Anishinaabe is the autonym for a group of culturally related indigenous peoples in what is known today as Canada and the United States. These include the Odawa, Ojibwe, Oji-Cree, Algonquin peoples; the Anishinaabeg speak Anishinaabemowin, or Anishinaabe languages that belong to the Algonquian language family. They lived in the Northeast Woodlands and Subarctic; the word Anishinaabeg translates to "people from whence lowered." Another definition refers to "the good humans," meaning those who are on the right road or path given to them by the Creator Gitche Manitou, or Great Spirit. Basil Johnston, an Ojibwe historian and author, wrote that the term's literal translation is "Beings Made Out of Nothing" or "Spontaneous Beings." Anishinaabe myths claim. Anishinaabe is mistakenly considered a synonym of Ojibwe. Anishinaabe has many different spellings. Different spelling systems may spell certain consonants differently; the name Anishinaabe is shortened to Nishnaabe by Odawa people. The cognate Neshnabé comes from the Potawatomi, a people long allied with the Odawa and Ojibwe in the Council of Three Fires.
The Nipissing and Algonquin are identified as Anishinaabe, but are not part of the Council of Three Fires. Related to the Ojibwe and speaking a language mutually intelligible with Anishinaabemowin are the Oji-Cree, their most common autonym is Anishinini and they call their language Anishininiimowin. Among the Anishinaabeg, the Ojibwe collectively call the Nipissings and the Algonquins Odishkwaagamii, while those among the Nipissings who identify themselves as Algonquins call the Algonquins proper Omàmiwinini. Not all Anishinaabemowin-speakers call themselves Anishinaabeg; the Ojibwe people who moved to what are now the prairie provinces of Canada call themselves Nakawē and call their branch of the Anishinaabe language Nakawēmowin.. Particular Anishinaabeg groups have different names from region to region. According to Anishinabe tradition, from records of wiigwaasabak, the people migrated from the eastern areas of North America, from along the East Coast. In old stories, the homeland was called Turtle Island.
This comes from the idea that the universe, the Earth, or the continent of North America are all sometimes understood as being the back of a great turtle, a mysterious natural consciousness. The Anishinaabe oral history considers the Anishinaabe peoples as descendents of the Abenaki people and refers to them as the "Fathers". Another Anishinaabe oral history considers the Abenaki as descendents of the Lenape, thus refers to them as "Grandfathers". However, Cree oral traditions consider the Anishinaabe as their descendants, not the Abenakis. A number of complementary origin concepts exist within the oral traditions of the Anishinaabe. According to the oral history, seven great miigis appeared to the Anishinaabe peoples in the Waabanakiing to teach the people about the midewiwin life-style. One great miigis was too spiritually powerful and would kill people in the Waabanakiing whenever they were in its presence; this being returned to the depths of the ocean, leaving the six great miigis to teach the people.
The Anishinaabe are one of the First Nations in Canada. Each of the six miigis established separate doodem for the people. Of these doodem, five clan systems appeared: Awaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonii. A sixth was added. Waabizheshi. After founding the doodem, the six miigis returned to the depths of the ocean as well; some oral histories surmise that if the seventh miigis had stayed, it would have established the Animikii Thunderbird doodem. The powerful miigis returned in a vision relating a prophecy to the people, it said that the Anishinaabeg needed to move west to keep their traditional ways alive, because of the many new settlements and people not of Anishinaabe blood who would soon arrive. The migration path of the Anishinaabe peoples would become a series of smaller Turtle Islands, confirmed by the miigis shells. After receiving assurance from their "Allied Brothers" and "Father" of their safety in crossing other tribal territory, the Anishinaabeg moved inland, they advanced along the St. Lawrence River to the Ottawa River and through to Lake Nipissing, to the Great Lakes.
