice was returned to the Byzantine Empire. On February 2, 962, Otto I was solemnly crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII. Ten days at a Roman synod, Pope John XII, at Otto's desire, foun

Hancock, Massachusetts

Hancock is a town in Berkshire County, United States. It is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 717 at the 2010 census. Hancock was first settled in 1762 as the Plantation of Jericho; the town was incorporated in 1776, renamed for John Hancock. Hancock is one of only three towns in Massachusetts whose local telephone service was not provided by the former Bell System; the other two such towns are Richmond in Berkshire County, Granby, in Hampshire County. Around 1780, some families in Hancock converted to the teachings of the Shakers. By 1790, Believers in Hancock and Pittsfield established Hancock Shaker Village; the Shakers were a religious order which believed in pacifism and communal living. Worship could take the form of singing and ecstatic dance, why they were called the "Shaking Quakers", or "Shakers." The utopian sect is renowned today for its plain furniture. Hancock Shaker Village is famous for its Round Stone Barn, built in 1826. In 1959, the remaining Shakers in Hancock sold the property to a non-profit museum.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 35.8 square miles, of which 35.7 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 0.19%, is water. Hancock is bordered on the north by Williamstown, on the northeast by New Ashford, on the east by Lanesborough and Pittsfield, on the south by Richmond, on the west by Canaan, New Lebanon and Berlin, New York. Most of northern Hancock occupies a valley bound by the Taconic Mountains on each side; the northern half of the valley is drained by the west branch of the Green River, a tributary of the Hoosic River, the southern half of the valley is drained by the headwaters of Kinderhook Creek, which flows southwest into New York and the Hudson River. To the west, along the New York border, stands the western escarpment of the Taconic Mountains including Misery Mountain and Rounds Mountain, while the northeastern town line is bordered by the eastern Taconic escarpment peaks of Brodie Mountain, Sheeps Heaven Mountain, Jiminy Peak.

Southern Hancock, where the Shaker Village is located, is dominated by the Taconic peaks of Pittsfield State Forest, including Tower Mountain, Smith Mountain, Berry Hill, Honwee Mountain, Doll Mountain, Shaker Mountain. Berry Pond, the highest water body in Massachusetts at over 2,070 feet above sea level, sits near the summit of Berry Hill; the highest point in Hancock is a summit of Misery Mountain. U. S. Route 20 passes from Pittsfield to the New York state line. Massachusetts Route 43 passes through town, from the northern border with Williamstown, is the main route through town, turning along Kinderhook Creek and into New York. There are no roads within the town. There is no bus or air service within the town; the nearest services are in Pittsfield to the south, Williamstown and North Adams to the north. The nearest airport with nationally connecting flights is Albany International Airport 40 miles northwest of town; as of the census of 2000, there were 721 people, 296 households, 209 families residing in the town.

Hancock ranks 25th out of the 32 towns in Berkshire County by population, 335th out of the 351 in Massachusetts. The population density was 20.2 people per square mile, making it the least densely populated town in Berkshire County, thirteenth-least in the Commonwealth. There were 472 housing units at an average density of 13.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.36% White, 0.28% African American, 0.55% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 1.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.39% of the population. There were 296 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.2% were married couples living together, 5.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.1% were non-families. 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.84. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 3.6% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 29.7% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $45,347, the median income for a family was $50,625. Males had a median income of $35,000 versus $28,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,250. About 6.1% of families and 5.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.4% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over. Hancock is governed by the open town meeting form of government, is governed by a board of selectmen; the town has its own volunteer fire department. The town has its own library, Taylor Memorial Library, other public services. On the state level, Hancock is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives as part of the First Berkshire District, which covers northern and central Berkshire County and has been represented by Gailanne M. Cariddi since January 2013. Prior to the 2010 Massachusetts redistricting of the House and Senate Hancock was in the Second Berkshire District.

