SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Triassic

The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago, to the beginning of the Jurassic Period 201.3 Mya. The Triassic is the shortest period of the Mesozoic Era. Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events; the Triassic period is subdivided into three epochs: Early Triassic, Middle Triassic and Late Triassic. Triassic began in the wake of the Permian–Triassic extinction event, which left the Earth's biosphere impoverished. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time. A specialized subgroup of archosaurs, called dinosaurs, first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic Period; the first true mammals, themselves a specialized subgroup of therapsids evolved during this period, as well as the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, like the dinosaurs, were a specialized subgroup of archosaurs. The vast supercontinent of Pangaea existed until the mid-Triassic, after which it began to rift into two separate landmasses, Laurasia to the north and Gondwana to the south.

The global climate during the Triassic was hot and dry, with deserts spanning much of Pangaea's interior. However, the climate became more humid as Pangaea began to drift apart; the end of the period was marked by yet another major mass extinction, the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, that wiped out many groups and allowed dinosaurs to assume dominance in the Jurassic. The Triassic was named in 1834 by Friedrich von Alberti, after the three distinct rock layers that are found throughout Germany and northwestern Europe—red beds, capped by marine limestone, followed by a series of terrestrial mud- and sandstones—called the "Trias"; the Triassic is separated into Early and Late Triassic Epochs, the corresponding rocks are referred to as Lower, Middle, or Upper Triassic. The faunal stages from the youngest to oldest are: During the Triassic all the Earth's land mass was concentrated into a single supercontinent centered more or less on the equator and spanning from pole to pole, called Pangaea.

From the east, along the equator, the Tethys sea penetrated Pangaea, causing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean to be closed. In the mid-Triassic a similar sea penetrated along the equator from the west; the remaining shores were surrounded by the world-ocean known as Panthalassa. All the deep-ocean sediments laid down during the Triassic have disappeared through subduction of oceanic plates; the supercontinent Pangaea was rifting during the Triassic—especially late in that period—but had not yet separated. The first nonmarine sediments in the rift that marks the initial break-up of Pangaea, which separated New Jersey from Morocco, are of Late Triassic age. S. these thick sediments comprise the Newark Group. Because a super-continental mass has less shoreline compared to one broken up, Triassic marine deposits are globally rare, despite their prominence in Western Europe, where the Triassic was first studied. In North America, for example, marine deposits are limited to a few exposures in the west, thus Triassic stratigraphy is based on organisms that lived in lagoons and hypersaline environments, such as Estheria crustaceans.

At the beginning of the Mesozoic Era, Africa was joined with Earth's other continents in Pangaea. Africa shared the supercontinent's uniform fauna, dominated by theropods and primitive ornithischians by the close of the Triassic period. Late Triassic fossils are more common in the south than north; the time boundary separating the Permian and Triassic marks the advent of an extinction event with global impact, although African strata from this time period have not been studied. During the Triassic peneplains are thought to have formed in what is now southern Sweden. Remnants of this peneplain can be traced as a tilted summit accordance in the Swedish West Coast. In northern Norway Triassic peneplains may have been buried in sediments to be re-exposed as coastal plains called strandflats. Dating of illite clay from a strandflat of Bømlo, southern Norway, have shown that landscape there became weathered in Late Triassic times with the landscape also being shaped during that time. At Paleorrota geopark, located in Rio Grande do Sul, the Santa Maria Formation and Caturrita Formations are exposed.