The first of these smaller Turtle Islands was Mooniyaa. Here the Anishinaabeg divided into two groups: one that travelled up and settled along the Ottawa River, the core group who proceeded to the "second stopping place" near Niagara Falls. By the time the Anishinaabeg established their "third stopping place" near the present city of Detroit, the Anishinaabeg had divided into six distinct nations: Algonquin, Missisauga, Ojibwa and Potawatomi. While the Odawa established their long-held cultural centre on Manitoulin Island, the Ojibwe established their centre in the Sault Ste. Marie region of Ontario, Canada. With expansion of trade with the French and the British, fostered by avai
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
British colonization of the Americas
British colonisation of the Americas began in 1607 in Jamestown and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas. The English, the British, were among the most important colonisers of the Americas, their American empire came to surpass the Spanish American colonies in military and economic might. Three types of colonies were established in the English overseas possessions in America of the 17th century and continued into the British Empire at the height of its power in the 17th century; these were charter colonies, proprietary colonies, royal colonies. A group of 13 British American colonies collectively broke from the British Empire in the 1770s through a successful revolution, establishing the modern United States. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the remaining British territories in North America were granted more responsible government. In 1838 the Durham Report recommended full responsible government for Canada, but this was not implemented for another decade.
With the Confederation of Canada, the Canadian colonies were granted significant autonomy and became a self-governing Dominion in 1867. Other colonies in the Americas followed at a much slower pace. In this way, two countries in North America, ten in the Caribbean, one in South America have received their independence from Great Britain or the United Kingdom. All of these, except the United States, are members of the Commonwealth of Nations and nine are Commonwealth realms; the eight current British overseas territories in the Americas have varying degrees of self-government. A number of English colonies were established under a system of Proprietary Governors, who were appointed under mercantile charters to English joint stock companies to found and run settlements. Between 1584 and 1589, the English attempt to establish Roanoke Colony failed, in 1590 the colony was found abandoned. In 1607, Virginia was founded by the London Company. In Newfoundland, a chartered company known as the Society of Merchant Venturers established a permanent settlement at Cuper's Cove, from 1610.
St. George's, Bermuda was founded by the Virginia Company, in 1612. In 1664, England took over the Dutch colony of New Netherland which England renamed the Province of New York. With New Netherland, the English came to control the former New Sweden, which the Dutch had conquered earlier; this became part of Pennsylvania after, established in 1680. The Kingdom of Scotland tried unsuccessfully to establish a colony at Darién, the Scottish colonisation of Nova Scotia lasted from 1629 to 1632. Thousands of Scotsmen participated in English colonization before the two countries were united in 1707; the Kingdom of Great Britain acquired the French colony of Acadia in 1713 and Canada and the Spanish colony of Florida in 1763. After being renamed the Province of Quebec, the former French Canada was divided into two Provinces, the Canadas, consisting of the old settled country of Lower Canada and the newly settled Upper Canada. In the north, the Hudson's Bay Company traded for fur with the indigenous peoples, had competed with French, Métis fur traders.
The company came to control the entire drainage basin of Hudson Bay, called Rupert's Land. The small part of the Hudson Bay drainage south of the 49th parallel went to the United States in the Anglo-American Convention of 1818. Thirteen of Great Britain's colonies rebelled in the American Revolutionary War, beginning in 1775 over representation, local laws and tax issues, established the United States of America, recognised internationally with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on 3 September 1783. Great Britain colonised the west coast of North America, indirectly via the Hudson's Bay Company licenses west of the Rocky Mountains: the Columbia District and New Caledonia fur district. Most of these were jointly claimed as the Oregon Country by the United States from 1818 until the 49th parallel was established as the international boundary west of the Rockies by the Oregon Treaty of 1846; the Colony of Vancouver Island, founded in 1849, the Colony of British Columbia, founded in 1858, were combined in 1866 under the name Colony of British Columbia, joined the Confederation in 1871.
