Michael Trent Reznor is an American singer, musician, record producer, film score composer. He is the founder, lead vocalist, principal songwriter of the industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, which he founded in 1988 and of which he was the sole official member until adding long-time collaborator Atticus Ross as a permanent member in 2016, his first release under the Nine Inch Nails name, the 1989 album Pretty Hate Machine, was a commercial and critical success. He has since released nine Nine Inch Nails studio albums, he left Interscope Records in 2007 and was an independent recording artist until signing with Columbia Records in 2012. Reznor was associated with the bands Option 30, The Urge, The Innocent, Exotic Birds in the mid-1980s. Outside of Nine Inch Nails, he has contributed to the albums of artists such as Marilyn Manson and Saul Williams. Reznor and his wife, Mariqueen Maandig, are members of the post-industrial group How to Destroy Angels, with Atticus Ross and long-time Nine Inch Nails graphic designer Rob Sheridan.
Reznor and Ross scored the David Fincher films The Social Network, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, Gone Girl, winning the Academy Award for Best Original Score for The Social Network and the Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack for Visual Media for The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo. They composed original music for the 2019 TV series Watchmen. In 1997, Reznor appeared in Time's list of the year's most influential people, Spin magazine described him as "the most vital artist in music". Michael Trent Reznor was born on May 17, 1965, in New Castle, the son of Nancy Lou and Michael Reznor, he is of German and Irish descent and is the grandson of George Reznor, who founded the heating and air conditioning manufacturer The Reznor Company in 1888. Reznor grew up in Pennsylvania. After his parents divorced, he lived with his maternal grandparents from the age of six, while his sister Tera lived with their mother, he showed an early aptitude for music. His grandfather, Bill Clark, told People magazine in February 1995 that Reznor was "a good kid... a Boy Scout who loved to skateboard, build model planes, play the piano".
He stated, "Music was his life, from the time. He was so gifted."Reznor has acknowledged that his sheltered life left him feeling isolated from the outside world. In a September 1994 interview with Rolling Stone magazine, he referred to his choices in the music industry: However, in April 1995, Reznor told Details magazine that he did not "want to give the impression it was a miserable childhood". At Mercer Area Junior/Senior High School, he learned to play the tenor saxophone and tuba, was a member of both the jazz and marching band; the school's former band director remembered him as "very upbeat and friendly." Reznor became involved in theater while in high school, was voted "Best in Drama" by classmates for his roles as Judas in Jesus Christ Superstar and Professor Harold Hill in The Music Man. He graduated in 1983 and enrolled at Allegheny College in Meadville, where he studied computer engineering. While he was a student at Mercer Area Junior/Senior High School, Reznor joined local band Option 30 and played three shows a week with them.
After a year of college, Reznor dropped out and moved to Cleveland, Ohio, to pursue a career in music. His first band in Cleveland was a cover band. In 1985, he joined The Innocent as a keyboardist. In 1986, he joined local band Exotic Birds and appeared with them as a fictional band called The Problems in the 1987 film Light of Day. Reznor contributed on keyboards to the band Slam Bamboo during this time. Reznor got a job at Cleveland's Right Track Studio as janitor. Studio owner Bart Koster commented: "He was so focused in everything he did; when that guy waxed the floor, it looked great." Reznor asked Koster for permission to record demos of his own songs for free during unused studio time. Koster agreed, remarking that it cost him "just a little wear on his tape heads". While assembling the earliest Nine Inch Nails recordings, Reznor was unable to find a band that could articulate his songs as he wanted. Instead, inspired by Prince, he played all the instruments. Reznor has continued in this role on most of the band's studio recordings, though he has involved other musicians, assistants and rhythm experts.
Several labels responded favorably to the demo material and Reznor signed with TVT Records. Nine selections from the Right Track demos were unofficially released in 1988 as Purest Feeling and many of these songs appeared in revised form on Pretty Hate Machine, Reznor's first official release under the Nine Inch Nails name. Most of Reznor's work as a musician has been as founding and primary member of Nine Inch Nails. Pretty Hate Machine was released in 1989 and was a moderate commercial success, certified Gold in 1992. Amid pressure from his record label to produce a follow-up to Pretty Hate Machine, Reznor secretly began recording under various pseudonyms to avoid record company interference, resulting in an EP called Broken. Nine Inch Nails was included in the Lollapalooza tour in the summer of 1991, won a Grammy Award in 1993 under "Best Heavy Metal Performance" for the song "Wish". Nine Inch Nails' second full-length album, The Downward Spiral, entered the Billboard 200 chart in 1994 at number two, remains the highest-selling Nine Inch Nails release in America.
To record the album, Reznor rented and moved into the 10050 Cielo Drive mansion, where the Tate–LaBianca murders had been pe
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural areas to urban areas, the decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas areas, the ways in which each society adapts to this change. It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more people begin living and working in central areas. Although the two concepts are sometimes used interchangeably, urbanization should be distinguished from urban growth: urbanization is "the proportion of the total national population living in areas classed as urban", while urban growth refers to "the absolute number of people living in areas classed as urban"; the United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008. It is predicted that by 2050 about 64% of the developing world and 86% of the developed world will be urbanized; that is equivalent to 3 billion urbanites by 2050, much of which will occur in Africa and Asia. Notably, the United Nations has recently projected that nearly all global population growth from 2017 to 2030 will be by cities, about 1.1 billion new urbanites over the next 10 years.
Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including urban planning, sociology, architecture and public health. The phenomenon has been linked to modernization, industrialization, the sociological process of rationalization. Urbanization can be seen as a specific condition at a set time, or as an increase in that condition over time. So urbanization can be quantified either in terms of, the level of urban development relative to the overall population or as the rate at which the urban proportion of the population is increasing. Urbanization creates enormous social and environmental changes, which provide an opportunity for sustainability with the "potential to use resources more efficiently, to create more sustainable land use and to protect the biodiversity of natural ecosystems."Urbanization is not a modern phenomenon, but a rapid and historic transformation of human social roots on a global scale, whereby predominantly rural culture is being replaced by predominantly urban culture.
