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Transport in Cameroon

This article provides a breakdown of the transportation options available in Cameroon. The options available to citizens and tourists include railways, waterways and airlines; these avenues of transportation are used by citizens for personal transportation, by businesses for transporting goods, by tourists for both accessing the country and traveling while there. Railways in Cameroon are operated by Camrail, a subsidiary of French investment group Bolloré; as of May 2014 Camrail operated regular daily services on three routes:Douala - KumbaDouala - YaoundéYaoundé - NgaoundéréThere are no rail links with neighbouring countries. Total highways: 50,000 km Paved: 5,000 km Unpaved: 45,000 km Cameroon lies at a key point in the Trans-African Highway network, with three routes crossing its territory: Dakar-N'Djamena Highway, connecting just over the Cameroon border with the N'Djamena-Djibouti Highway Lagos-Mombasa Highway Tripoli-Cape Town HighwayCameroon's central location in the network means that efforts to close the gaps which exist in the network across Central Africa rely on the Cameroon's participation in maintaining the network, the network has the potential to have a profound influence on Cameroon's regional trade.

Except for the several good toll roads which connect major cities roads are poorly maintained and subject to inclement weather, since only 10% of the roadways are tarred. It is for instance that within a decade, a great deal of trade between West Africa and Southern Africa will be moving on the network through Yaoundé. National highways in Cameroon: N1: Yaoundé - Bertoua - Ngaoundéré - Garoua - Maroua - Kouséri, border with Chad. N2: Yaoundé - Mbalmayo - Ebolowa - Woleu Ntem, border with Gabon. N3: Yaoundé - Edéa - Douala - Idenau. N4: Yaoundé - Bafia - Bafoussam. N5: Douala - Nkongsamba - Bafang - Bafoussam. N6: Ejagham, border with Nigeria - Bamenda - Bafoussam - Tibati - Lokoti. N7: Edéa - Kribi. N8: Mutengene - Kumba - Mamfé. N9: Mbalmayo - Nki, border with Congo. N10: Yaoundé - Bertoua - Batouri - Kenzou, border with the Central African Republic. Prices of petrol rose in 2007 and 2008, leading to a transport union strike in Douala on 25 February 2008; the strike escalated into violent protests and spread to other major cities.

The uprising subsided on 29 February. 2,090 km. Navigation on the Benue River. Of the operating maritime ports in Cameroon, Douala is most important. Lesser ports include Kribi, used chiefly for the export of wood, Limbé, used only for palm-oil exports. Garoua, on the Benoué River, is the main river port. In 2005, Cameroon's merchant fleet consisted of one petroleum tanker, totalling 169,593 GRT. Douala - main port and second largest city. Bonaberi - railhead to northwest Garoua Kribi - oil pipeline from Chad Kribi South - proposed iron ore export port, about 40 km south of Kribi. Tiko 888 km of oil line The main international airport is the Douala International Airport and a secondary international airport at Yaoundé Nsimalen International Airport; as of May 2014 Cameroon had regular international air connections with nearly every major international airport in West and Southwest Africa as well as several connections to Europe and East Africa. In 2008 there were 34 airports. List of airports in Cameroon total: 10 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1 total: 24 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 14 under 914 m: 6 Sundance Resources Ltd report Camrail Cameroon Transport News This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html

Steve Clark (referee)

Steven Clark is a former Australian professional referee in the National Rugby League competition. Clark was born in Australia. Clark made his first grade debut in the match between Parramatta Eels and the Newcastle Knights, at Parramatta Stadium on 31 May 1992. In 2007 Clark reached the 300 first grade game barrier becoming only the third referee to do so. At the time of his retirement only Bill Harrigan with 393 games and Col Pearce with 343 games had refereed more matches than him. Clark made his representative refereeing debut in 1996, when he officiated the Test match between Great Britain and New Zealand. In 2005 he controlled in his one and only City vs Country Origin match at Northpower Stadium in Gosford. Clark made his first State of Origin appearance in 1999, refereeing two matches including the first drawn match in Game III, he didn't referee again until the 2005 series where he was appointed to Game II. In the following series he controlled Games II and III

Coplestone Warre Bampfylde

Coplestone Warre Bampfylde was a British landowner, garden designer and artist. Bampfylde was the only son of John Bampfylde by Margaret and heiress of Sir Francis Warre, 1st Baronet, was educated at Blundell's School and Winchester. In 1750, following the death of his father, he inherited Hestercombe House in Somerset, where he designed and laid out the gardens, they are now listed Grade 1 on the English Heritage Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England. Bamfylde was a notable amateur painter, exhibited his works at the Society of Artists, the Free Society of Artists, the Royal Academy between 1763 and 1783, he made a few etchings of landscapes, drew some humorous illustrations for Christopher Anstey's Election Ball which were etched by William Hassel, published at Bath in 1776. He designed the Market House in Taunton in 1772, he died at Hestercombe on 29 August 1791 and was buried in the Warre family tomb at St Mary's Church, Kingston. He had married daughter of Edward Knight, a Worcestershire ironmaster.