In the Massachusetts Senate, the town is represented as part of the Berkshire, Hampshire an

Freyung, Bavaria

Freyung is a town in Bavaria, capital of the Freyung-Grafenau district. It is situated in the Bavarian Forest mountain range, near the border with Austria and the Czech Republic; the town is situated on the southeastern rim of the Bavarian Forest National Park near the confluence of the Saußbach and Reschbach creeks. The town centre is located about 33 km north of Passau. About 1200 the Passau bishop Wolfger von Erla had Wolfstein Castle erected to control the surrounding estates he had received from the hands of the Hohenstaufen emperor Henry VI. A settlement was laid out beneath the castle which in 1301 was mentioned as Purchstol zu Wolferstein; the name Freiung denoted the fact that the first settlers were exempt from taxes. The nearby village of Kreuzberg received market rights in 1354, which were transferred to Freyung in 1523; when the Prince-Bishopric of Passau was secularised in 1803, Freyung passed to the newly established Electorate of Salzburg, but upon the 1805 Peace of Pressburg was incorporated into the Kingdom of Bavaria.

It received city rights in 1953. Freyung is twinned with Vimperk, Czech Republic Seewalchen am Attersee, Austria Severin Freund, ski jumper Shkemb Miftari, footballer

Ed Ziemba

Edward John Ziemba is a Canadian former politician in Ontario, Canada. He was a New Democratic member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1975 to 1981 who represented the downtown Toronto riding of High Park—Swansea. Ziemba was born in Regina and came to Toronto as a young boy. In the 1950s he was known as Eddie John Harris. Ziemba said, "It was a good way to do business, to adopt an Anglicized name." Operating under this name he worked as an amateur boxer, a television repairman and a private investigator. He operated a ladies fashion store on Bloor Street West; when he married he signed the licence as Edward Harris, but he decided to revert to his original name when his first child was born. These revelations did not come to light until after Ziemba was elected to the provincial legislature. Morton Shulman who preceded Ziemba as the member for High Park-Swansea stood by him. Shulman said, "I know nothing disreputable about him, he is a dedicated socialist and temperance man." In the 1970s, Ziemba was secretary for the West Toronto Inter-Church Temperance Federation.

William Temple, founder of the group said that Ziemba played a major part in keeping alcohol out of the Bloor West area of Toronto. Temple described Ziemba as "clean living and concerned about the welfare of the weak and helpless in his riding, he goes out of his way to help those in need." In 1974, Ziemba ran for a seat on Toronto City Council. He placed third behind incumbents Bill Elizabeth Eayrs. In the 1975 provincial election he ran as the New Democratic Party candidate in the riding of High Park-Swansea, he defeated, Progressive Conservative candidate Yuri Shymko by 1,773 votes. He was re-elected in 1977 this time defeating his old municipal rival Bill Boytchuk by 788 votes, he was defeated in the 1981 provincial election by Progressive Conservative Yuri Shymko, who made an issue of Ziemba's six-month expulsion from the legislature after he accused the Conservative government of persuading two opposition MPPs of giving up their seats prior to the 1977 election campaign by offering them patronage positions, allowing the Conservatives to win the seats.

"The Tories bought those seats. Those seats have been bought and paid for on the installment plan - and it adds up to $100,000 a year," said Ziemba in 1980 in regards to appointments given to former Liberal MPPs Phil Givens and Vernon Singer. An outspoken and controversial politician, Ziemba spent six days in Toronto's Don Jail in 1977 for contempt of court when he refused to reveal his informant for allegations that the principals of Abko Laboratories were defrauding the Ontario Health Insurance Plan; the owners of the lab were charged with fraud following a police investigation and Ziemba was called as a witness and refused to reveal his informant on the stand, saying he would not betray his informant's trust. In 1976, Ziemba sparked an uproar in the legislature when he leaked a list of 812 doctors earning more than $100,000 a year in OHIP billings. In 1982, he attempted a political comeback by running for Toronto City Council in Ward 1 but was unsuccessful. In the 1990 provincial election, his sister-in-law, Elaine Ziemba, regained the High Park—Swansea seat for the NDP.