The first major change in settlement patterns was the accumulation of hunter-gatherers into villages many thousand years ago. Village culture is characterized by common bloodlines, intimate relationships, communal behavior, whereas urban culture is characterized by distant bloodlines, unfamiliar relations, competitive behavior; this unprecedented movement of people is forecast to continue and intensify during the next few decades, mushrooming cities to sizes unthinkable only a century ago. As a result, the world urban population growth curve has up till followed a quadratic-hyperbolic pattern. Today, in Asia the urban agglomerations of Osaka, Mumbai, Karachi, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Manila and Beijing are each home to over 20 million people, while Delhi is forecast to approach or exceed 40 million people in the year 2035. Cities such as Tehran, Mexico City, São Paulo, Moscow, New York City, Los Angeles, Cairo are, or soon will be, home to over 15 million people each. From the development of the earliest cities in Mesopotamia and Egypt until the 18th century, an equilibrium existed between the vast majority of the population who were engaged in subsistence agriculture in a rural context, small centres of populations in the towns where economic activity consisted of trade at markets and manufactures on a small scale.
Due to the primitive and stagnant state of agriculture throughout this period, the ratio of rural to urban population remained at a fixed equilibrium. However, a significant increase in the percentage of the global urban population can be traced in the 1st millennium BCE. Another significant increase can be traced to Mughal India, where 15% of its population lived in urban centers during the 16th–17th centuries, higher than in Europe at the time. In comparison, the percentage of the European population living in cities was 8–13% in 1800. Urbanization of the human population accelerated beginning in the middle of the eighteenth century. With the onset of the British agricultural and industrial revolution in the late 18th century, this relationship was broken and an unprecedented growth in urban population took place over the course of the 19th century, both through continued migration from the countryside and due to the tremendous demographic expansion that occurred at that time. In England and Wales, the proportion of the population living in cities with more than 20,000 people jumped from 17% in 1801 to 54% in 1891.
Moreover, adopting a broader definition of urbanization, we can say that while the urbanized population in England and Wales represented 72% of the total in 1891, for other countries the figure was 37% in France, 41% in Prussia and 28% in the United States. As labourers were freed up from working the land due to higher agricultural productivity they converged on the new industrial cities like Manchester and Birmingham which were experiencing a boom in commerce and industry. Growing trade around the world allowed cereals to be imported from North America and refrigerated meat from Australasia and South America. Spatially, cities expanded due to the development of public transport systems, which facilitated commutes of longer distances to the city centre for the working class. Urbanization spread across the Western world and, since the 1950s, it has begun to take hold in the developing world as well. At the turn of the 20th century, just 15% of the world population lived in cities. According to the UN, the
Jean Delespine or Jean de l'Espine, was a French angevin architect of the Renaissance. Jean Delespine was a renowned architect; the Renaissance in Anjou owes much to the artistic and architectural production of this master builder. Today he is attributed about forty works all located in the former province of Anjou. Jean Delespine was, at his beginnings, the student of Jean Mariau, an architect in Angers, to whom he succeeded, in 1535, as Commissaire des œuvres et réparations de la ville of Angers. Delespine was in charge of important urban developments, he worked under the direction of a succession of mayors, including Jean de Pincé, Pierre Poyet and René Ayrault. His official functions were at the origin of contacts with the Controller General of the Bâtiments de France, Philibert Delorme, a great Renaissance architect, attached to Anjou as commendatory abbot of the Abbaye Saint-Serge d'Angers. In 1571, Delespine ceased his duties as curator of the city's works. In 1576, he died in his home of the rue Beaurepaire in Angers.
His body lies in the church next to the Carmelite convent. His tomb bore an epitaph to the glory of his architectural talents:... mais qui n’admireroit ta hardie entreprise / de ta brave lanterne au pignon de l’église / posée en l’air si hault entre deux piramides / dont les poincts eslevez touchent aux nues liquides /.... Brunno de Tartifune reports some extracts of this epitaph: On cognoist l'arbre au fruit, l'ouvrier à l'ouvrage / les tiens portent assez, L'Espine, tesmoignage / De l'excellent esprit dont Dieu t'avoit pourveu / quand parmi les plus grands en crédit on téa veu. Saint-Maurice d’Angers Cathedral. In 1533, the bell tower of the middle tower caught fire. Master Jehan of L'Espine was in charge of the reconstruction of the bell tower, he built the gallery housing the statues of Saint Maurice and his knights companions between the bases of the towers on the western façade. The statues were sculpted by Antoine Desmarais. Tombs and enfeux of bishops Jean Olivier and Jean du Mas in Angers Cathedral Château d'Ancenis Château of La Flèche Château de Serrant Château de Valençay.
The original castle became a Jesuit college, the military school of the Prytanée national militaire of La Flèche. The palace of Angers, seat of the présidial of Angers The development of a new river port in Angers under the municipality of mayor René Ayrault who will leave his name to this realization: the port Ayrault Modernisation of the Angevin fortifications and creation of two monumental city gates Reconstruction of a wing of the cloister of the hôpital Saint-Jean of Angers Musée Jean-Lurçat et de la tapisserie contemporaine Construction of the Renaissance bell tower of Les Rosiers-sur-Loire Building of the bridge of Durtal Realization of tombs, manors, fountains, etc; some of the works by Jean Delespine 1557 - Jean Delespine, architecte Archives ville d'Angers Jean de l'Espine on Structurae Jean Delespine on Wiki Anjou