King's Own Scottish Borderers
The King's Own Scottish Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Scottish Division. On 28 March 2006 the regiment was amalgamated with the Royal Scots, the Royal Highland Fusiliers, the Black Watch, the Highlanders and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland, becoming the 1st Battalion of the new regiment; the regiment was raised on 18 March 1689 by David Melville, 3rd Earl of Leven to defend Edinburgh against the Jacobite forces of James II. It's claimed; the regiment's first action was at the Battle of Killiecrankie on 27 July 1689. Although this battle was a defeat for the Williamite army, the Jacobite commander, John Graham, 1st Viscount Dundee, was killed by a volley fired by Leven's Regiment, bringing an end to James II's attempt to save his throne in Scotland; the regiment was judged to have performed well and was granted the privilege of recruiting by beat of drum in the City of Edinburgh without prior permission of the provost.
For a period it was known as Semphill's Regiment of Foot, the name under which it fought at the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745 and the Battle of Culloden in 1746. When the British infantry were allocated numerical positions in the'line' of Infantry the regiment was numbered 25th Regiment of Foot in 1751; the regiment fought at the Battle of Minden on 1 August 1759 with five other regiments. The 25th was the county regiment of Sussex in 1782 when it became known as the 25th Regiment of Foot; the regiment was awarded the right to bear the emblem of the Sphinx for their role in the Battle of Alexandria in 1801. Its recruiting area was moved to the Scottish Borders region in 1805 from when the regiment became known as the 25th Regiment of Foot; the regiment was not fundamentally affected by the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, which gave it a depot at Fulford Barracks in York from 1873, or by the Childers reforms of 1881 – as it possessed two battalions, there was no need for it to amalgamate with another regiment.
The regiment moved to Berwick Barracks in July 1881. Under the reforms the regiment became The King's Own Borderers on 1 July 1881. A 3rd, Battalion was formed as the Scottish Borderers Militia, with headquarters at Dumfries; the regiment became The King's Own Scottish Borderers in 1887. During the Second Anglo-Afghan War in 1878 to 1880, the regiment formed part of the 2nd division, renamed the Khyber Line Force while guarding the lines of communication between Kabul and Peshawar; the 3rd battalion was embodied in January 1900 for service in the Second Boer War, 998 officers and men embarked for South Africa on the SS Kildon Castle two months later. Most of the battalion returned home in June 1902. In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve; the Bachelor's Walk massacre happened in Dublin, on 26 July 1914, when a column of troops of the King's Own Scottish Borderers were accosted by a crowd on Bachelor's Walk.
The troops attacked "hostile but unarmed" protesters with rifle fire and bayonets - resulting in the deaths of four civilians and injuries to in excess of 30 more. The 1st Battalion was serving in India when the war broke out. After returning to England it landed at Cape Helles in Gallipoli as part of the 87th Brigade in the 29th Division in April 1915. After being evacuated from Gallipoli in January 1916 it moved to Alexandria in Egypt and landed at Marseille in March 1916 for service on the Western Front, it saw action at the Battle of the Somme in Autumn 1916, the Battle of Ypres in Autumn 1917, the Battle of Lys in April 1918 and the Battle of Cambrai in October 1918. During the Home Rule Crisis in 1914, the 2nd Battalion was stationed in Dublin as part of 13th Brigade in the 5th Division, they killed four civilians and wounded 38 after opening fire on a group of unarmed civilians on the day of the Howth gun-running in July 1914. It landed at Le Havre in August 1914 for service on the Western Front and saw action at the Battle of Mons in August 1914, the Battle of Le Cateau in August 1914 and the First Battle of the Aisne in September 1914.
It saw combat at the Second Battle of Ypres in May 1915, the Battle of the Somme in November 1916, the Battle of Vimy Ridge in April 1917, the Battle of Passchendaele in November 1917 and the Battle of Lys in April 1918. The 1/4th Battalion and the 1/5th Battalion landed in Gallipoli as part of the 155th Brigade in the 52nd Division in June 1915. After being evacuated from Gallipoli in January 1916 they moved to Egypt and took part in the Third Battle of Gaza in November 1917 before landing at Marseille in April 1918 for service on the Western Front; the 6th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 28th Brigade in the 9th Division in May 1915 for service on the Western Front. It saw action at the Battle of Loos in September 1915, the Battle of the Somme in November 1916, the Battle of Arras in May 1917 and the Battle of Passchendaele in November 1917; the 7th Battalion and the 7th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 46th Brigade in the 15th Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front.
