The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. Between 1965 and 1968, the treaty was negotiated by the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament, a United Nations-sponsored organization based in Geneva, Switzerland. Opened for signature in 1968, the treaty entered into force in 1970; as required by the text, after twenty-five years, NPT Parties met in May 1995 and agreed to extend the treaty indefinitely. More countries have adhered to the NPT than any other arms limitation and disarmament agreement, a testament to the treaty's significance; as of August 2016, 191 states have adhered to the treaty, though North Korea, which acceded in 1985 but never came into compliance, announced its withdrawal from the NPT in 2003, following detonation of nuclear devices in violation of core obligations.
Four UN member states have never accepted the NPT, three of which possess nuclear weapons: India and Pakistan. In addition, South Sudan, founded in 2011, has not joined; the treaty defines nuclear-weapon states as those that have built and tested a nuclear explosive device before 1 January 1967. Four other states are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons: India and North Korea have tested and declared that they possess nuclear weapons, while Israel is deliberately ambiguous regarding its nuclear weapons status; the NPT is seen to be based on a central bargain: the NPT non-nuclear-weapon states agree never to acquire nuclear weapons and the NPT nuclear-weapon states in exchange agree to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology and to pursue nuclear disarmament aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear arsenals. The treaty is reviewed every five years in meetings called Review Conferences of the Parties to the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Though the treaty was conceived with a limited duration of 25 years, the signing parties decided, by consensus, to unconditionally extend the treaty indefinitely during the Review Conference in New York City on 11 May 1995, in the culmination of U.
S. government efforts led by Ambassador Thomas Graham Jr. At the time the NPT was proposed, there were predictions of 25–30 nuclear weapon states within 20 years. Instead, over forty years five states are not parties to the NPT, they include the only four additional states believed to possess nuclear weapons. Several additional measures have been adopted to strengthen the NPT and the broader nuclear nonproliferation regime and make it difficult for states to acquire the capability to produce nuclear weapons, including the export controls of the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the enhanced verification measures of the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. Critics argue that the NPT cannot stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons or the motivation to acquire them, they express disappointment with the limited progress on nuclear disarmament, where the five authorized nuclear weapons states still have 22,000 warheads in their combined stockpile and have shown a reluctance to disarm further.
Several high-ranking officials within the United Nations have said that they can do little to stop states using nuclear reactors to produce nuclear weapons. The NPT consists of a preamble and eleven articles. Although the concept of "pillars" is not expressed anywhere in the NPT, the treaty is sometimes interpreted as a three-pillar system, with an implicit balance among them: non-proliferation and the right to peacefully use nuclear technology; these pillars are mutually reinforcing. An effective nonproliferation regime whose members comply with their obligations provides an essential foundation for progress on disarmament and makes possible greater cooperation on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. With the right to access the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology comes the responsibility of nonproliferation. Progress on disarmament reinforces efforts to strengthen the nonproliferation regime and to enforce compliance with obligations, thereby facilitating peaceful nuclear cooperation; the "pillars" concept has been questioned by some who believe that the NPT is, as its name suggests, principally about nonproliferation, who worry that "three pillars" language misleadingly implies that the three elements have equivalent importance.
Under Article I of the NPT, nuclear-weapon states pledge not to transfer nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices to any recipient or in any way assist, encourage or induce any non-nuclear-weapon state in the manufacture or acquisition of a nuclear weapon. Under Article II of the NPT, non-nuclear-weapon states pledge not to acquire or exercise control over nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices and not to seek or receive assistance in the manufacture of such devices. Under Article III of the Treaty, non-nuclear-weapon states pledge to accept IAEA safeguards to verify that their nuclear activities serve only peaceful purposes. Five states are recognized by NPT as nuclear weapon states: China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, which happen to be the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council; these five NWS agree not to transfer "nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices" and "not in any way to assist, encourage, or induce" a non-nuclear weap
Henry Grew was a Christian teacher and writer whose studies of the Bible led him to conclusions which were at odds with doctrines accepted by many of the mainstream churches of his time. Among other things, he rejected the Trinity, immortality of the soul, a hell of literal eternal torment. Henry Grew was born in Birmingham, but at the age of 13, moved with his parents to the United States, his family first lived in Boston. Grew lived in Providence, Pawtucket and Philadelphia, he graduated from Brown University. Grew became a deacon at the First Baptist Church in Providence by age 23, became a pastor in Pawtucket. In 1810, he published the first of his writings, on the Book of Matthew. At 30, in 1811, after being pastor for four years at the First Baptist Church in Hartford, he resigned because he could no longer follow the official teachings of the Baptist Church or was deposed from his position because his views were regarded as heretical. During the next several decades, Grew served as pastor intermittently, informally, or for small groups.
