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Transport in France

Transportation in France relies on one of the densest networks in the world with 146 km of road and 6.2 km of rail lines per 100 km2. It is built as a web with Paris at its center. Rail, road and water are all developed forms of transportation in France; the first important human improvements were the Roman roads linking major settlements and providing quick passage for marching armies. All through the Middle Ages improvements were second rate. Transport became awkward to use; the early modern period saw great improvements. There was a quick production of canals connecting rivers, it saw great changes in oceanic shipping. Rather than expensive galleys, wind powered ships that were much faster and had more room for cargo became popular for coastal trade. Transatlantic shipping with the New World turned cities such as Nantes, Cherbourg-Octeville and Le Havre into major ports. There is a total of 29,901 kilometres of railway in France operated by SNCF, the French national railway company. Like the road system, the French railways are subsidised by the state, receiving €13.2 billion in 2013.

The railway system is a small portion of total travel, accounting for less than 10% of passenger travel. From 1981 onwards, a newly constructed set of high-speed Lignes à Grande Vitesse lines linked France's most populous areas with the capital, starting with Paris-Lyon. In 1994, the Channel Tunnel opened, connecting France and Great Britain by rail under the English Channel; the TGV has set many world speed records, the most recent on 3 April 2007, when a new version of the TGV dubbed the V150 with larger wheels than the usual TGV, a stronger 25,000 hp engine, broke the world speed record for conventional rail trains, reaching 574.8 km/h. Trains, unlike road traffic, drive on the left. Metro and tramway services are not thought of as trains and follow road traffic in driving on the right. Six cities in France have a rapid transit service. Full metro systems are in operation in Paris and Marseille. Light metro systems are in use in Lille and Rennes. In spite of the closure of most of France's first generation tram systems in earlier years, a fast-growing number of France's major cities have modern tram or light rail networks, including Paris, Toulouse, Saint-Étienne and Nantes.

The tram has seen a big revival with many experiments such as ground level power supply in Bordeaux, or trolleybuses pretending to be trams in Nancy. This way of travelling started disappearing in France at the end of the 1930s. Only Lille and Saint-Étienne have never given up their tram systems. Since the 1980s, several cities have re-introduced it; the following French towns and cities run light rail or tram systems: Angers - since 2011. The revival of tram networks in France has brought about a number of technical developments both in the traction systems and in the styling of the cars: APS third rail: The ground-level power supply system known as APS or Alimentation par le sol uses a third rail placed between the running rails, divided electrically into eight-metre segments with three metre neutral sections between; each tram has two power collection skates, next to which are antennas that send radio signals to energise the power rail segments as the tram passes over them. At any one time no more than two consecutive segments under the tram should be live.

Alstrom developed the system to avoid intrusive power supply cables in sensitive area of the old city of Bordeaux. Modern styling: The Eurotram, used in Strasbourg has a modern design that makes it look as much like a train as a tram, has large windows along its entire length. Modular design: The Citadis tram, flagship of the French manufacturer Alstom, enjoys an innovative design combining lighter bogies with a modular concept for carriages providing more choices in the types of windows and the number of cars and doors; the recent Citadis-Dualis, intended to run at up to 100 km/h, is suitable for stop spacings ranging from 500 m to 5 km. Dualis is a modular partial low-floor car, with all doors in the low-floor sections. Prominent bi-articulated "tram-like" Van Hool vehicles are used in Metz since 2013, they work as classic trams but without needing rails and catenaries, can transport up to 155 passengers while being ecological thanks to a diesel-electric hybrid engine. In the starting up, batteries feed the engine of the bus, which can roll 150 meters before the diesel engine takes over.

