A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
Battle of San Marino
The Battle of San Marino was an engagement on 17–20 September 1944 during the Italian Campaign of the Second World War, in which German Army forces occupied the neutral Republic of San Marino, were attacked by Allied forces. It is sometimes known as the Battle of Monte Pulito. San Marino had declared its neutrality earlier in the war, had remained broadly unaffected by events in Europe until 1944, when Allied forces had advanced a sizable distance up the Italian Peninsula. A major German defensive position, the Gothic Line, ran across the peninsula a short distance south of the Sammarinese border, in late June, the country was bombed by the Royal Air Force, killing 35 people, in the belief that the German army had taken up positions on its territory. In Operation Olive, launched in late August, a strong Allied force attacked at the eastern end of the line, aiming to pass through Rimini—just east of San Marino—and break out onto the plains north of the city. Whilst San Marino was southwest of Rimini, the plan was.
In response to the Allied movements, the Germans sent a small force into San Marino to guard their lines of communication and act as artillery observers. After a few days, the main thrust of the offensive was halted south of Rimini by strong resistance and severe weather, the British and Indian flanking forces began to push westwards, taking the frontline towards San Marino. On 17 September the 4th Indian Infantry Division attacked forces of the 278. Infanterie-Division holding two hills just across the Sammarinese border; the city was captured by the afternoon of 20 September, the 4th Indian Division left the country on the 21st, leaving it under the control of the local defence forces. The microstate of San Marino, in the northern Italian Peninsula and surrounded by Italy, had played little role throughout the Second World War, it had a fascist government aligned with Benito Mussolini's regime, but remained neutral. It was reported to have declared war against the United Kingdom in September 1940, though the Sammarinese government transmitted a message to the British government stating that it had not.
In early 1942, the Sammarinese government reiterated it was not at war with the United States, a position, confirmed by the US State Department. The British Foreign Office noted more equivocally in 1944 that Britain had never declared war, but had never formally recognised San Marino's neutrality, that it felt that military action on Sammarinese territory would be justified if it were being used by Axis forces; the country was bombed by the Allies on 27 June 1944, killing at least 35. The Sammarinese government declared the same day that no military installations or equipment were located on its territory, that no belligerent forces had been allowed to enter. In early July, it announced that prominent signs had been put up at the border crossings by the German command, to instruct German units not to enter the territory, again reiterated its complete neutrality. By the late summer of 1944, German forces in Italy had withdrawn toward the Gothic Line, a chain of defended positions stretching across the Italian peninsula.
The Allies formulated a plan to break through the defences, pushing north toward Rimini and the plains of Northern Italy. This would involve a strong thrust up the eastern seaboard by the British Eighth Army, codenamed Operation Olive. Once through the Gap, the force would deploy outward onto the Romagna Plain, move westward toward Bologna. Meanwhile, the American Fifth Army would push north along the centre of the peninsula converging on Bologna and trapping a large German force in a pincer movement; the main Allied assault began on 25 August, reaching the Foglia valley—the Gothic Line proper—on 29 August. It was breached, the German command attempted to assemble a second defensive line on the Coriano ridge, a hilly spur to the north of the Conca river, the last major geographic obstacle south of Rimini; the Allied offensive reached the river on 3 September, but ground to a halt due to mechanical difficulties with its tanks, strengthening German resistance, heavy rain. The Allied forces halted, brought up reinforcements whilst waiting for a chance to resume the offensive along the coast.
On the left flank of the assault, the attack had been halted in the Battle of Gemmano, to the south of the Conca river. At this point, the forces on the Allied left wing were strung out in a line running due south from the Coriano ridge, facing westward toward San Marino, a few miles distant; the 56th Infantry Division was opposite Croce, with the 46th Infantry Division opposite the defended position at Gemmano. The 4th Indian Infantry Division was to the south of the 46th, forming the left wing of the offensive; when the assault on Coriano was resumed on the 12th, led by two armoured divisions with heavy artillery support, these forces pushed westwards. The main assault pushed onto the ridge, the 56th Division advanced about 1 mi past Croce, before digging in on the evening of the 13th, it was captured by the 46th and 4th Indian Divisions on the morning of the 15th, the British forces prepared to move toward Montescudo and exploit the German confusion. The 46th Division too
A narrow-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge narrower than standard 1,435 mm. Most narrow-gauge railways are between 600 1,067 mm. Since narrow-gauge railways are built with tighter curves, smaller structure gauges, lighter rails, they can be less costly to build and operate than standard- or broad-gauge railways. Lower-cost narrow-gauge railways are built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of a standard- or broad-gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways have specialized use in mines and other environments where a small structure gauge necessitates a small loading gauge, they have more general applications. Non-industrial, narrow-gauge mountain railways are common in the Rocky Mountains of the United States and the Pacific Cordillera of Canada, Switzerland, the former Yugoslavia and Costa Rica. In some countries, narrow gauge is the standard. Narrow-gauge trams metre-gauge, are common in Europe. In general, a narrow-gauge railway is narrower than 1,435 mm.
