click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Transport hub

A transport hub is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged between vehicles or/and between transport modes. Public transport hubs include train stations, rapid transit stations, bus stops, tram stop and ferry slips. Freight hubs include classification yards, airports and truck terminals, or combinations of these. For private transport, the parking lot functions as a hub. An interchange service in the scheduled passenger air transport industry involved a "through plane" flight operated by two or more airlines where a single aircraft was used with the individual airlines operating it with their own flight crews on their respective portions of a direct, no change of plane multi-stop flight. In the U. S. a number of air carriers including Alaska Airlines, American Airlines, Braniff International Airways, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Eastern Airlines, Frontier Airlines, Hughes Airwest, National Airlines, Pan Am, Trans World Airlines, United Airlines and Western Airlines operated such cooperative "through plane" interchange flights on both domestic and/or international services in the past with these schedules appearing in their respective system timetables.

Delta Air Lines pioneered the hub and spoke system for aviation in 1955 from its hub in Atlanta, United States, in an effort to compete with Eastern Air Lines. FedEx spoke model for overnight package delivery during the 1970s; when the United States airline industry was deregulated in 1978, Delta's hub and spoke paradigm was annexed by several airlines. Many airlines around the world operate hub-and-spoke systems facilitating passenger connections between their respective flights. Intermodal passenger transport hubs in public transport include bus stations, railway stations and metro stations, while a major transport hub multimodal, may be referred to as a transport center or, in American English, as a transit center. Sections of city streets that are devoted to functioning as transit hubs are referred to as transit malls. Modern electronic passenger information systems and journey planners require a digital representation of the stops and transportation hubs including their topology. Public transport data information standards such as Transmodel and IFOPT have been developed to provide a common terminology, conceptual models and data exchange formats to allow the collection and distribution of stop and interchange data.

Airports have a twofold hub function. First they concentrate passenger traffic into one place for onward transportation; this makes it important for airports to be connected to the surrounding transport infrastructure, including roads, bus services, railway and rapid transit systems. Secondly some airports function as intra-modular hubs for the airlines, or airline hubs; this is a common strategy among network airlines who fly only from limited number of airports and will make their customers change planes at one of their hubs if they want to get between two cities the airline doesn't fly directly between. Airlines have extended the hub-and-spoke model in various ways. One method is to create additional hubs on a regional basis, to create major routes between the hubs; this reduces the need to travel long distances between nodes. Another method is to use focus cities to implement point-to-point service for high traffic routes, bypassing the hub entirely. There are three kinds of freight hubs: sea-road, sea-rail and road-rail, though they can be sea-road-rail.

With the growth of containerization, intermodal freight transport has become more efficient making multiple legs cheaper than through services—increasing the use of hubs. Central station Infrastructure security Intermodal Journey Planner Junction Layover Spoke-hub distribution paradigm

Loren Gabel

Loren Gabel is a Canadian women's ice hockey player for the Clarkson Golden Knights. She made her debut for the Canada women's national ice hockey team at the 2018 4 Nations Cup. In March 2019, she was the recipient of the Patty Kazmaier Memorial Award. In her second season of Provincial Women's Hockey League hockey, Gabel captured a silver medal with the Toronto Jr. Aeros at the 2014 Ontario Women's Hockey Association championships. For the 2014–15 PWHL season, Gabel moved on to the Oakville Jr. Hornets, coached by Bradi Cochrane. Logging 37 points in the regular season, which ranked tenth in the PWHL, Gabel gained a bronze medal at the 2015 PWHL championships. Joining the Clarkson Golden Knights in 2015–16, Gabel captured the team's Rookie of the Year Award, while earning a place on the ECAC Conference All-Rookie Team. Reaching the NCAA Frozen Four, Gabel paced all Golden Knights freshmen in scoring, while ranking second in the NCAA for goals scored by a freshman. Gabel's sophomore season with the Golden Knights culminated with an NCAA Frozen Four championship, as the Golden Knights defeated the Wisconsin Badgers in the finals.