Following his political career, Ziemba worked as a representative of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union in Toronto. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history

Ted Nordhaus

Ted Nordhaus is an American author, environmental policy expert, the director of research at The Breakthrough Institute. He was listed in Time magazine's Heroes of the Environment, winner of the 2008 Green Book Award, co-editor of Love Your Monsters and co-author of Break Through and The Death of Environmentalism, he and his co-author Michael Shellenberger were described by Slate Magazine as "ecomodernists" or "eco-pragmatists". In 2015, Nordhaus partnered with 18 other self-described ecomodernists to coauthor'An Ecomodernist Manifesto.' Nordhaus is director of research at the Breakthrough Institute, which he co-founded with Michael Shellenberger in 2003. Today, Breakthrough Institute consists of a policy staff, an annual conference, a policy journal, a network of affiliated fellows. Breakthrough Institute analyses of energy and innovation policy have been cited by US President Barack Obama. National Public Radio the Wall Street Journal and C-SPAN. Nordhaus has co-authored analyses of cap and trade climate legislation, of the "planetary boundaries" hypothesis, energy rebound from energy efficiency measures, carbon pricing, renewable energy subsidies, nuclear energy, shale gas.

The Institute argues that climate policy should be focused on higher levels of public funding on technology innovation to "make clean energy cheap," and has been critical of climate policies like cap and trade and carbon pricing. The Institute has conducted research showing that shale gas and other major technological innovations were created by American government institutions and public financing; the Institute advocates higher levels of public spending on technology innovation, which they argue will lead to higher environmental quality, economic growth, quality of life. In 2004, Nordhaus and Shellenberger, both long-time strategists for environmental groups, co-authored a controversial essay, "The Death of Environmentalism: Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World." The paper argues that environmentalism is conceptually and institutionally incapable of dealing with climate change and should "die" so that a new politics can be born. The essay was debated, continues to be discussed and taughtIn, 2007, Houghton Mifflin published Nordhaus and Shellenberger's Break Through: From the Death of Environmentalism to the Politics of Possibility.

Break Through is an argument for what its authors describe as a positive, "post-environmental" politics that abandons the environmentalist focus on nature protection for a new focus on technological innovation to create a new economy. Time Magazine named Nordhaus and Shellenberger two of its 32 Heroes of the Environment calling Break Through "prescient" for its prediction that climate policy should focus not on making fossil fuels expensive through regulation but rather on making clean energy cheap. Break Through was awarded the Green Book Award, 2009, whose other recipients include E. O. Wilson and James Hansen, their writings have focused on the intersection of climate change, energy innovation, politics. The two predicted the failure of cap and trade for its focus on making fossil fuels expensive rather than on technology innovation to make clean energy cheap, they faulted the Kyoto climate treaty for being focused on what they called "shared sacrifice" rather than shared technological innovation.

They have criticized green cultural life as a consequence of status anxieties among Western consumers. And they have argued for a "theology" of ecological modernization that embraces technological innovation and human development. Nordhaus and Shellenberger have argued for a "climate pragmatism" and an embrace of modernization and human development, they are co-authors of an alternative framework to the United Nations process focused on energy innovation, pollution control and adaptation. In 2011, Nordhaus and Shellenberger started The Breakthrough Journal, which The New Republic called "among the most complete efforts to provide a fresh answer" to the question of how to modernize liberal thought, The National Review called "...the most promising effort at self-criticism by our liberal cousins in a long time." Nordhaus has taken exception to U. S. Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders' climate change mitigation approaches. In April 2015, Nordhaus joined with a group of scholars in issuing An Ecomodernist Manifesto.

The other authors were: John Asafu-Adjaye, Linus Blomqvist, Stewart Brand, Barry Brook, Ruth DeFries, Erle Ellis, Christopher Foreman, David Keith, Martin Lewis, Mark Lynas, Roger A. Pielke, Jr. Rachel Pritzker, Joyashree Roy, Mark Sagoff, Michael Shellenberger, Robert Stone, Peter Teague Nordhaus is the son of Robert Nordhaus, former General Counsel of the United States Department of Energy, the brother of Hannah Nordhaus, environmental journalist and author of The Beekeepers Lament, he is the nephew of William Nordhaus, an environmental economist at Yale University