British Columbia was expanded with the inclusion of the Stikine Territory in 1863. In 1867, the colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada combined to form a self-governing dominion, named Canada, within the British Empire. Quebec and Nova Scotia had been ceded to Britain by the French; the colonies of Prince Edward Island and British Columbia joined over the next six years, Newfoundland joined in 1949. Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory were ceded to Canada in 1870; this area now consists of the provinces of Manitoba and Alberta, as well as the Northwest Territories, the Yukon Territory, Nunavut. Roanoke Colony, founded 1586, abandoned the next year. Second attempt in 1587 disappeared. Cuttyhunk Islan
Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation
The Convention on International Civil Aviation known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization, a specialized agency of the UN charged with coordinating and regulating international air travel. The Convention establishes rules of airspace, aircraft registration and safety, details the rights of the signatories in relation to air travel; the Convention exempts air fuels in transit from taxation. The document was signed on December 1944, in Chicago by 52 signatory states, it received the requisite 26th ratification on March 5, 1947 and went into effect on April 4, 1947, the same date that ICAO came into being. In October of the same year, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations Economic and Social Council; the Convention has since been revised eight times. As of November 2017, the Chicago Convention had 192 state parties, which includes all member states of the United Nations except Dominica and Liechtenstein; the Cook Islands is a party to the Convention although it is not a member of the UN.
The convention has been extended to cover Liechtenstein by the ratification of Switzerland. Some important articles are: Article 1: Every state has complete and exclusive sovereignty over airspace above its territory. Article 3 bis: Every other state must refrain from resorting to the use of weapons against civil aircraft in flight. Article 5: The aircraft of states, other than scheduled international air services, have the right to make flights across state's territories and to make stops without obtaining prior permission. However, the state may require the aircraft to make a landing. Article 6: No scheduled international air service may be operated over or into the territory of a contracting State, except with the special permission or other authorization of that State. Article 10:: The state can require that landing to be at a designated customs airport and departure from the territory can be required to be from a designated customs airport. Article 12: Each state shall keep its own rules of the air as uniform as possible with those established under the convention, the duty to ensure compliance with these rules rests with the contracting state.
Article 13: A state's laws and regulations regarding the admission and departure of passengers, crew or cargo from aircraft shall be complied with on arrival, upon departure and whilst within the territory of that state. Article 16: The authorities of each state shall have the right to search the aircraft of other states on landing or departure, without unreasonable delay. Article 24: Aircraft flying to, from or across, the territory of a state shall be admitted temporarily free of duty. Fuel, spare parts, regular equipment and aircraft stores retained on board are exempted from customs duty, inspection fees or similar charges. Article 29: Before an international flight, the pilot in command must ensure that the aircraft is airworthy, duly registered and that the relevant certificates are on board the aircraft; the required documents are: Certificate of registration Certificate of airworthiness Certificate of Insurance Noise Certificate Passenger names, place of boarding and destination Crew licences Journey Logbook Radio Licence Cargo manifestArticle 30: The aircraft of a state flying in or over the territory of another state shall only carry radios licensed and used in accordance with the regulations of the state in which the aircraft is registered.
The radios may only be used by members of the flight crew suitably licensed by the state in which the aircraft is registered. Article 32: the pilot and crew of every aircraft engaged in international aviation must have certificates of competency and licences issued or validated by the state in which the aircraft is registered. Article 33: Certificates of airworthiness, certificates of competency and licences issued or validated by the state in which the aircraft is registered, shall be recognised as valid by other states; the requirements for the issuing of those certificates or airworthiness, certificates of competency or licences must be equal to or above the minimum standards established by the Convention. Article 40: No aircraft or personnel with endorsed licenses or certificate will engage in international navigation except with the permission of the state or states whose territory is entered. Any license holder who does not satisfy international standard relating to that license or certificate shall have attached to or endorsed on that license information regarding the particulars in which he does not satisfy those standards.
The Convention is supported by nineteen annexes containing recommended practices. The annexes are amended by ICAO and are as follows: Annex 1 – Personnel LicensingLicensing of flight crews, air traffic controllers & aircraft maintenance personnel. Including Chapter 6 containing medical standards. Annex 2 – Rules of the Air Annex 3 – Meteorological Service for International Air NavigationVol I – Core SARPs Vol II – Appendices and AttachmentsAnnex 4 – Aeronautical Charts Annex 5 – Units of Measurement to be used in Air and Ground Operations Annex 6 – Operation of AircraftPart I – International Commercial Air Transport – Aeroplanes Part II – International General Aviation – Aeroplanes Part III – International Operations – HelicoptersAnnex 7 – Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks Annex 8 – Airworthiness of Aircraft Annex 9 – Facilitation Annex 10 – Aeronautical TelecommunicationsVol I – Radio Navigation Aids Vol II – Communication Procedures including those with PANS status Vol III – Communication Systems Part I – Digital Data Communication Syst
French colonization of the Americas
The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere. France founded colonies in much of eastern North America, on a number of Caribbean islands, in South America. Most colonies were developed to export products such as fish, rice and furs; as they colonized the New World, the French established forts and settlements that would become such cities as Quebec and Montreal in Canada. The French first came to the New World as explorers, seeking a route to wealth. Major French exploration of North America began under the rule of King of France. In 1524, Francis sent Italian-born Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the region between Florida and Newfoundland for a route to the Pacific Ocean. Verrazzano gave the names Francesca and Nova Gallia to that land between New Spain and English Newfoundland, thus promoting French interests. In 1534, Francis I of France sent Jacques Cartier on the first of three voyages to explore the coast of Newfoundland and the St. Lawrence River.