Named to the 2017 ECAC All-Tournament Team, Gabel would tie for fifth overall nationally in regular season power play goals. As a Junior, Gabel was named a First-Team All-American, while finishing as a Top-3 Finalist for the Patty Kazmaier Award, won by Daryl Watts. Named the ECAC's Top Forward, Gabel would contribute towards the Golden Knights winning their second straight NCAA Frozen Four tournament. Statistically, her plus/minus ranking of +58 paced all skaters in the NCAA; the following season, Gabel would capture the Kazmaier Award participating in the NCAA Frozen Four. Gabel competed for Canada's National Women's Under-22/Development Team at the 2018 Nations Cup in Fussen, Germany. Of note, the Canadian contingent attained its worst finish, placing fifth. Gabel amassed five points in four games played. Gabel scored her first career goal for the National Canadian team in the third period of a 2–1 preliminary round loss on November 7, 2018, versus the United States at the 4 Nations Cup. 2018–19 season in progress 2015–16 Named to the ECAC Hockey All-Rookie Team...

Named ECAC Hockey Rookie of the Week on 2/23 and selected to the ECAC Hockey Weekly Honor Roll six times... Named ECAC Hockey Rookie of the Month for February. 2016–17 Made the ECAC Hockey Championship All-Tournament Team. 2017–18 ECAC Conference Scoring Champion. Top-3 Finalist for the Patty Kazmaier Memorial Award presented annually to the top forward in Division 1 women's hockey. Named ECAC Hockey Player of the Year. Led the country in plus/minus at +58. Named to the 2018 Frozen Four All-Tournament Team. ECAC Hockey Player of the Month. HCA National Player of the month. ECAC Hockey Player of the month. NCAA First Star of the Week. NCAA Third Star of the Week. ECAC Hockey Player of the Week six times. ECAC Honour Roll four times. October 2018: ECAC Women's Hockey Player of the Month. Women's Hockey Commissioners Association National Division I Player of the Month March 23, 2019 Loren Gable won the Patty Kazmaier Memorial Award presented annually to the top forward in Division 1 women's hockey. Loren Gabel career statistics at EliteProspects.com

Nativity Cathedral, Chișinău

The Cathedral of Christ's Nativity is the main cathedral of the Moldovan Orthodox Church in Central Chișinău, Moldova. It was commissioned by the governor of New Russia, Prince Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov, Metropolitan Gavril Bănulescu-Bodoni in 1830; the cathedral was built in the 1830s to a Neoclassical design by Abram Melnikov. The cathedral was bombed during World War II, its bell tower was destroyed by the local Communists in 1962; the new bell tower was constructed in 1997. During the Soviet period, worship was prohibited and the cathedral was transformed into an exhibition center. Melnikov's design is Neoclassical; the facade is simple and clear with six Doric column for the entrance. Because of the numerous destructions which the cathedral suffered throughout time, the building has received several restorations and shifts in its shape. For instance, the current zinc dome and its cross at the top are both an addition from 1997 built over the previous structure; the inside was blank during the Soviet period but nowadays it has painted walls in pure orthodox style.

Transfiguration Cathedral, Odessa Moldovan Orthodox Church Centrul istoric al Chişinǎlui, La începutul secolului al XXI-LEA, Chișinǎu, Editura ARC, 2009. Media related to Nativity Cathedral, Chișinău at Wikimedia Commons Despre catedrală pe situl Mitropoliei Moldovei Ansamblul Catedrala Naşterea Domnului

Zack Bowman

Zackary Bowman is an American football cornerback, current a free agent. He was drafted by the Chicago Bears in the fifth round of the 2008 NFL Draft, he played college football at New Mexico Military Institute. He has played for the New York Giants and Miami Dolphins. Bowman attended Batesburg-Leesville High in Batesburg, South Carolina, attended Bartlett High School in Anchorage and graduated in 2003. After Bowman attended New Mexico Military Institute, he attended University of Nebraska–Lincoln. In his two seasons at Nebraska Bowman had a total of 56 tackles, 20 pass break ups, 3 interceptions, he played in 22 games, 9 of which he started. Bowman had to redshirt the 2006 season due to torn anterior cruciate ligament in his left knee on the third day of fall practice and missed the season; the Chicago Bears selected in the fifth round of the 2008 NFL Draft. He made the team's opening day roster but was relegated to the practice squad to make room for guard Dan Buenning, acquired in a trade; the Bears signed Bowman off the practice squad in week seven, after their top three cornerbacks were ruled out of a game against the Minnesota Vikings due to injuries.