W. H. Denny

W. H. Denny was an English singer and actor best remembered for his portrayal of baritone roles in the Savoy operas. Denny was born William Henry Leigh Dugmore at Balsall Heath, England, his mother, Mrs. Henry Leigh, was the original Diana in Gilbert and Sullivan's first collaboration, Thespis. Denny appeared as the child in The Stranger in Worcester at the age of six, he played juvenile parts for several years, tackling his first adult role at the Theatre Royal, Dundee in 1870. Denny's first role in London was at Sadler's Wells Theatre in an 1872 revival of Mazeppa, a dramatisation of Byron's poem based on a legend about Ivan Mazeppa, he played the role of Simple in 1874 in The Merry Wives of Windsor at the Gaiety London. After a series of roles in Shakespeare plays and in works by H. J. Byron, he was engaged by Richard D'Oyly Carte in 1876 for a tour as Trenitz in La fille de Madame Angot, Barthel in The Duke's Daughter, Tarapote in La Périchole. Denny toured America for three years with Lydia Thompson appearing in Philadelphia under the management of Mrs. John Drew.

Returning to London in 1879, Denny appeared as Charles Freeman in Marie Litton's production of The Beaux' Stratagem, in her subsequent productions, in a company including John Hare and the Kendals. He appeared in comic opera in an English version of Donizetti's La fille du régiment. At the Imperial Theatre, London, he played the role of Sir Charles in She Stoops to Conquer and Corporal Foss in The Poor Gentleman, both in 1879; the same year, he created the role of Filippo in Alfred Tennyson's Falcon, winning better notices than the play. Next, he created the role of Slater in William and Susan in 1880, he played Angus Macalister in an 1881 revival of W. S. Gilbert's Engaged, before going on tour with Lillie Langtry in 1882, playing roles including Tony Lumpkin in She Stoops to Conquer. Denny was back in New York in 1884–85, returned to the London stage in 1886–87, he created the role of Hamish in Hamilton's Harvest and the next year he made what The Theatre magazine called "an extraordinary hit" as Noah Topping in Pinero's Dandy Dick.

While he was in the run of the latter, Arthur Sullivan saw him, invited him to audition for the Savoy Theatre. Denny joined the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company at the Savoy to replace Rutland Barrington in 1888 and remained there until 1893, he created the roles of Wilfred Shadbolt in The Yeomen of the Guard, the Grand Inquisitor, Don Alhambra del Bolero, in The Gondoliers and Bumbo in The Nautch Girl. He next played Bedford Rowe in the revival of The Vicar of Bray, he created the character of The McCrankie in Haddon Hall, leaving the company when the run was completed. In 1893, he appeared in a musical comedy called Poor Jonathan before returning to D'Oyly Carte to create the part of Scaphio in Utopia, Limited, he again left the company at the end of the run of that show. After leaving the Savoy, Denny appeared again in musicals in London from 1895 to 1897, he created the roles of Pilkington Jones in Robert White in Dandy Dan. He toured Australia and New Zealand in a Shakespeare company, playing Bottom and Touchstone.

He was back on the New York stage beginning in 1905, appearing on Broadway in Julius Caesar, The Proud Laird, The Earl and the Girl, The Hypocrites, The Beauty Spot, The Gay Hussars, Madame X, The Blue Bird. He once more returned to London, making his last appearance there as Stuff, a theatre manager, in Walter Browne's Everywoman in 1912. Denny wrote several one-act plays, the best-known of, A Mutual Mistake. In addition, he wrote such as "How sweet thou art to me", with music by Arthur Weld. Denny was one of the founders of the Actors' Orphanage, he maintained an active interest in it, he married Georgina Pike. Their son, Reginald Denny, became a popular film actor. Denny died in Herne Bay, Kent in 1915 at the age of 61. Adams, William Davenport. A Dictionary of the Drama. London: Chatto & Windus Ayre, Leslie; the Gilbert & Sullivan Companion. London: W. H. Allen & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-396-06634-8. Rees, Terence. Thespis – A Gilbert & Sullivan Enigma. London: Dillon's University Bookshop. Photos W. H. Denny at the Internet Broadway Database