They had no children and Hestercombe was left to his nephew, John Tyndale. There are paintings by Bampfylde in the collections of National Trust, The UK Government and Exeter University. "Bampfylde, Coplestone Warre". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Bampfylde, Coplestone Warre". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

Tulayha

Tulayha ibn Khuwaylid ibn Nawfal al-Asadi was a Arab clan chief and military commander during the time of Muhammad. He was a wealthy chief. In 625 he was defeated in the Expedition of a Muslim expedition against him, he took part in the Battle of the Trench in 627 and in Battle of Buzakha and Battle of Ghamra in 632 against Muhammad and in Battle of Qadisiya and the Battle of Nahāvand on the Muslim side. He rebelled against Muhammad in 631 when he claimed to be a prophet and the recipient of divine revelation. Thus, Tulayha became the third person to claim prophethood among the Arabs against Muhammad. Many tribes acknowledged him as a prophet, which made him sufficiently strong and powerful to lead a confederacy of numerous tribes against the Muslims. In July 632, Abu Bakr raised an army from the Banu Hashim. Ali bin Abi Talib, Talha ibn Ubaidullah and Zubair ibn al-Awam, were each appointed as commander of one-third of the newly organized force, they fought the Battle of Zhu Qissa against the forces of Tulayha and his followers as they prepared to launch an attack on Medina during the Ridda wars.

The Rashidun commanders held. Tulayha was defeated and his forces were driven back to Zhu Hussa. Thereafter, Khalid ibn al-Walid was sent to crush his confederacy; the armies of Khalid and Tulayha met at a place named Buzaka in 632. In this engagement, the army of Tulayha was defeated in the Battle of Buzakha. Following this battle, many of the rebellious tribes accepted Islam. However, Tulayha sought refuge in Syria, but when Syria was conquered by the Muslims, Tulayha accepted Islam. In 634, he paid homage to Umar after the latter’s assumption of the position of Caliph. On, Tulayha enthusiastically took part in the campaign against the Sassanid empire in the Battle of Jalula, the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah, the Battle of Nahavand; the Tabari chronicle records. The translation from Arabic language by Andrew Leber said where the contingent of Bani Assad, the clan of Tulayha played significant role on the Yaum-ul-Armatsh or "The Day of Disorder". At one time recorded he single-handedly rushed enemy ranks in the dark of night and came back with a prisoner of war, Tabari detailed in one chain of Narrations the circumstances in which Tulayha infiltrated the Sassanid camps under the cover of darkness, singlehandedly wreaking havoc in their camps, killing two Sassanid soldiers, taking two horses and brought back one captive to Sa'd ibn abi Waqqas.

Muhammad Husayn Haykal in his Hadhrat Umar autobiography borrowed the same circumstances and wrote the aftermath of the raid as following: Sa'd asking the Sassanid captive about what happened, the latter answered: Since I was a child, I have been told about the stories about heroes. But I never imagined this: This man has travelled about two farsakh 12 kilometres into a camp which manned by 70,000 soldiers, he won't return before tearing down large tents. After we catch up with him, the first of our champion which equal to 1000 soldiers was killed by him; the second man, equal to the first man. I catch up with him and I appoint my reserve to replace my position as I was ready to face death to exact revenge of my peers, but now I am a prisoner. Another record from the notoriously dubious account of Ya'qubi recorded that Tulayha was among the ones who found the corpse of Rostam FarrokhzādLater he fought his last battle in the Battle of Nahāvand alongside the Muslim armies and died as Shahid in that battle.

Tulayha was slain at the last battle in Nahavand. However, his performance was pivotal in Muslims victory in this battle. In fact, the stratagem used by Muslims to lure the Persians and ambush them was created by none other than Tulayha himself; when Saad bin Abi Waqqaas asked Khalifah Umar to send him reinforcement. Umar replied: "I have sent you 2000 men: Tulayhah Asadi; each one of them counts as a thousand." Jabir bin Abdullah has found the praising about Tulayha that he said among soldiers that participating in the battle of al-Qadisiyah that had not desired worldly gain and exceptionally pious and trustworthy, they are Tulayhah bin Khuwailid Al-Asadi,'Amr bin Ma'di Karb and Qais bin Mashkuh Musaylimah Al-Aswad Al-Ansi Sajah Saf ibn Sayyad Ridda Wars E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, By Martijn Theodoor Houtsma, T W Arnold, A J Wensinck, pg.831, Tulayha’s characteristics described. Islam at war, By Mark W. Walton, pg.17, Tulayha's humour. Islamic History, By M. A. Shaban, pg.30, Tulayha joins the Muslim army to fight the Sassanid Empire