Bowman played a crucial role in the Bears victory over the Vikings by recovering a fumbled punt in the endzone for a touchdown. Bowman sustained an injury in the fourth quarter, which should have left him sidelined for the remainder of the game, but he insisted on returning due to the Bears shallow depth at the cornerback position, he recorded his first career interception upon returning, which prevented the Vikings from engineering a last second touchdown drive. Bowman required surgery to repair the injury he sustained during the game, was placed on the team's injury reserve for the remainder of the season, his efforts during the week merited him the "NFC Special Teams Player of the Week" Award. In training camp 2009, coaches were impressed with Bowman's abilities and play on the practice field. Despite missing most of the preseason with a hamstring injury, Bowman was expected to be a key part of the Bears secondary in 2009 with teammates Nathan Vasher and Charles Tillman. In Week 2 of the regular season, Bowman took over Vasher's starting spot at cornerback.

He recorded 66 tackles, six interceptions, one forced fumble over the course of the season. During the Bears 2010 mini camp, head coach Lovie Smith announced that Bowman would replace Charles Tillman as the team's left side cornerback. In a typical Cover 2 defense, team's will place their best cornerback on the left side of their defensive formations. Bowman signed a one-year deal with the Minnesota Vikings on March 26, 2012. On September 2, 2012, he was waived to make room for A. J. Jefferson. Bowman was re-signed by the Bears. In Week 16 against the Arizona Cardinals, Bowman recovered Beanie Wells' fumble in the endzone for a Bears touchdown, as the Bears won 28-13. In 2013, Bowman signed a one-year deal with the Bears. During the season, Bowman played in all 16 games while starting in seven, recorded 49 tackles along with three interceptions. On March 31, 2014, Bowman signed a one-year deal with the New York Giants. On April 13, 2015, Bowman signed a deal with the Miami Dolphins, he was released on September 6, however, re-signed that day.

He was waived on November 24. Bowman was a sociology major and earned his degree in December 2007, he has three sons. New York Giants bio Minnesota Vikings bio Chicago Bears bio Nebraska Cornhuskers bio

Johann Wilhelm Meigen

Johann Wilhelm Meigen was a German entomologist famous for his pioneering work on Diptera. Meigen was born in Solingen, the fifth of eight children of Johann Clemens Meigen and Sibylla Margaretha Bick, his parents, though not poor, were not wealthy either. They ran a small shop in Solingen, his paternal grandparents, owned an estate and hamlet with twenty houses. Adding to the rental income, Meigen's grandfather was a guild mastercutler in Solingen. Two years after Meigen was born, his grandparents died and his parents moved to the family estate; this was heavily indebted by the Seven Years' War bad crops and rash speculations forced the sale of the farm and the family moved back to Solingen. Meigen attended the town school but only for a short time, he had learned to read and write on his grandfather's estate and he read at home as well as taking an interest in natural history. A lodger in the household, a state surveyor named. Another family friend a Reformed Church organist and teacher called Berger, gave him lessons from his 10th year on in piano and calligraphy.

On, in 1776, he taught him French. Meigen became Berger's assistant. There he saw for the first time a systematic collection of butterflies, here he learned how to collect and prepare insects. In the Autumn of 1779 he returned to Solingen to help his parents, at first by giving private lessons in French, but in the following year he started a French school that lasted until early in 1784. During his few free hours in this period he studied history from Charles Rollin's 15 volume Roman History and that author's 4 volume Ancient History; the only entomological work in his possession at this time was Moder's Caterpillar Calendar. In 1784 he was recommended to Pelzer, a tradesman in Aachen, for the position of resident tutor. On taking up the post, he was treated as a family member. Pelzer had a cousin in Aachen by the name of Mathias Baumhauer, a wool merchant's son, a able entomologist. Baumhauer had a butterfly collection including about 1200 species as well as numbers of insects of all other orders.

Meigen's first attempts to identify his collection, of Diptera were made with a two-volume work by Philipp Ludwig Statius Muller a German translation of Linnaeus's Natursystem published in the Netherlands by Houttyn. He soon made his first discovery; the Linnean genera were too inclusive and a better classification could be arrived at using wing venation. This conclusion had occurred to both Moses Harris in England and Louis Jurine in Geneva but at the time Meigen was unaware of this. Sensing an important step forward he secured the works of Fabricius and from that time concentrated on Diptera, he soon found that wing venation alone was not enough to classify the Dipera and he began to make drawings of the antennae viewed under a 20-power wooden-framed microscope purchased at the fair in Aachen, This, a lens of about 6-power, his own sharp eyesight and visual memory led him to the next important conclusion, that the Diptera could only be classified using character combinations. In 1786 the Solingen organist, a younger brother of his former teacher Berger died in Solingen.