There are ~950,000 km of roads in France. The French motorway network or autoroute system consists large

Stockholms Stora Pris

The Stockholms Stora Pris is a Group 3 flat horse race in Sweden open to thoroughbreds aged four years or older. It is run over a distance of 1,750 metres in late May or early June; the event was established in 1930, its initial prize money was 12,000 kronor. The first winner was called St Hans. For a period the Stockholms Stora Pris held Listed status, it was promoted to Group 3 level in 2006. It is one of three Group races in Sweden, along with the Stockholm Cup International and the Zawawi Cup. List of Scandinavian flat horse races Racing Post / 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 2018 – Stockholms Stora Pris. – International Federation of Horseracing Authorities – Stockholms Stora Pris. – Stockholms Stora Pris – Täby

Haiti women's national football team

The Haiti women's national football team participates in several competitions including the CONCACAF Women's Gold Cup. The team participates in qualification for the FIFA Women's World Cup and Summer Olympics, although they have yet to succeed in qualifying for either tournament; the team is controlled by the Fédération Haïtienne de Football. They are one of the top women's national football teams in the Caribbean region along with Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago. Haiti women's national football team is coached by Shek Borkowski, the coach of the under 17 and under 20 teams. *Draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks. *Draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks. Women's Technical Director: Laurent Mortel Women's Asst: Bruny Pierre Richard Women's Asst: Allan Jean-Louis Women's Asst: Aurelien Quesnel The following players were called-up for the 2020 CONCACAF Women's Olympic Qualifying Championship. Caps and goals are updated as of 3 February 2020 after the match against Panama.

Haiti national football team Haiti women's national under-20 football team Haiti women's national under-17 football team Haiti at the FIFA World Cup Official website FIFA profile Haiti women’s national football team picture


Taiteilijaelämää is the third solo album of Ismo Alanko, released in 1995. Alanko used the same title for his 2006 DVD Taiteilijaelämää vuosilta 1989-2006. Music and lyrics by Ismo Alanko. "Oletko koskaan..."—5:24 "Pelataanko shakkia vai?"—5:08 "Nuorena syntynyt"—6:12 "Kamaan ja tavaraan"—3:50 "Väärään maailmaan"—4:59 "Don Quiote"—4:54 "Kun rakkaus on rikki"—5:32 "Pakko päästä pinnalle"—3:25 "Taiteilijaelämää"—4:36 "Suomi ratsastaa jälleen"—4:18 "Tule mun luojani"—5:28 "Kurjet"—4:39 Ismo Alanko -- vocals, synthesizer Jukka Kiviniemi -- bass Ippe Kätkä -- drums, maracas Riku Mattila—guitar, slide guitar, bass Safka -- organ, electric piano, piano Izmo—synthesizer Ilkka Alanko -- backing vocals Ona Kamu—backing vocals Sakari Kukkonen—drums, backing vocals Tommi Lindell—synthesizer Pekka Witikka—synthesizer Max Savikangas -- viola Sanna Salmenkallio -- violin

José Ángel Zubiaur Alegre

José Ángel Zubiaur Alegre was a Spanish right-wing politician. Throughout most of his life he remained active as a Carlist militant and held some positions in the regional Navarrese party executive. In the 1970s he left the movement and contributed to birth of a Navarrista party, Unión del Pueblo Navarro, his career climaxed during the Cortes term in 1967–1971, when he strove to liberalize the regime and gained nationwide recognition. In 1948–1951 and 1983–1987 he served in the regional Navarrese self-government; the Basque Zubiaur family has been traditionally related to sea fare. Some of the family members grew to well known Spanish naval commanders and in the early modern era the Zubiaurs were among 10 families most represented in the Bilbao town hall; the family got branched. Its descendant was José Ángel's grandfather, Vicente Zubiaur Unzaga, married in Bilbao to María Salazar Gochi; the couple had 7 children. He set up companies on his own. In 1920–1922 he served as member of the Bilbao ayuntamiento.

In 1890 Zubiaur Salazar married Teresa Alegre Navascués. The couple settled in the centre of Bilbao. At unspecified time, though in the late 1920s, Zubiaur Salazar was interned in the psychiatric hospital in Bermeo. In the late 1920s he entered a Marist school in Pamplona, where he obtained bachillerato during the Republic era. In 1934 Zubiaur enrolled at philosophy and letters at the University of Zaragoza. Outbreak of the Civil War interrupted his academic career. In 1947 Zubiaur married María Josefa Carreño Cima; the couple settled in Pamplona. Their marriage endured 65 years. Two of Zubiaur's sons became public figures; the oldest one, José Ángel Zubiaur Carreño, held high administrative and economic offices in the Navarrese self-government and represented Navarre in various central EU bodies. Francisco Javier Zubiaur Carreño held high jobs related to Navarrese culture and is professor in history of art, author of books related to painting and museology. Among other notable relatives, Zubiaur's paternal uncle Román Zubiaur Salazar was a popular comic actor, in the early 1920s known as a Basque stage character "Martinchú Perugorría".