Early in his career, Grew was involved in the Connecticut Bible Society. In the 1820s, Grew was one of the founding shareholders of Hartford Female Seminary, in the 1830s there is evidence a Henry Grew was involved in both the'Hartford Peace Society' and the'Connecticut Peace Society'. In the 1830s, Grew became involved with the New England Anti-Slavery Society and spoke on their behalf. Grew was invited to the World Anti-Slavery Convention beginning 12 June 1840 in London, he departed on the ship Roscoe on 7 May 1840. Other delegates aboard the ship besides his daughter, were James and Lucretia Mott, Emily Winslow and her father Isaac, Abby South and Elizabeth Neall. According to Mrs. Mott, Henry Grew read and preached on the Sabbath, Mary Grew was "quite intimate" with George Bradburn. After they arrived, Bradburn traveled with the Grews to various locations, including Liverpool and Birmingham, as Mary wanted to see her father's birthplace. Before and during the convention, there was fierce debate about the participation and seating of women delegates and attendees.
Grew sided with the British organisers and spoke in favour of the men's right to exclude women, despite his daughter being excluded. In 1854 a similar public debate took place when Grew and Mary attended the fifth annual National Women's Rights Convention in Philadelphia. Grew debated with Lucretia Mott, during which he lauded the authority of men. Grew preached throughout the remainder of his life with a small group of people who shared his religious beliefs, his writings were collected and influenced religious leaders. He died in Philadelphia on 8 August 1862, after an illness, he was 80 years of age. The writings of Henry Grew influenced George Storrs, Charles Taze Russell. Henry Grew and George Storrs are both mentioned as noteworthy Bible students in the October 15, 2000 issue of The Watchtower magazine, published by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Jehovah's Witnesses. A list of Henry Grew's religious writings includes: Christian Loyalty: A Sermon on Matthew XXII:21, Designed to Illustrate the Authority of Caesar and Jesus Christ, An Examination of the Divine Testimony Concerning the Character of the Son of God, A Tribute to the Memory of the Apostles, an Exhibition of the First Christian Churches, The Practices of the Early Christians Considered, A Review of Phelps' Argument for the Perpetuity of the Sabbath, The Intermediate State, The Sabbath, An Examination of the Divine Testimony on the Nature and Character of the Son of God, An Appeal to Pious Trinitarians, The Atonement, Divine Dispensations, Past and Future.
Grew's daughter, appears as a character in Ain Gordon's 2013 play If She Stood, commissioned by the Painted Bride Art Center in Philadelphia. Notes
The 2017 TCR International Series Hungaroring round was the sixth round of the 2017 TCR International Series season. It took place on 18 June at the Hungaroring. Attila Tassi won both races starting from third position in Race 1 and eighth position in Race 2, driving a Honda Civic Type-R TCR. Due to the results obtained in the previous round, Stefano Comini received +30 kilograms, Dušan Borković +20 kilograms and both Roberto Colciago and Thomas Jäger +10 kilograms. Jäger didn't take part at this event, so he didn't take the ballast; the Balance of Performance was adjusted for this event, meaning the Honda Civic Type-R TCRs was given an additional +10 kilograms, having had +30 kilograms, in addition to its minimum weight of 1,285 kilograms. The SEAT León TCRs and Volkswagen Golf GTI TCRs was given a weight break, going down -10 kg. Notes ^1 — Stefano Comini, Jean-Karl Vernay, Robert Huff, Roberto Colciago, Frédéric Vervisch, Attila Tassi, Gianni Morbidelli, Jens Reno Møller, Davit Kajaia, István Bernula, James Nash, Norbert Michelisz, Dušan Borković, Maťo Homola and Pepe Oriola all had their best laptimes deleted during Q1, for not respecting the track limits.