They fought at the Battle of Loos in September 1915, the Battle of the Somme in November 1916, the Battle of Arras in May 1917, the Battle of Pilckem Ridge in August 19
Royal Scots Fusiliers
The Royal Scots Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that existed from 1678 until 1959 when it was amalgamated with the Highland Light Infantry to form the Royal Highland Fusiliers, itself merged with the Royal Scots Borderers, the Black Watch, the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders and the Highlanders to form a new large regiment, the Royal Regiment of Scotland. In the late 17th century, many English and Scottish politicians viewed standing armies or permanent units as a danger to the liberties of the individual and a threat to society itself; the experience of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the use of troops by both the Protectorate and James II to repress political dissent created strong resistance to permanent units owing allegiance to the Crown or State. Regiments were deliberately treated as the personal property of their current Colonel, carried his name which changed when transferred and disbanded as soon as possible; this makes tracing the origins of modern regiments complex since many regimental histories were written in the late 19th or early 20th century.
This was due to the 1881 Childers Reforms. The regiment was formed in Scotland in September 1678 by the Earl of Mar for service against dissident Covenanters and helped suppress Presbyterian rebellions at Bothwell Bridge in 1679 and the 1685 Argyll's Rising. Thomas Buchan, a Scottish Catholic and professional soldier replaced the Earl as Colonel in July 1686; when William III landed in England on 5 November 1688 in what became known as the Glorious Revolution, the regiment was shipped to London. There was little fighting; the position of Colonel was filled in March 1689 by Francis Fergus O'Farrell, an Irishman who had served William since 1674 and it became O'Farrell's Regiment in accordance with the practice of the time. The regiment spent the Nine Years' War in Flanders and took part in most of the major engagements, including Walcourt and Landen. In July 1695, it was part of the garrison when O'Farrell surrendered Deinze to the French without resistance; the regiment became prisoners. The officers concerned were reinstated with O'Farrell ending his career as a Major-General.
His replacement was Robert Mackay, nephew of Hugh Mackay former commander of the Dutch Scots Brigade. After the Treaty of Ryswick ended the Nine Years War in September 1697, the regiment went to Scotland where it spent the next few years; the date at which it was became a Fusilier unit is debated but it first appears as O'Farrell's Fusiliers on an Army list of 1691.'Fusilier' is a specific designation while'fusil' was a light-weight musket carried by units guarding the artillery train, so it may have been equipped with these before 1691. The original Fusilier regiments all had an exploding bomb emblem, so it may relate to grenades; the Regiment returned to Flanders when the War of the Spanish Succession began in May 1702 and formed part of the army led by the Duke of Marlborough. In August 1704, the regiment took part in the Battle of Blenheim; the regiment suffered heavy casualties, the new Colonel being Viscount Mordaunt, who himself lost an arm at Blenheim. Shortly after the Battle of Ramillies in May 1706, Mordaunt exchanged regiments with Colonel Sampson de Lalo, a French Huguenot refugee who commanded what became the 28th Regiment of Foot.
Under de Lalo, it fought at Oudenarde and the capture of Lille, one of the strongest defences in Europe whose Citadel is regarded as Vauban's masterpiece. De Lalo was killed at Malplaquet in September 1709, a battle technically an Allied victory but which incurred casualties so severe they shocked Europe. Malplaquet and the huge financial costs of the war meant the focus changed to capturing fortresses as each side attempted to improve its bargaining position prior to peace talks. Mordaunt, reappointed Colonel after de Lalo's death, died of smallpox in April 1710 and was succeeded by Thomas Meredyth, he was replaced by the Earl of Orrery. The regiment was awarded the title "Royal" around 1713, returning to England in August 1714 on the death of Queen Anne, succeeded by George I. During the Jacobite Rising in 1715, it fought at Sheriffmuir against forces led by its founder's son, the 6th Earl of Mar; the Rebellion was defeated but in July 1716 Orrery was removed due to his Jacobite sympathies and replaced by George Macartney.