That position, with a French school connected with it, was offered to Meigen and he went back to Solingen. There he became acquainted with a man called Weniger, who shared his interests in botany and entomology, his enthusiasm for entomology and botany became broader and he decided to extend his studies to world species. Weniger felt and they contacted the banker and collector Johann Christian Gerning in Frankfurt. Gerning wrote to his son in the Netherlands. A Swiss, Count von Meuron, in the Dutch service and whose brother was governor of Trincomalee on Ceylon heard of their wishes and obtained for them the offer of positions as surgeons on an East Indiaman, with an additional stipend; this plan was given up. In 1792 Meigen took instruction in drawing, he was offered a teaching position in Burtscheid near Aachen. However, he could not leave Solingen because it was occupied by the French army during the Battle of Jemappes. Only when the French withdrew after the Battle of Neerwinden was he able to leave for Burtscheid and Aachen, where he taught as well as collecting assiduously.

In 1796, Meigen took a job teaching French in 2 hours from Aachen. Here he remained without further change of residence until his death. In Stolberg outside of school hours he taught drawing, geography and piano, he met a brass-worker named J. A. Peltzer, a mathematician and owned a 60-power Tiedemann achromatic telescope. Soon Meigen was teaching astronomy as well. In 1801 Meigen met the French naturalist Count Lacépède who had come to Stolberg to visit the brass works, they talked about natural history and Meigen showed Count Lacépède his drawings of Diptera. The following day Meigen was asked to visit Count Lacépède who asked him to join Capt. Baudin's voyage around the world as a botanist. Meigen declined. In 1802 Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger who must have heard of Meigen from Count Lacépède and was at the baths in Aachen with Johann Centurius Hoffmannsegg invited him to join them. Meigen took his drawings along, made arrangements with Illiger and Hoffmannsegg for future work. Illiger had captured a new and unknown Dipteron and showed a pen drawing of it to Meigen, asking him how it should be classified.

Meigen described it as Loxocera Hoffmannseggi. Illiger agreed to proofread Meigen's first work on Diptera, then

Slutsky equation

The Slutsky equation in economics, named after Eugen Slutsky, relates changes in Marshallian demand to changes in Hicksian demand, known as such since it compensates to maintain a fixed level of utility. There are two parts of the Slutsky equation, namely the substitution effect, income effect. In general, the substitution effect is negative, he designed this formula to explore a consumer's response as the price changes. When the price increases, the budget set moves inward, which causes the quantity demanded to decrease. In contrast, when the price decreases, the budget set moves outward, which leads to an increase in the quantity demanded; the equation demonstrates that the change in the demand for a good, caused by a price change, is the result of two effects: a substitution effect: the good becomes cheaper, so consumers substitute it for other goods an income effect: the purchasing power of consumer increases as a result of price decrease, so consumers could now afford better products or more of the same products, depending on whether the product itself is a normal good or an inferior good.

The Slutsky equation decomposes the change in demand for good i in response to a change in the price of good j: ∂ x i ∂ p j = ∂ h i ∂ p j − ∂ x i ∂ w x j, where h is the Hicksian demand and x is the Marshallian demand, at the vector of price levels p, wealth level w, fixed utility level u given by maximizing utility at the original price and income, formally given by the indirect utility function v. The right-hand side of the equation is equal to the change in demand for good i holding utility fixed at u minus the quantity of good j demanded, multiplied by the change in demand for good i when wealth changes; the first term on the right-hand side represents the substitution effect, the second term represents the income effect. Note that since utility is not observable, the substitution effect is not directly observable, but it can be calculated by reference to the other two terms in the Slutsky equation, which are observable; this process is sometimes known as the Hicks decomposition of a demand change.

The equation can be rewritten in terms of elasticity: ϵ p, i j = ϵ p, i j h − ϵ w, i b j where εp is the price elasticity, εph is the compensated price elasticity, εw,i the income elasticity of good i, bj the budget share of good j. The same equation can be rewritten in matrix form to allow multiple price changes at once: D p x = D p h − D w x x ⊤, where Dp is the derivative operator with respect to price and Dw is the derivative operator with respect to wealth; the matrix D p h is known as the Slutsky matrix, given sufficient smoothness conditions on the utility function, it is symmetric, negative semidefinite, the Hessian of the expenditure function. While there are several ways to derive the Slutsky equation, the following method is the simplest. Begin by noting the identity h i = x i where e is the expenditure function, u is the utility obtained by maximizing utility given p and w. Totally differentiating with respect to pj yields the following: ∂ h i