Zubiaur was born to a Carlist family. José Ángel adopted the Carlist outlook as a natural way of life that San Martín de Unx was part of the Carlist Navarrese heartland. During his early schooling years the boy he was active in Juventudes Jaimistas, a Carlist youth organization. Zubiaur admitted having taking part in Traditionalist Pamplonese feasts, though he remained silent on any organizational commitments of the early 1930s. Following the coup of July 1936 he volunteered to the Carlist militia, the requeté, spent 3 years on the front, he survived the Biscay and Asturias campaigns unharmed, until during the Battle of Teruél he suffered frostbites and had to be treated in the Pamplona hospital He finished the wartime career as a sergeant. According to some sources in early 1937 Zubiaur was engaged in Carlist propaganda activities in the Navarrese rearguard, he complied with the Unification Decree and was incorporated into the new Francoist state party, Falange Española Tradicionalista. In late 1938 he was nominated the provincial Navarrese head of the FET propaganda section and at this role he remained active at least until 1939.

Some historians consider him a representative of "carlismo colaboracionista", According to some sources he entered Junta Consultiva Nacional of SEU, the new academic organisation set up by the regime. Though the member of FET, Zubiaur kept considering Manuel Fal Conde his political leader and protested against exaltaton of Falangism at the expense of Traditionalism, he took advantage of his position in the emerging Francoist structures to cultivate and promote the Carlist outlook. He presided over local feasts to honor the Traditionalist fallen, called for the Carlist kings to be buried at Escorial and at the Navarrese border welcomed remnants of general Sanjurjo, to be laid to grave during a solemn funeral ceremony in Pamplona, his most lasting initiative, was setting up Hermandad de Caballeros Voluntarios de la Cruz, a hardly veiled


Pleurodesis is a medical procedure in which the pleural space is artificially obliterated. It involves the adhesion of the two pleurae. Pleurodesis is performed to prevent recurrence of recurrent pleural effusion, it can be done surgically. It is avoided in patients with cystic fibrosis, if possible, because lung transplantation becomes more difficult following this procedure. Previous pneumothorax with or without pleurodesis is not a contraindication to subsequent lung transplantation. Chemicals such as bleomycin, povidone-iodine, or a slurry of talc can be introduced into the pleural space through a chest drain; the instilled chemicals cause irritation between the parietal and the visceral layers of the pleura which closes off the space between them and prevents further fluid from accumulating. Pharmacy-prepared chemicals for pleurodesis should be labeled "NOT FOR IV ADMINISTRATION" to avoid fatal wrong-site medication errors. Povidone iodine is effective and safe as talc, may be preferred because of easy availability and low cost.

Chemical pleurodesis is a painful procedure, so patients are premedicated with a sedative and analgesics. A local anesthetic may be instilled into the pleural space, or an epidural catheter may be placed for anesthesia. Surgical pleurodesis may be performed via thoracoscopy; this involves mechanically irritating the parietal pleura with a rough pad. Moreover, surgical removal of parietal pleura is an effective way of achieving stable pleurodesis. Alternatively, tunneled pleural catheters may be placed in an outpatient setting and result in auto-pleurodesis, whereby portable vacuum bottles are used to evacuate the pleural fluid. Routine evacuation keeps the pleura together, resulting in physical agitation by the catheter, which causes the pleura to scar together; this method, though the minimally invasive and minimal cost solution, takes an average of about 30 days to achieve pleurodesis and is therefore the slowest means of achieving pleurodesis among other modalities. Sterile talc powder, administered intrapleurally via a chest tube, is indicated as a sclerosing agent to decrease the recurrence of malignant pleural effusions in symptomatic patients.

It is performed at the time of a diagnostic thoracoscopy. Media related to Pleurodesis at Wikimedia Commons