Because of historical and local circumstances, the definition of a narrow-gauge railway varies. The earliest recorded railway appears in Georgius Agricola's 1556 De re metallica, which shows a mine in Bohemia with a railway of about 2 ft gauge. During the 16th century, railways were restricted to hand-pushed, narrow-gauge lines in mines throughout Europe. In the 17th century, mine railways were extended to provide transportation above ground; these lines were industrial. These railways were built to the same narrow gauge as the mine railways from which they developed; the world's first steam locomotive, built in 1802 by Richard Trevithick for the Coalbrookdale Company, ran on a 3 ft plateway. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's Salamanca built in 1812 for the 4 ft 1 in Middleton Railway in Leeds. Salamanca was the first rack-and-pinion locomotive. During the 1820s and 1830s, a number of industrial narrow-gauge railways in the United Kingdom used steam locomotives.
In 1842, the first narrow-gauge steam locomotive outside the UK was built for the 1,100 mm -gauge Antwerp-Ghent Railway in Belgium. The first use of steam locomotives on a public, passenger-carrying narrow-gauge railway was in 1865, when the Ffestiniog Railway introduced passenger service after receiving its first locomotives two years earlier. Many narrow-gauge railways were part of industrial enterprises and served as industrial railways, rather than general carriers. Common uses for these industrial narrow-gauge railways included mining, construction, tunnelling and conveying agricultural products. Extensive narrow-gauge networks were constructed in many parts of the world. Significant sugarcane railways still operate in Cuba, Java, the Philippines, Queensland, narrow-gauge railway equipment remains in common use for building tunnels; the first use of an internal combustion engine to power a narrow-gauge locomotive was in 1902. F. C. Blake built a 7hp petrol locomotive for the Richmond Main Sewerage Board sewage plant at Mortlake.
This 2 ft 9 in gauge locomotive was the third petrol-engined locomotive built. Extensive narrow-gauge rail systems served the front-line trenches of both sides in World War I, they were a short-lived military application, after the war the surplus equipment created a small boom in European narrow-gauge railway building. Narrow-gauge railways cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, smaller bridges and tunnels, tighter curves. Narrow gauge is used in mountainous terrain, where engineering savings can be substantial, it is used in sparsely populated areas where the potential demand is too low for broad-gauge railways to be economically viable. This is the case in parts of Australia and most of Southern Africa, where poor soils have led to population densities too low for standard gauge to be viable. For temporary railways which will be removed after short-term use, such as logging, mining or large-scale construction projects, a narrow-gauge railway is cheaper and easier to install and remove.
Such railways have vanished, due to the capabilities of modern trucks. In many countries, narrow-gauge railways were built as branch lines to feed traffic to standard-gauge lines due to lower construction costs; the choice was not between a narrow- and standard-gauge railway, but between a narrow-gauge railway and none at all. Narrow-gauge railways cannot interchange rolling stock with the standard- or broad-gauge railways with which they link, the transfer of passengers and freight require time-consuming manual labour or substantial capital expenditure; some bulk commodities, such as coal and gravel, can be mechanically transshipped, but this is time-consuming, the equipment required for the transfer is complex to maintain. If rail lines with other gauges coexist in a network, in times of peak demand i
Three Towers of San Marino
The Three Towers of San Marino are a group of towers located in San Marino. Located on the three peaks of Monte Titano in the capital called San Marino, they are depicted on both the national flag and coat of arms; the Guaita is the oldest of the three towers, the most famous. It was constructed in the 11th century and served as a prison, it was rebuilt numerous times and reached its current form in the 15th century during the war fought between San Marino and the House of Malatesta. The Cesta is located on the highest of Monte Titano's summits. A museum to honour Saint Marinus, created in 1956, is located in this tower and showcases over 1,550 weapons dating from the Medieval Era to the modern day, it was constructed in the 13th century on the remains of an older Roman fort. The Montale is located on the smallest of Monte Titano's summits. Unlike the other towers, this one is not open to the public, it was constructed in the 14th century. It is thought to have been constructed to give protection against the increasing power of the Malatesta family in that region.
It was used as a prison, accordingly, the only entrance to the tower is a door about seven metres from ground level, common for prison architecture of the time
A heliport is an area of land, water, or structure used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of helicopters, includes its buildings and facilities. In other words, it is a small airport suitable for use by helicopters and some other vertical lift platforms. Designated heliports contain one or more touchdown and liftoff area and may have limited facilities such as fuel or hangars. In some larger towns and cities, customs facilities may be available. Early advocates of helicopters hoped that heliports would become widespread, but they have become contentious in urban areas due to the excessive noise caused by helicopter traffic. Other terms used to refer to a heliport are: Helistop - A term sometimes used to describe a minimally developed heliport for boarding and discharging passengers or cargo. Helipad - A term oftentimes confused with heliport or helistop; the only reference of this term in the U. S. by the FAA is found in the Aeronautical Information Manual Pilot/Controller Glossary of Terms, which says: A small, designated area with a prepared surface, on a heliport, landing/takeoff area, apron/ramp, or movement area used for takeoff, landing, or parking of helicopters.
In other words, the TLOF. Helideck - Used to describe the landing area on a vessel or offshore structure on which helicopters may land and take off; the airspace surrounding the heliport is called the Primary Surface. This area coincides in size with the designated take-off and landing area; this surface is a horizontal plane equal to the elevation of the established heliport elevation. The Primary Surface is further broken down into three distinct regions; these are, the Final Approach and Takeoff area and the Safety Area. The TLOF is a load-bearing paved area centered in the FATO, on which the helicopter lands and/or takes off; the FATO is a defined area over which the pilot completes the final phase of the approach to a hover or a landing and from which the pilot initiates takeoff. The FATO elevation is the lowest elevation of the edge of the TLOF; the Safety Area is a defined area on a heliport surrounding the FATO intended to reduce the risk of damage to helicopters accidentally diverging from the FATO.
In a large metropolitan and urban areas a heliport can serve passengers needing to move within the city or to outlying regions. Heliports can be situated closer to a town or city center than an airport for fixed-wing aircraft; the advantage in flying by helicopter to a destination or to the city's main airport is that travel can be much faster than driving. As an example, the Downtown Manhattan Heliport in New York City provides scheduled service to John F. Kennedy International Airport and is used to move wealthy persons and important goods to destinations as far away as Maryland; some skyscrapers feature rooftop heliports or helistops to serve the transport needs of executives or clients. Many of these rooftop sites serve as Emergency Helicopter Landing Facilities in case emergency evacuation is needed; the U. S. Bank Tower in Los Angeles is an example. Police departments use heliports as a base for police helicopters, larger departments may have a dedicated large heliport facility dedicated such as the LAPD Hooper Heliport.
Heliports are common features at hospitals where they serve to facilitate Helicopter Air Ambulance and MEDEVACs for transferring patients into and out of hospital facilities. Some large trauma centers have multiple heliports. Heliports allow hospitals to accept patients that may be flown in from remote accident sites where there are no local hospitals or facilities capable of providing the level of emergency care required; the National EMS Pilots Association has published multiple white papers and safety recommendations for the enhancement of hospital heliport operations to improve patient safety. While heliports can be oriented in any direction they will have definitive approach and departure paths. However, heliports are not numbered in the same way. Recommended standard practice by both the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization is to orient an H in the center of the TLOF in line with the preferred approach/departure direction. An information box should be included in the TLOF area which provides the maximum gross weight the heliport is rated for as well as the maximum size helicopter the heliport has been designed to accommodated, based on the Rotor Diameter and Overall Length of the largest design helicopter that will service the heliport.
Under normal conditions it is standard practice to paint the maximum gross weight a heliport is designed to support in thousands of pounds. Along with the maximum helicopter dimensions in feet. Arrows are oftentimes painted on the heliport to indicate to pilots the preferred approach/departure paths. Other common markings can include radio frequencies, company logos and magnetic north. To conduct nighttime operations at a heliport it must have lighting installed that meets specific aeronautical standards. Heliport perimeter lights are installed around the TLOF area an may be flush mounted on the TLOF itself or mounted just off the TLOF perimeter on short metal or concrete extensions. One alternative to lighting the TLOF if certain criteria is met is to light the area of the FATO instead; some locations, due to environmental conditions, illuminate the TLOF and FATO. Lighting should never constitute an obstruction that a helicopter may impact and for this reason in the U. S. heliport lighting is not allowed to extend above the TLOF
Federico Fellini International Airport
Federico Fellini International Airport Rimini Miramare Airport, is an international airport located at Miramare, 2.7 NM southeast of Rimini, Italy. The airport is named after Italian filmmaker Federico Fellini. Since 2015, Rimini Airport is managed by AIRiminum 2014 S.p. A; the airport provides scheduled flights to Moscow and Tirana all year round and a great number of seasonal or charter flights to a lot of destinations outside Italy. From March 2018 Ryanair resumed operations at Rimini airport, after six years of absence, providing connections to London and Kaunas; the airport resides at an elevation of 41 feet above mean sea level. It has one runway designated 13/31 with an asphalt surface measuring 2,996 by 45 metres. Media related to Federico Fellini International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Federico Fellini International Airport Rimini Airport Information Current weather for LIPR at NOAA/NWS Accident history for RMI at Aviation Safety Network
Esperanto is the most spoken constructed international auxiliary language. It was created in the late 19th century by a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist. In 1887, he published a book detailing Unua Libro, under the pseudonym Dr. Esperanto. Esperanto translates to English as "one who hopes". Zamenhof's goal was to create an easy and flexible language that would serve as a universal second language to foster peace and international understanding, to build a community of speakers, as he inferred that one can’t have a language without a community of speakers, his original title for the language was the international language, but early speakers grew fond of the name Esperanto and began to use it as the name for the language in 1889. In 1905, Zamenhof published Fundamento de Esperanto as a definitive guide to the language; that year, he organized the first World Esperanto Congress, an ongoing annual conference, in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. The first congress ratified the Declaration of Boulogne, which established several foundational premises for the Esperanto movement.
One of its pronouncements is that Fundamento de Esperanto is the only obligatory authority over the language. Another is that the Esperanto movement is a linguistic movement and that no further meaning can be ascribed to it. Zamenhof proposed to the first congress that an independent body of linguistic scholars should steward the future evolution of Esperanto, foreshadowing the founding of the Akademio de Esperanto, in part modeled after the Académie française, established soon thereafter. Since 1905, congresses have been held in various countries every year, with the exceptions of years during the World Wars. In 1908, a group of young Esperanto speakers led by Hector Hodler established the Universal Esperanto Association, in order to provide a central organization for the global Esperanto community. Esperanto grew both as a language and as a linguistic community. Despite speakers facing persecution in regimes such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union under Stalin, Esperanto speakers continued to establish organizations and publish periodicals tailored to specific regions and interests.
In 1954, the United Nations granted official support to Esperanto as an international auxiliary language in the Montevideo Resolution. Several writers have contributed to the growing body of Esperanto literature, including William Auld, who received the first nomination for the Nobel Prize in Literature for a literary work in Esperanto in 1999, followed by two more in 2004 and 2006. Esperanto-language writers are officially represented in PEN International, the worldwide writers association, through Esperanto PEN Centro. Esperanto has continued to develop in the 21st century; the advent of the Internet has had a significant impact on the language, as learning it has become accessible on platforms such as Duolingo and as speakers have networked on platforms such as Amikumu. With two million speakers, a small portion of whom are native speakers, it is the most spoken constructed language in the world. Although no country has adopted Esperanto Esperantujo is the collective name given to places where it is spoken, the language is employed in world travel, cultural exchange, literature, language instruction and radio broadcasting.
While its advocates continue to hope for the day that Esperanto becomes recognized as the international auxiliary language, an increasing number have stopped focusing on this goal and instead view the Esperanto community as a "stateless diasporic linguistic minority" based on freedom of association, with a culture worthy of preservation based on its own merit. Some have chosen to learn Esperanto due to its purported help in third language acquisition. Zamenhof had three goals, as he wrote in Unua Libro: "To render the study of the language so easy as to make its acquisition mere play to the learner." "To enable the learner to make direct use of his knowledge with people of any nationality, whether the language be universally accepted or not. "To find some means of overcoming the natural indifference of mankind, disposing them, in the quickest manner possible, en masse, to learn and use the proposed language as a living one, not only in last extremities, with the key at hand."According to the database Ethnologue, up to two million people worldwide, to varying degrees, speak Esperanto, including about 1,000 to 2,000 native speakers who learned Esperanto from birth.
The Universal Esperanto Association has more than 5500 members in 120 countries. Its usage is highest in Europe, East Asia, South America. Lernu! is one of the most popular on-line learning platforms for Esperanto. In 2013, the "lernu.net" site reported 150,000 registered users and had between 150,000 and 200,000 visitors each month. Lernu has 274,800 registered users, who are able to view the site's interface in their choice of 21 languages — Catalan, Chinese Danish, Esperanto, French, German, Hungarian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Serbian, Slovak and Ukrainian.