He founded New France by planting a cross on the shore of the Gaspé Peninsula. The French subsequently tried to establish several colonies throughout North America that failed, due to weather, disease, or conflict with other European powers. Cartier attempted to create the first permanent European settlement in North America at Cap-Rouge in 1541 with 400 settlers but the settlement was abandoned the next year after bad weather and attacks from Native Americans in the area. A small group of French troops were left on Parris Island, South Carolina in 1562 to build Charlesfort, but left after a year when they were not resupplied by France. Fort Caroline established in present-day Jacksonville, Florida, in 1564, lasted only a year before being destroyed by the Spanish from St. Augustine. An attempt to settle convicts on Sable Island off Nova Scotia in 1598 failed after a short time. In 1599, a sixteen-person trading post was established in Tadoussac, of which only five men survived the first winter.
In 1604 Pierre Du Gua de Monts and Samuel de Champlain founded a short-lived French colony, the first in Acadia, on Saint Croix Island, presently part of the state of Maine, much plagued by illness scurvy. The following year the settlement was moved to Port Royal, located in present-day Nova Scotia. Samuel de Champlain explored the Great Lakes. In 1634, Jean Nicolet founded La Baye des Puants, one of the oldest permanent European settlements in America. In 1634, Sieur de Laviolette founded Trois-Rivières. In 1642, Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve, founded Fort Ville-Marie, now known as Montreal. Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette founded Sault Sainte Marie and Saint Ignace and explored the Mississippi River. At the end of the 17th century, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle established a network of forts going from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River. Fort Saint Louis was established in Texas in 1685, but was gone by 1688. Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit in 1701 and Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville founded La Nouvelle Orléans in 1718.
Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville founded Baton Rouge in 1719.. The French were eager to explore North America but New France remained unpopulated. Due to the lack of women, intermarriages between French and Indians were frequent, giving rise to the Métis people. Relations between the French and Indians were peaceful; as the 19th-century historian Francis Parkman stated: "Spanish civilization crushed the Indian. Louis XIV tried to increase the population by sending 800 young women nicknamed the "King's Daughters". However, the low density of population in New France remained a persistent problem. At the beginning of the French and Indian War, the British population in North America outnumbered the French 20 to 1. France fought a total of six colonial wars in North America. In 1562, Charles IX, under the leadership of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny sent Jean Ribault and a group of Huguenot settlers in an attempt to colonize the Atlantic coast and found a colony on a territory which will take the name of the French Florida.
They discovered the probe and Port Royal Island, which will be called by Parris Island in South Carolina, on which he built a fort named Charlesfort. The group, led by René Goulaine de Laudonnière, moved to the south where they founded the Fort Caroline on the Saint John's river in Florida on June 22, 1564; this irritated the Spanish who claimed Florida and
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
History of Michigan
The history of human activity in Michigan, a U. S. state in the Great Lakes, began with settlement of the western Great Lakes region by Native Americans as early as 11,000 BCE. The first European to explore Michigan, Étienne Brûlé, came in about 1620; the area was part of Canada from 1668 to 1763. In 1701, the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with fifty-one additional French-Canadians, founded a settlement called Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, now the city of Detroit; when New France was defeated in the French and Indian War, it ceded the region to Britain in 1763. After the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War, the Treaty of Paris expanded the United States' boundaries to include nearly all land east of the Mississippi River and south of Canada. Michigan was part of the "Old Northwest". From 1787 to 1800, it was part of the Northwest Territory. In 1800, the Indiana Territory was created, most of the current state Michigan lay within it, with only the easternmost parts of the state remaining in the Northwest Territory.