MicroFinance Institutions Network

Microfinance Institutions Network is an association for the microfinance sector in India. Its member organizations constitute the leading microfinance institutions in the country. MFIN was created to promote the key objectives of microfinance, to help economically under served communities achieve greater financial independence and build sustainable livelihoods. MFIN’s primary objective is to work towards the robust development of the microfinance sector, by promoting Responsible Lending,Client Protection, Good Governance & A Supportive Regulatory Environment. MFIN was established in October 2009 as a Society under the Andhra Pradesh Societies Registration Act 2001; as per MFIN Bye-Laws, all NBFCs registered with the RBI as NBFC-MFIs are eligible for membership of the Society. The Reserve Bank of India vide its letter dated 16 June 2014 accorded recognition to MFIN as Self Regulatory Organisation of NBFC-MFIs. MFIN works with regulators and other key stakeholders and plays an active part in the larger financial inclusions dialogue through the medium of microfinance.

MFIN is a primary representative body and the Self-Regulatory Organization for Non Banking Finance Companies Microfinance Institutions regulated by the Reserve Bank of India. MFIN is organized into four verticals namely Self-Regulation and Development,Communications and Marketing and State Initiatives to be able to focus on the priorities of the sector in an optimum manner. While policy advocacy was the primary focus and continues to be so, with the evolution of the sector there are various new functions that have become part of the framework; the Self-Regulatory function was part of RBI’s remit to MFIN to help supervise compliance at a more granular level on behalf of the Regulator. With the sector coming back into its own over the last five years, there was a felt need for greater engagement with external stakeholders and a strong communication strategy was thought to be the way ahead. With the industry growing ground level issues are key indicators of sectoral good health. With this in view the State Initiative team keeps continuously engaging with industry issues at a field level to ensure smooth functioning.

MFIN's internal whistle-blowing mechanism tries not to charge beyond RBI suggested rates from its Member Micro Finance Institutions. This is to ensure. RBI has set a cap on the lending rate of MFIs at 26 per cent per annum and a margin cap of 12 per cent over their cost of funds, whichever is lower. MFIN member organizations consist of 55 of the leading NBFC/MFIs whose combined business constitutes over 90% of the Indian microfinance sector excluding SHGs. Validation of lending money beyond the clients capability to pay back was a challenge to RBI before. MFIN tries to validate this aspect by finding the existing borrowings of the client through dedicated microfinance credit bureaus, only two MFIs can lend to one borrower and both together cannot provide loans beyond Rs.100,000. MFIN has facilitated setting up a database of the borrowers which confirms the necessary validation required; the database consists of about 60 million loan accounts. When a person applies for the loan, MFI checks for the loan history and verifies the RBIs benchmark with the credit reports.

The credit reports are 80-90% accurate. Many MFIs undertake significant social activities across health and skill development on a non-profit basis. Official site Member List

Sound Effects Choir

The Hollywood Film Chorale Sound Effects Choir popularly known as the Honda Choir, is an ensemble that can physically produce human sound effects without electronic means. They are well known at the Academy Awards, it is conducted by Steve Sidwell, the composer of their repertoire. Sound effects are produced by means of using the mouth. For example, the performers would tap their fingernails against their teeth to simulate rain falling on a car's windshield. To simulate wind, one would blow air. To imitate the sound of tires squealing, a soprano would make a high pitched screeching sound; the ensemble was featured in a television advertisement for a Honda Civic in January 2006, called Choir, which gained immense popularity. The advertisement was made by the company Wieden and Kennedy, shown at countries in Europe such as the United Kingdom; this performance consisted of sixty vocalists, was filmed in a car park in the end of November 2005. In February 2007, the Choir appeared as performers in the 79th Academy Awards, producing sound effects to a collection of different film clips in a piece called Elements and Motion.

A video of these movie clips was shown behind the forty person choir, as they performed in Kodak Theater. Although much praise was given to this particular performance, it has received some criticism of not reaching the high expectations set in any Academy Award festival; the Honda Civic television advertisement that the Sound Effects choir was featured in won the Gold Lion award in the Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival regarded as the most prestigious international advertising festival. The advertisement was a contender for the Grand Prix during this event. Chorus effect Choir - performance during a television advertisement for a Honda Civic "Hollywood Film Chorale's website". Retrieved 2007-03-08