Macartney was a Whig loyalist involved in the 1712 Hamilton–Mohun Duel who went into exile when charged as an accessory to murder, returning when George I became King. Britain was at peace during this period and the regiment remained on garrison duty until the War of the Austrian Succession broke out in 1742, it fought at Dettingen in June
A kilt is a type of knee-length non-bifurcated skirt with pleats at the back, originating in the traditional dress of Gaelic men and boys in the Scottish Highlands. It is first recorded in the 16th century as the great kilt, a full-length garment whose upper half could be worn as a cloak; the small kilt or modern kilt emerged in the 18th century, is the bottom half of the great kilt. Since the 19th century, it has become associated with the wider culture of Scotland, more broadly with Gaelic or Celtic heritage, it is most made of woollen cloth in a tartan pattern. Although the kilt is most worn on formal occasions and at Highland games and sports events, it has been adapted as an item of informal male clothing in recent years, returning to its roots as an everyday garment. In North America, kilts are now made for casual wear in a variety of materials. Alternative fastenings may be used and pockets inserted to avoid the need for a sporran. Kilts have been adopted as female wear for some sports.
The kilt first appeared as the great kilt, the breacan or belted plaid, during the 16th century, is Gaelic in origin. The filleadh mòr or great kilt was a full-length garment whose upper half could be worn as a cloak draped over the shoulder, or brought up over the head. A version of the filleadh beag, or small kilt, similar to the modern kilt was invented by an English Quaker from Lancashire named Thomas Rawlinson some time in the 1720s, he felt that the belted plaid was "cumbrous and unwieldy", his solution was to separate the skirt and convert it into a distinct garment with pleats sewn, which he himself began wearing. His associate, Iain MacDonnell, chief of the MacDonnells of Inverness began wearing it, when the clansmen the two employed in logging, charcoal manufacture and iron smelting saw their chief wearing the new apparel, they soon followed suit. From there its use spread "in the shortest space" amongst the Highlanders, amongst some of the Northern Lowlanders, it has been suggested there is evidence that the philibeg with unsewn pleats was worn from the 1690s.
The name "kilt" is applied to a range of garments: The traditional garment, either in its historical form, or in the modern adaptation now usual in Scotland in a tartan pattern The kilts worn by Irish pipe bands are based on the traditional Scottish garment but now in a single colour Variants of the Scottish kilt adopted in other Celtic nations, such as the Welsh cilt and the Cornish ciltAccording to the Dictionary of the Scots Language and Oxford English Dictionary, the noun derives from a verb to kilt meaning "to gird up. Organisations that sanction and grade the competitions in Highland dancing and piping all have rules governing acceptable attire for the competitors; these rules specify. The Scottish kilt displays uniqueness of design and convention which differentiate it from other garments fitting the general description, it is a tailored garment, wrapped around the wearer's body at the natural waist starting from one side, around the front and back and across the front again to the opposite side.
The fastenings consist of straps and buckles on both ends, the strap on the inside end passing through a slit in the waistband to be buckled on the outside. A kilt covers the body from the waist down to the centre of the knees; the overlapping layers in front are flat. A kilt pin is fastened to the front apron on the free corner. Underwear may or may not be worn, as the wearer prefers, although tradition has it that a "true Scotsman" should wear nothing under his kilt; the Scottish Tartans Authority, warns that in some circumstances the practice could be "childish and unhygienic" and flying "in the face of decency". The typical kilt as seen at modern Highland games events is made of twill woven worsted wool; the twill weave used for kilts is a "2–2 type", meaning that each weft thread passes over and under two warp threads at a time. The result is a distinctive diagonal-weave pattern in the fabric, called the twill line; this kind of twill, when woven according to a given sett or written colour pattern is called tartan.
In contrast kilts worn by Irish pipers are made from solid-colour cloth, with saffron or green being the most used colours. Kilting fabric weights are given in ounces per yard and run from the very-heavy, regimental worsted of 18–22 ounces down to a light worsted of about 10–11 ounces; the most common weights for kilts are 16 ounces. The heavier weights are more appropriate for cooler weather, while the lighter weights would tend to be selected for warmer weather or for active use, such as Highland dancing; some patterns are available in only a few weights. A modern kilt for a typical adult uses about 6–8 yards of single-width or about 3–4 yards of double-width tartan fabric. Double-width fabric is woven so that the pattern matches on the selvage. Kilts are made without a hem because a hem would make the garment too bulky and cause it to hang incorrectly; the exact amount of fabric needed depends upon s
94th Regiment of Foot
The 94th Regiment of Foot was a British Army line infantry regiment, raised as the Scotch Brigade in October 1794. It was renumbered as the 94th Regiment of Foot in December 1802 and disbanded in December 1818; the regiment was reformed in December 1823 and served until 1881 when it amalgamated with the 88th Regiment of Foot to form the Connaught Rangers. The regiment was raised, from officers who had served in the Scots Brigade, by General Francis Dundas as the Scotch Brigade on 9 October 1794; the regiment embarked for Gibraltar in November 1795 and moved on to South Africa in 1796 before transferring to India in late 1798. The regiment landed at Madras in January 1799 and saw action at the Battle of Mallavelly in March 1799 and the Siege of Seringapatam in April 1799 during the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, it was renumbered as the 94th Regiment of Foot in December 1802. It took part in the Battle of Argaon in November 1803 and the Capture of Gawilghur in December 1803 during the Second Anglo-Maratha War.
At Gawilghur, Captain Campbell led the light company of the regiment up the assault ladders and over the walls of the fort, considered impregnable, let the rest of the British force in through the main gate. The regiment embarked for home in October 1807; the regiment sailed for Jersey in April 1809 and was embarked for Portugal in August 1809 for service in the Peninsular War. It landed in Lisbon in February 1810 and arrived to take part in the defence of Fort Matagorda a few days later, it saw action at the Battle of Sabugal in April 1811, the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro in May 1811 and the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo in January 1812. After that it fought at the Siege of Badajoz in March 1812, the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812 and the Siege of Burgos in September 1812 as well as the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813, it pursued the French Army into France and fought at the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813, the Battle of the Nive in December 1813 and the Battle of Orthez in February 1814 as well as the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814.
It embarked for Cork in May 1814 and was disbanded in Dublin in December 1818. The regiment was reformed in Glasgow, in response to the threat posed by the French intervention in Spain, in December 1823. Of the initial appointments, two of the officers had previous service in the 94th Regiment of Foot; the regiment was posted to Gibraltar in April 1824 and it was presented with its new regimental colours in April 1825 before being sent to Malta in March 1832. It returned to Ireland in November 1834; the regiment was posted to Ceylon in October 1838 moved to Cannanore in April 1839 and served in the Madras Presidency for fifteen years during which time it saw some action suppressing the Mappila riots in summer 1849. The regiment embarked for England in March 1854; some volunteers departed for service in the Crimean War in November 1854 and the service companies left for Gibraltar in September 1855. The main body of the regiment embarked for Karachi in November 1857 and transferred to Peshawar in the North-West Frontier region in October 1858.
The regiment embarked for home again in January 1868. The regiment embarked for South Africa in spring 1879 and saw action at the Battle of Ulundi in July 1879 during the Anglo-Zulu War; the regiment marched into the Transvaal and took part in the successful attack on Sekukuni's stronghold on 28 November 1879 during the Basuto Gun War. Two Victoria Crosses were awarded to members of the regiment for their conduct during this action; the regiment remained in South Africa with its eight companies distributed throughout the Transvaal, garrisons being established in Pretoria, Wakkerstroom, Marabastad and Newcastle in northern Natal. It was during the re-concentration of the companies, in response to outbreaks of civil disorder by the Boers, that A and F companies were attacked at Battle of Bronkhorstspruit in December 1880 in the opening clash of the First Boer War: the two companies saw 156 of their soldiers killed or wounded, with the rest taken prisoner; the other six companies of the regiment spent the war being besieged by the Boers: C, D and H in Standerton, E and G in Pretoria, B in Marabastad, a small detachment of 50 men in Lydenburg.
As part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where single-battalion regiments were linked together to share a single depot and recruiting district in the United Kingdom, the 94th was linked with the 89th Regiment of Foot and assigned to district no. 65 at Gough Barracks in Armagh. On 1 July 1881 the Childers Reforms came into effect and the regiment amalgamated with the 88th Regiment of Foot to form the Connaught Rangers. Battle honours won by the regiment were: Fourth Anglo-Mysore War: Seringapatam Peninsular War: Peninsular, Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca, Nivelle, Toulouse Private Francis Fitzpatrick - Basuto War, 28 November 1879 Private Thomas Flawn - Basuto War, 28 November 1879 Colonels of the Regiment were: Scotch Brigade1794–1809: Gen. Francis Dundas94th Regiment of Foot1809–1815: Gen. Sir Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill, GCB, GCH, KC 1815–1818:? Regiment disbanded in 181894th Regiment of FootRegiment reformed in 1823 1823–1829: Gen. Sir Thomas Bradford, GCB, GCH 1829–1831: Lt-Gen. Sir John Keane, 1st Baron Keane, GCB, GCH 1831–1834: Maj-Gen.
Sir James Campbell, KCB, KCH 1834–1838: F. M. Sir John Colborne, 1st Baron Seaton, GCB, GCMG, GCH 1838–1847: Gen. Sir Thomas McMahon, Bt. GCB 1847–1853: Lt-Gen. Sir William Warre, CB 1853–1854: Maj-Gen. William Staveley, CB 1854: Lt-Gen. Henry Thomas, CB
In sewing, a seam is the join where two or more layers of fabric, leather, or other materials are held together with stitches. Prior to the invention of the sewing machine, all sewing was done by hand. Seams in modern mass-produced household textiles, sporting goods, ready-to-wear clothing are sewn by computerized machines, while home shoemaking, quilting, haute couture and tailoring may use a combination of hand and machine sewing. In clothing construction, seams are classified by their position in the finished garment. Seams are finished with a variety of techniques to prevent raveling of raw fabric edges and to neaten the inside of garments. All basics seams used in clothing construction are variants on four basic types of seams: Plain seams French seams Flat or abutted seams Lapped seamsA plain seam is the most common type of machine-sewn seam, it joins two pieces of fabric together face-to-face by sewing through both pieces, leaving a seam allowance with raw edges inside the work. The seam allowance requires some sort of seam finish to prevent raveling.
Either piping or cording may be inserted into a plain seam. In a French seam, the raw edges of the fabric are enclosed for a neat finish; the seam is first sewn with wrong sides together the seam allowances are trimmed and pressed. A second seam is sewn with right sides together. In a flat or abutted seam, two pieces of fabric are joined edge-to edge with no overlap and sewn with hand or machine stitching that encloses the raw edges. Antique or old German seam is the 19th century name for a hand-sewn flat seam that joins two pieces of fabric at their selvages; this type of construction is found in traditional linen garments such as shirts and chemises, in hand-made sheets pieced from narrow loom widths of linen. In a lapped seam, the two layers overlap with the wrong side of the top layer laid against the right side of the lower layer. Lapped seams are used for bulky materials that do not ravel, such as leather and felt. A seam finish is a treatment that secures and neatens the raw edges of a plain seam to prevent raveling, by sewing over the raw edges or enclosing them in some sort of binding.
On mass-produced clothing, the seam allowances of plain seams are trimmed and stitched together with an overlock stitch using a serger. Plain seams may be pressed open, with each seam allowance separately secured with an overlock stitch. Traditional home sewing techniques for finishing plain seams include trimming with pinking shears, oversewing with a zig-zag stitch, hand or machine overcasting. A bound seam has each of the raw edges of its seam allowances enclosed in a strip of fabric, lace or net'binding', folded in half lengthwise. An example of binding is double-fold bias tape; the binding's fold is wrapped around the raw edge of the seam allowance and is stitched, through all thicknesses, catching underside of binding in stitching. Bound seams are used on lightweight fabrics including silk and chiffon and on unlined garments to produce a neat finish. A Hong Kong seam or Hong Kong finish is a home sewing term for a type of bound seam in which each raw edge of the seam allowance is separately encased in a fabric binding.
In couture sewing or tailoring, the binding is a bias-cut strip of lightweight lining fabric. In a Hong Kong finish, a bias strip of fabric is cut to the width of the seam allowance plus 1/4"; the bias strip is placed on top of the seam allowance, right sides together, stitched 1/8" from raw edges. The bias strip is folded over the raw edge and around to the underside and stitched in place. In clothing construction, seams are identified by their position in the finished garment. A center front seam runs vertically down the front of a garment. A center back seam or back seam runs vertically down the center-back of a garment, it can be used to create anatomical shaping to the back portion of a garment through the waist area and hips. It can be used for styling and functional purposes involving pleats, flare toward the hem or for back closures such as buttoned plackets or zippers. A side seam runs vertically down the side of a garment. A side-back seam runs from the armscye to the waist, fits the garment to the curve below the shoulder blades.
Side-back seams may be used instead of, or in combination with and center back seams. A shoulder seam runs from the neckline to the armscye at the highest point of the shoulder. Princess seams in the front or back run from the shoulder or armscye to the hem at the side-back or side-front. Princess seams shape the garment to the body's curves and eliminate the need for darting at the bust and shoulder. An inseam is the seam; the distance from the bottom crotch to the lower ankle is known as the inseam. The inseam length determines the length of the inner pant leg to appropriately fit the wearer. In the UK this is known as the inside-leg measurement; when making an outward-curved seam, the material will have reduced bulk and lie flat if notches are cut into the seam allowance. Alternatively, when making an inward-curved seam, clips are cut into the seam allowance to help the seam lie flat with reduced bulk in the fabric. Once seam allowances are pinned or basted, they are pressed flat with an iron before sewing the final seam.
Pressing the seam allowances makes it easier to sew a consistent finished seam. Embroidery stitch Glossary of sewing terminology Glossary of textile manufacturing List of sewing stitches Notions Ankle Calf Thigh Anawalt, Patricia Rieff
Jacobitism was the name of the political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the House of Stuart to the thrones of England and Ireland. The movement was named after the Latin form of James. After James II and VII went into exile after the 1688 Glorious Revolution, the English Parliament argued he had'abandoned' the throne of England and offered it to his Protestant daughter Mary II and son-in-law and nephew William III as joint monarchs. In Scotland, the Convention did the same but claimed he had'forfeited' the throne of Scotland by his actions, listed in the Articles of Grievances; this was a fundamental change capturing a key ideological difference between Jacobites and their opponents. However, Jacobitism was a complex mix of ideas. After 1707, many Scottish Jacobites wanted to undo the Acts of Union that created Great Britain but opposed the idea of divine right. Outside Ireland, Jacobitism was strongest in the Scottish Highlands and Aberdeenshire, traditional Catholic areas in Northern England Northumberland, County Durham and Lancashire), plus parts of Wales and South-West England.
The emblem of the Jacobites is the White Cockade. White Rose Day is celebrated on 10 June, the anniversary of the birth of the Old Pretender in 1688. In addition to the 1689–1691 Williamite War in Ireland, there were a number of Jacobite revolts in Scotland and England between 1689 and 1746, plus many unsuccessful plots; the collapse of the 1745 Rising ended Jacobitism as a serious political movement. The first Stuart to be monarch of both Scotland and England was James VI and I, who claimed his authority was divinely inspired, a concept known as divine right, he considered his decisions were not subject to'interference' by either Parliament or the Church, a political view that would remain remarkably consistent among his Stuart successors. When James became King of England in 1603, a unified Church of Scotland and England governed by bishops was the first step in his vision of a centralised, Unionist state. While both churches were nominally Episcopalian, in reality they were different in governance and doctrine.
Attempts by James's son Charles I to impose common practices led to the 1639-1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms, the execution of Charles in 1649 and the incorporation of Scotland into the English Commonwealth. After the Restoration of Charles II in 1660, political and religious conflict continued. In Ireland, the key issues were land rights and tolerance for the Catholic majority. Retrieving these was a primary aim of the 1641 Irish Rebellion but after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, land held by Irish Catholics had fallen from 60% in 1641 to 9%. Only a small minority of large Catholic landowners benefitted from the 1662 Act of Settlement passed after the Restoration. In addition to struggles over religion, the Stuarts resisted the growing strength of Parliament. Louis XIV of France was the greatest exponent of Royal Absolutism in contemporary Europe, which meant many associated political absolutism with Catholicism. Charles II refused to call an English Parliament between 1681–1685, while in Ireland, only one session of Parliament was held between 1660 and 1689.
In 1685, Charles' Catholic brother became James II and VII, with considerable support in all three kingdoms. James' attempts to extend these measures to other Dissenters and his use of the Royal Prerogative to do so evoked memories of the religious and political divisions that led to the Civil Wars and were resisted by the Presbyterian Scots and his English Tory Anglican supporters. However, his Catholic viceroy in Ireland, Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, began replacing Protestant office holders with Catholics, while purging them from an expanded Royal Irish Army. In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis. Prosecuting the Seven Bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance for Catholicism and into an assault on the Episcopalian establishment. In 1685, many feared civil war. Representatives from across the political class invited William to assume the English throne and he landed in Brixham on 5 November. Parliament offered the English throne to William and Mary in February 1689. A Scottish Convention was elected in March 1689 to agree a Settlement, with only a tiny minority of the 125 delegates loyal to James.
On 12 March, James began the War in Ire
A regiment is a military unit. Their role and size varies markedly, depending on the arm of service. In Medieval Europe, the term "regiment" denoted any large body of front-line soldiers, recruited or conscripted in one geographical area, by a leader, also the feudal lord of the soldiers. By the end of the 17th century, regiments in most European armies were permanent units, numbering about 1,000 men and under the command of a colonel. During the modern era, the word "regiment" – much like "corps" – may have two somewhat divergent meanings, which refer to two distinct roles: a front-line military formation. In many armies, the first role has been assumed by independent battalions, task forces and other, similarly-sized operational units. However, these non-regimental units tend to be short-lived. A regiment may be a variety of sizes: smaller than a standard battalion, e.g. Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment. S. Infantry Regiment and Royal Regiment of Scotland; the French term régiment is considered to have entered military usage in Europe at the end of the 16th century, when armies evolved from collections of retinues who followed knights, to formally organised, permanent military forces.
At that time, regiments were named after their commanding colonels, disbanded at the end of the campaign or war. It was customary to name the regiment by its precedence in the line of battle, to recruit from specific places, called cantons; the oldest regiments which still exist, their dates of establishment, include the Spanish 9th Infantry Regiment “Soria”, Swedish Life Guards, the British Honourable Artillery Company and the King's Own Immemorial Regiment of Spain, first established in 1248 during the conquest of Seville by King Ferdinand the Saint. In the 17th century, brigades were formed as units combining infantry and artillery that were more effective than the older, single-arms regiments. By the beginning of the 18th century, regiments in most European continental armies had evolved into permanent units with distinctive titles and uniforms, each under the command of a colonel; when at full strength, an infantry regiment comprised two field battalions of about 800 men each or 8–10 companies.
In some armies, an independent regiment with fewer companies was labelled a demi-regiment. A cavalry regiment numbered 600 to 900 troopers. On campaign, these numbers were soon reduced by casualties and detachments and it was sometimes necessary to amalgamate regiments or to withdraw them to a depot while recruits were obtained and trained. With the widespread adoption of conscription in European armies during the nineteenth century, the regimental system underwent modification. Prior to World War I, an infantry regiment in the French, German and other smaller armies would comprise four battalions, each with a full strength on mobilization of about 1,000 men; as far as possible, the separate battalions would be garrisoned in the same military district, so that the regiment could be mobilized and campaign as a 4,000 strong linked group of sub-units. A cavalry regiment by contrast made up a single entity of up to 1,000 troopers. A notable exception to this practice was the British line infantry system where the two regular battalions constituting a regiment alternated between "home" and "foreign" service and came together as a single unit.
In the regimental system, each regiment is responsible for recruiting and administration. The regiment is responsible for recruiting and administering all of a soldier's military career. Depending upon the country, regiments can be administrative units or both; this is contrasted to the "continental system" adopted by many armies. In the continental system, the division is the functional army unit, its commander is the administrator of every aspect of the formation: his staff train and administer the soldiers and commanders of the division's subordinate units. Divisions are garrisoned together and share the same installations: thus, in divisional administration, a battalion commanding officer is just another officer in a chain of command. Soldiers and officers are transferred out of divisions as required; some regiments recruited from specific geographical areas, incorporated the place name into the regimental name. In other cases, regiments would recruit from a given age group within a nation, an ethnic group, or foreigners.
In other cases, new regiments were raised for new functions within an army.