In 1802, when Ohio was admitted to the Union, the whole of Michigan was attached to the Territory of Indiana, so remained until 1805, when the Territory of Michigan was established. The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River and New York City, brought large numbers of people to Michigan and provided an inexpensive way to ship crops to market. In 1835 the people approved the Constitution of 1835, thereby forming a state government, although Congressional recognition was delayed pending resolution of a boundary dispute with Ohio known as the Toledo War. Congress awarded the "Toledo Strip" to Ohio. Michigan received the western part of the Upper Peninsula as a concession and formally entered the Union as a state on January 26, 1837; when iron and copper were discovered in the Upper Peninsula, impetus was created for the construction of the Soo Locks, completed in 1855. Along with mining and logging became important industries. In 1899 Henry Ford built his first automobile factory in Highland Park, an independent city, now surrounded by Detroit.
General Motors was founded in Flint in 1908. Automobile assembly and associated manufacturing soon dominated Detroit, the economy of Michigan; the Great Depression of the 1930s affected Michigan more than many other places because of its industrial base. However, the state recovered in the post World War II years; the Mackinac Bridge connecting the Upper and Lower Peninsulas was completed and opened in 1957. By the 1960s, racial tensions produced unrest through the nation, Detroit experienced a dramatic instance with the 12th Street Riot in 1967. By the 1980s, the state saw a decline in unemployment climbed. Michigan continues to diversify its economy away from its dependence on the automobile industry; the area was inhabited from about 1000 B. C. to 1000 A. D. by the Native American Hopewell culture. According to Oral histories, Algonquian peoples from the East Coast were driven west when Iroquoian people migrated to the region from central Canada and took their original homelands—These being the ancestors of the Ojibwe, Potowatomi, Mascouten & Miami.
Archaeology shows that this occurred during the 12th-13th centuries. The northern peninsula was claimed by the Ojibwe nation, although the border region of Wisconsin was claimed by the Menominee. Given that one of the oldest recorded names for the tribe was the Mackinac, they most predate the other Algonquians in the region; the entire southern peninsula was home to a tribe called the Mascouten until the Beaver Wars, home to a mixture of Algonquian & Siouan peoples before. Their southern border seems to clearly be the Maumee River of Ohio & their territory extended around Lake Michigan into Indiana. During the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois of New York pushed other tribes in league with the French hard against Lake Huron, therefore several tribes migrated into Michigan & declared war on the Mascouten & Miami; the most identity for these tribes were the Erie, Chonnonton & Anishinaabeg. The Iroquoian tribes continued on into northern & eastern Ohio & the Anishinaabeg groups seem to have formed the Sauk & Fauk tribes by the time of the oldest surviving maps of the region, 1641.
Either this, or the Sauk & Fauk were chased into the region. Due to the Beaver Wars, the Mascouten migrated down to settle around the Wabash River. Given the fact that they are culturally related & the Mascouten disappear from maps of the region around the same time that the new name appears, they may have become known as the Wea, or Wabash tribe. Afterwards, the Iroquois defeated the other Iroquoian tribes of northern Ohio—the Chonnonton, Erie & Petun—and continued into southern Michigan by the 1660s. With the Iroquoians having conquered the southern peninsula for themselves, the other Algonquians began to refer to the nearby lake as Michigan, which translates to "Big Cat" in their language; this is most supposed to be a reference to the Iroquoian water deity known as'Blue Panther', or, more "Cat which Stalks Below." They defeated Fauk, who migrated west and took refuge among the Ojibwe & Menominee. This caused other wars between Siouan peoples within the following decades; the Anishinaabeg tribes north of Lake Superior migrated down to the Lake Erie region, claiming some land in southern Michigan.
In the U. S. they were known as the Odawa, & in Canada they were known as the Mississaugas—both deriving from tribal & subtribal names of the Anishinaabeg. The French migrated west, settling the colony of Illinois around 1680, which claimed a