^2 — Roberto Colciago, Attila Tassi, Daniel Lloyd, Pepe Oriola all had their best laptimes deleted during Q2, for not respecting the track limits. ^3 — Frédéric Vervisch and Ferenc Ficza was sent to the back of the grid for Race 1, after an engine change. Which in Ficza's case was a car change, a penalty he carried over from the Salzburgring round after Ficza's car was withdrawn from the event after a crash in Free Practice. ^4 — Maťo Homola was excluded from qualifying and therefore had all his qualifying times deleted, after his car was found to not conform to the homologation form. Notes ^5 — Ferenc Ficza was giving a 30 sec. penalty post race, after he had lined up in the wrong grid position. Notes ^6 — Duncan Ende and István Bernula was both sent to the back of the grid, for having broken parc fermé after Race 1. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of drivers' standings. TCR International Series official website
A coterminous municipality, sometimes known as a coterminous city or a coterminous town-village, is a form of local government in some U. S. states in which a municipality and one or more civil townships are coterminous and have partial or complete consolidation of their government functions. A term used for the formation of such a local government is "township and municipal consolidation." This form of local government is distinct from a municipality coterminous with a higher level of government, called a consolidated city-county or a variation of that term. The entire area of Connecticut is divided into towns. Cities and boroughs are within town areas, their governments may or may not be consolidated with those of the towns in which they are located; the Illinois Township Code includes provisions for a municipality coextensive with a township. Such a municipality is known variously as a coterminous city and a coterminous municipality, the township is called a coterminous township; the Township Code provides for the discontinuance of township organization within such a coterminous municipality.
In New York, such a local government is called a coterminous town-village and is governed under Article 17 of the New York Village Law. It is never called a consolidated city-township because New York's cities, as opposed to its villages, exist outside of town areas. Five towns are coterminous with their single village: Green Island in Albany County; when such an entity is formed, officials from either unit of government may serve in both village and town governments simultaneously. A referendum is held to decide whether residents prefer a village-style or town-style government, which will function as a village or town but will perform some of the functions of the other form. Charter township Paper township
Operation Nasrat was a military campaign by the Afghan insurgency in September 2007. It was focused on targeting Coalition forces operating in Helmand and Kabul Province; the start of the campaign was timed to coincide with the beginning of Ramadan, it was announced that it would be led by commander Mullah Beradar, reported killed by Coalition forces a month earlier. The opening day of the operation saw three simultaneous attacks. A British logistics convoyed was bombed in Gereshk, killing Cpl. Ivano Violino and destroying his Volvo FL-12 dumptruck. Meanwhile, gunmen killed Haji Merhjan Hadil, a cleric known for his support of the American-backed government. On October 2, Helmand militant Abdullah Ghazi wore a stolen military uniform and tried to board a bus full of Afghan National Army soldiers, detonated his explosive vest when confronted; the explosion killed 27 soldiers and three died of their wounds. On October 4, a command wire IED detonated as the British 1st Battalion RGR were returning to their base in Kandahar from a mission in Gereshk, killing Major Alexis Roberts.
Folke Karl Skoog was a Swedish-born American plant physiologist, a pioneer in the field of plant growth regulators cytokinins. Skoog was a recipient of the National Medal of Science 1991. Born in Halland, Skoog emigrated to the United States during a trip to California in 1925, was naturalized as a citizen a decade later, he competed, finished sixth in heat 2, in the 1500 meter race during the 1932 Summer Olympics. In 1936, he received his PhD in biology from Caltech for his work done with a plant hormone. Skoog was a student of Dennis Robert Hoagland, his professional career advanced with his arrival at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1947. Carlos Miller discovered kinetin in 1954, benzyladenine and related compounds were synthesized in Skoog's lab. In 1962, Skoog and Toshio Murashige published what is the best-known paper in plant tissue culture. Now referred to as Murashige and Skoog medium, the final paper is one of the most often-cited papers in biology. Now 50 years after the work, M&S salt base remains an essential component in plant tissue culture.
In 1970, Skoog was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences