After a tree has been cut and felled, the stump or tree stump is a small remaining portion of the trunk with the roots still in the ground. Stumps may show the age-defining rings of a tree; the study of these rings is known as dendrochronology. Stumps are sometimes able to regenerate into new trees. A deciduous tree, cut will re-sprout in multiple places around the edge of the stump or from the roots. Depending on whether the tree is being removed or whether the forest is expected to recover, this can be either desirable or undesirable. Stump sprouts can grow quickly and so viable trees themselves either for aesthetics or timber, due to the existing root structure; the process of deliberately cutting a tree to a stump to regrow is known as coppicing. Tree stumps can be difficult to remove from the ground, they can be shredded with a stump grinder or burnt. A common method for stump removal is to use one of the many chemical stump removal products, so long as immediate results are not needed; these stump removers are made of potassium nitrate and act by increasing the decay of the stump.
After an average of 4–6 weeks, the stump will be rotten through and fragmented in manageable pieces. If time is a limiting factor, setting fire to the stump is effective because once the potassium nitrate has been absorbed it acts as an effective oxidizer. An explosive called stumping powder was used to blast stumps. In plantation forests in parts of Europe, stumps are sometimes pulled out of the ground using a specially adapted tracked excavator, to supply wood fuel for biomass power stations. Stump harvesting may provide an increasing component of the woody material required by the biomass power sector. Living stump Stump harvesting Buckley, G. P. 1992. Ecology and Management of Coppice Woodlands. Springer 336 pages,ISBN 0-412-43110-6, ISBN 978-0-412-43110-4. Schenk, H. J. and R. B. Jackson. 2002. The global biogeography of roots. Ecological Monographs 72: 311–328.. Stump removal service Stump harvesting in Sweden Regeneration after stump harvesting Stumps as a resource in Finland Stump harvesting and forest decomposers Stump Removal Methods Comparison
Dennis Paoli is a screenwriter and playwright known for his work on horror films those directed by Stuart Gordon. He has co-written five of Gordon's films, including Re-Animator and From Beyond, he has collaborated with Gordon on the stage productions of Bleacher Bums, Re-Animator: The Musical, Nevermore: An Evening with Edgar Allan Poe, on two episodes of the Showtime horror television series Masters of Horror. Paoli serves as the coordinator of the Hunter College writing center, he established the Heidi Paoli Fund in honor of his late wife to distribute donations to approved cancer charities from a variety of fundraising sources. An S indicates a story writer. Dennis Paoli on IMDb
Star Castle is a 1980 vector graphics arcade game from Cinematronics. The game involves obliterating a series of defenses orbiting a stationary turret in the center of the screen; the display is black and white with the colors of the rings and screen provided by a transparent plastic screen overlay. Star Castle was programmed by Scott Boden. Skelly created a number of other Cinematronics titles, including Starhawk, Armor Attack, Rip-Off. A Vectrex port of Star Castle for was released in 1983; the object of Star Castle is to destroy an enemy cannon which sits in the center of three concentric, rotating energy shield rings while avoiding or destroying'mines' – enemies that spawn from the core, pass through the energy rings, home in on the player's ship. They can stick back to the shield if the player maneuvers in such a way that a ring is between the ship and the mines; the player-controlled spaceship can rotate, thrust forward, fire small projectiles. The cannon's shields are composed of twelve sections each, each section takes two hits to destroy.
Once a section is breached, rings beneath it are exposed to fire. Once the innermost ring has been breached, the central weapon is vulnerable to attack from the player. However, the player is more vulnerable at this point, as with the shield rings eliminated, the gun can fire out a large projectile that hisses with white noise. Moreover, the central core tracks player movement at all times. If the player manages to hit the cannon, it explodes violently, collapsing the remnants of the shield rings, the player is awarded with an extra ship; the next level starts with a new gun and restored shield rings, with the difficulty increased. If the player destroys the outermost shield ring, the cannon will create a new one; the middle ring expands to replace the lost outer ring, the inner ring replaces the middle, a new ring emerges from the core to become the inner ring. Therefore, in order to penetrate the cannon's defenses, the player must be careful not to obliterate the outer ring; the three homing mines will destroy the player's ship on contact.
The mines can be destroyed, but they are small and difficult to fire on, the player does not receive points for destroying them. Mines are revived; as the player progresses through the levels, the mines get faster and faster, forcing the player to keep moving to avoid them. The development of the game was chronicled in an issue of the now-defunct magazine Science 80. Atari programmer Howard Scott Warshaw investigated writing a clone of Star Castle for the Atari 2600, but didn't see the game as a good match for the system, technically, he reconfigured the concept into Yars Revenge, which became Atari's top selling original game for the 2600. A hobbyist-written clone of Star Castle for the Atari 2600 was released in 2012. Jim Nitchals of Cavalier Computer wrote. In the 1986 movie Maximum Overdrive, a Star Castle machine electrocutes a person in the arcade. Rogue Synapse's Polybius is based on Star Castle. Star Castle at the Killer List of Videogames Star Citadel, online version of Star Castle