The Treasurer of Australia is the minister in the Government of Australia responsible for government expenditure and revenue raising. The Treasurer plays a key role in the economic policy of the government; the current holder of the position is Josh Frydenberg, whose term began on 24 August 2018. The Treasurer administers their functions through the Department of the Treasury and a range of other government agencies. According to constitutional convention, the Treasurer is always a member of the Parliament of Australia with a seat in the House of Representatives; the office is seen as equivalent to the Chancellor of the Exchequer in the United Kingdom or the Secretary of the Treasury in the United States or, in some other countries, the finance minister. It is one of only four ministerial positions; the Treasurer is the minister in charge of government expenditure. The Treasurer oversees economic policy: fiscal policy is within the Treasurer's direct responsibility, while monetary policy is implemented by the politically independent Reserve Bank of Australia, the head of, appointed by the Treasurer.
The Treasurer oversees financial regulation. Each year in May, the Treasurer presents the Federal Budget to the Parliament; the Prime Minister and Treasurer are traditionally members of the House, but the Constitution does not have such a requirement. The Treasurer is a senior government post ranking second or third in Cabinet. Many Treasurers have concurrently or subsequently served as Prime Minister or Deputy Prime Minister. Service as Treasurer is seen as an important qualification for serving as Prime Minister: to date, six Treasurers have gone on to be Prime Minister. Since 1958, Treasurers in Coalition Governments have but not always been the deputy leader of the Liberal Party. In contrast, only four Labor Treasurers have been the deputy leader of the Labor Party. Along with the Treasurer, other ministers have responsibility for the Department of the Treasury; the Treasurer together with these other ministers are known as the "Treasury Ministers". At present, the Treasury Minister positions are: Treasurer Assistant Treasurer Minister for Small BusinessThe work of the Department of Finance is related to the work of the Department of the Treasury.
The ministers who have responsibility for the Department of Finance are: Minister for Finance Special Minister of State Eleven organisations nominally fall under the auspices of the Australian Treasurer. The agencies undertake a range of activities aimed at achieving strong sustainable economic growth and the improved well-being of Australians; this entails the provision of policy advice to portfolio ministers who seek to promote a sound macroeconomic environment. It entails the effective implementation and administration of policies that fall within the portfolio ministers' responsibilities; the Department of the Treasury creates reports for four output groups. These groups are macroeconomic, fiscal and markets: Macroeconomic reports include: domestic economic policy advice and forecasting. Fiscal reports include: budget policy advice and coordination. Revenue reports include: income support policy advice. Markets reports include: foreign investment policy administration. In addition, the Royal Australian Mint is responsible for producing Australia's circulating currency.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics is Australia's official statistical agency. Its reports are created for informed decision-making and discussion within governments and the community, based on the provision of a high quality and responsive national statistical service, it principally relates to the production of economic and social statistics. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission outputs are directed at enhanced social and economic welfare of the Australian community by fostering competitive, efficient and informed Australian markets, it strives for compliance with competition, fair trading and consumer protection laws and appropriate remedies when the law is not followed. The Australian Office of Financial Management manages the Commonwealth's net debt portfolio, its reports on debt management directed at ensuring that the Commonwealth net debt portfolio is managed at least cost, subject to the Government's policies and risk references. The Australian Prudential Regulation Authority is the financial supervisor responsible for prudentially regulating the banking, other deposit-taking and superannuation industries.
It aims at enhanced public confidence in Australia's financial institutions through a framework of prudential regulation which balances financial safety and efficiency, competition and competitive neutrality. The Australian Securities and Investments Commission is the independent government body that enforces and administers the Corporations Law and Consumer Protection Law for investments and general insurance and banking, its outputs aim at a fair and efficient financial market characterised by integrity and transparency and supporting confident and informed participation of investors and consumers. Outp
Kezie Uchechukwu Duru Akabusi, MBE known as Kriss Akabusi, is a British former sprint and hurdling track and field athlete. His first international successes were with the British 4×400 metres relay team, winning a silver medal at the 1984 Summer Olympics, golds at the 1986 Commonwealth Games and 1986 European Athletics Championships, another silver at the 1987 World Championships in Athletics, he progressed individually in 400 metres hurdles from the late 1980s onwards, taking bronze at the 1989 IAAF World Cup. His time of 47.93 seconds to win the 1990 European Athletics Championships was a British record, he won gold at the 1990 Commonwealth Games. He reached the peak of his career over the next two years, winning a hurdles bronze medal at the 1991 World Championships and anchoring the British team to a narrow victory over the American team in 2:57.53 minutes – a British record for the 4 × 400 m relay. He followed this with a British 400 m hurdles record of 47.82 seconds to take the bronze medal at the 1992 Barcelona Olympics, where he won bronze with the 4×400 m relay team.
Since retiring from athletics, he has worked as a television motivational speaker. Born in Paddington to Nigerian parents who were studying in London, Akabusi would be brought up in foster care with his brother Riba, after their parents returned to their country when he was four. Due to the outbreak of the Nigerian Civil War in 1967, Akabusi was unable to stay in contact with his parents, although he would be reunited with his mother in his teens, she was determined that her son should settle in Nigeria, but while Akabusi was keen to make up for lost time with the rest of his family, he remained in the United Kingdom visiting the African nation when he was twenty-one. He attended Edmonton County School, it was during this time that Akabusi, of Igbo heritage, changed his first name from'Kezie' to'Kriss'. He told an interviewer in 2002: "I decided to make a new start and part of that new start was to have a new name. I spelt my name with a'K' because I didn't want to change my initials and I want to have some connections with my past.
Kezie Akabusi was the connection to my past, but Kriss Akabusi is a connection with my future." Akabusi joined the British Army in 1975, having a career in the Royal Corps of Signals before switching to the Army Physical Training Corps in 1981. In 1990, when he was discharged into the reserves at the end of his army career he held the rank of Warrant Officer Class 2, it was during his tenure in the military. In 1983, Akabusi embarked upon an athletics career specialising in the 400 metres, before switching to the 400 metres hurdles in 1987; as a member of the British 4 × 400 m relay team, Akabusi won a silver medal at the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles. In 1990, Akabusi broke David Hemery's longstanding British 400 m hurdles record of 48.12 seconds on his way to a gold medal at the European Championships, with a time of 47.93 seconds. He won the 400 m hurdles gold medal at that year's Commonwealth Games. At the 1991 World Championships in Tokyo, Akabusi won the bronze medal in the 400 m hurdles, but would become the surprise winner of the 4 x 400 relay team alongside Roger Black, Derek Redmond and John Regis, with Akabusi as anchor leg.
At the start of the final lap, he took the baton in second place behind the American team, but overtook American runner Antonio Pettigrew on the final straight and crossed the line in first place to win the gold medal for Britain in a time of 2:57.53, a new British record. At the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona Akabusi won the bronze medal in the 400 m hurdles, lowering his British record to 47.82 seconds, a time which still stands. This was the same race in which Kevin Young set the world record, which still stands, he won a bronze in the 4 × 400 m relay. Following his retirement from sports, Akabusi became a television presenter, working on several shows including Record Breakers and The Big Breakfast, appeared as a panelist on many quiz shows such as A Question of Sport, They Think It's All Over and Through the Keyhole. In 1997 he appeared as a milkman on Last of the Summer Wine in the episode "There Goes the Groom". Other appearances include: Come Dine With Me in 2011. In 2017, Akabusi became a commentator on ITV's Bigheads with Jenny Powell.
He featured on the fifth series of Big Star's Little Star with his son Alanam. Since 2018 he has appeared in adverts for Ladbrokes online betting In 1991 it was announced that he would be appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of his services to the country through athletics. In 1992 he was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Southampton. In 2012 Kriss was one of five Olympians chosen as part of a series body-casting artworks by Louise Giblin exhibited in London and copies being sold in aid of the charity Headfirst. In August 2014, Akabusi was one of 200 public figures who signed a letter to The Guardian expressing their hope that Scotland would vote to remain part of the United Kingdom in September's referendum on that issue. 1984 Summer Olympics - Los Angeles, United States. 4 x 400 m. relay silver medal 1986 Commonwealth Games - Edinburgh, Scotland. 4 x 400 m. relay gold medal 1987 World Championships - Rome, Italy. 4 x 400 m. relay silver medal 1989 IAAF World Cup - Barcelona, Spain.
400 m. hurdles bron
Paphies ventricosa, or toheroa, is a large bivalve mollusc of the family Mesodesmatidae, endemic to New Zealand. It is found in both the North and South Islands, but the main habitat is the west coast of the North Island; the best grounds are wide fine-sand beaches where there are extensive sand-dunes, enclosing freshwater, which percolates to the sea, there promoting the growth of diatoms and plankton. The toheroa is a large shellfish with a solid white, elongated shell with the apex at the middle. Maximum length is 117 mm, height 81 mm, thickness 38 mm; the toheroa has long been a popular seafood made into a greenish soup, for which it has an international reputation. Toheroa were translocated across New Zealand by Māori using pōhā kelp bags made from Durvillaea poha southern bull kelp and are referred to as kaimoana, it was over-exploited in the 1950s and 1960s, there has been a ban on harvesting since 1979. However, numbers have not recovered since 1979, due to illegal poaching, poorly policed customary harvesting, vehicle driving on beaches, reduction in fresh water coming onto beaches, gas bubble disease.
Checklist of New Zealand Mollusca Powell A. W. B. New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-00-216906-1