In these formations, one of the earliest dinosaurs, Staurikosaurus, as well as the mammal ancestors Brasilitherium and Brasilodon have been discovered. The Triassic continental interior climate was hot and dry, so that typical deposits are red bed sandstones and evaporites. There is no evidence of glaciation near either pole. Pangaea's large size limited the moderating effect of the global ocean; the strong contrast between the Pangea supercontinent and the global ocean triggered intense cross-equatorial monsoons. The Triassic may have been a dry period, but evidence exists that it was punctuated by several episodes of increased rainfall in tropical and subtropical latitudes of the Tethys Sea and its surrounding land. Sediments and fossils suggestive of a more humid climate are known from the Anisian to Ladinian of the Tethysian domain, from

Hamoodur Rahman Commission

The Hamoodur Rahman Commission, was a judicial inquiry commission that assessed Pakistan's political–military involvement in East-Pakistan from 1947 to 1971. The Commission was set up on 26 December 1971 by the Government of Pakistan and chaired under a Bengali Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman. Constituted "to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the atrocities and 1971 war", including the "circumstances in which the Commander of the Eastern Military Command, surrendered the Eastern contingent forces under his command laid down their arms."The commission's final report was lengthy and provided an analysis based extensive interviews and testimonies. Its primary conclusion was critical of the role of Pakistan's military interference, the misconduct of politicians as well as the intelligence failures of the Inter-Services Intelligence and the Federal Investigation Agency, which permitted the infiltration of Indian agents all along the borders of East Pakistan. There were 12 copies of the report.

These were all destroyed. In 2000, parts of the commission report were leaked to Pakistani newspapers; the full report was thought to be declassified by the government in 2000, along with other reports concerning the year of 1971. However, it was reported that the supplementary report based on testimonies of POWs was published, the key portion of the report concerning the political and military issues remained classified and marked as "Top secret." In 1971, the war between India and Pakistan witnessed the liberation of East-Pakistan, which ended with the signing of the Instrument of Surrender with the Indian Army in Dhaka. Upon consolidating the power, President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto announced to form the Commission under the Supreme Court's senior justices in December 1971. Constituted upon the request from the President, the Commission conducted evaluated and analytical studies to inquire into and find out "the circumstances in which the Commander, Eastern Command and the members of the Armed Forces of Pakistan under his command laid down their arms and a ceasefire was ordered along the borders of West Pakistan and India and along the ceasefire line in the State of Jammu and Kashmir."Initially, the commission was known as War Enquiry Commission but gained notability as "Hamoodur Rehman Commission" across the country.

The Commission was led by its Chairman, Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman, aided with the senior justices of the Supreme Court, military officials as its advisers. The Commission had consisted of both civilian and military officials that investigated the political and military failures based on the interviews and testimonies provided by the POWs, activists, military leaders, journalists for two years; the Commission submitted its final report in 1974. Supreme Court of Pakistan Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman Senior Justice Anwarul Haq Senior Justice Tufail Rahman Two additional members from Baluchistan High Court Lieutenant-General Altaf Qadir was its military adviser; the Commission stored testimonies in both first and supplementary reports. In 1972, it was reported that around 213 officials were interviewed and testified, including Yahya Khan and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. In 1974, the Commission again resumed its work and interviewed 300 freed POWs and recorded 73 more bureaucrats' testimonies that served on government assignments in East Pakistan.

Note that the list of interviewees is incomplete. In July 1972, President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto reviewed the First report submitted by Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman; the Commission interviewed 213 persons of interest that included former president Yahya Khan, Nurul Amin, Abdul Hamid Khan, Abdul Rahim Khan, Muzaffar Hassan, senior commanders, activists and various political leaders. The Commission considered this initial report as "tentative" as it had not been able to interview many key people who were at that time POWs in India; the Commission stated: "our observations and conclusions regarding the surrender in East Pakistan and other allied matters should be regarded as provisional and subject to modification in the light of the evidence of the Commander, Eastern Command, his senior officers as and when such evidence becomes available." The commission interviewed 213 people and made 12 copies of the report. One of the copies was given to President Bhutto and the rest were either destroyed or were stolen.

The first report recognized the atrocities and systematic massacre at the Dhaka University which led to recommendations of holding public trials for civilian bureaucrats and field courts-martial for the senior staff officers. It is theorized that the first report is critical of Pakistan military's interference in politics and misconduct of politicians in country's political atmosphere; the first report made many insightful recommendations for reorganizing the military physicals and their syllabus and training agenda as well as promoting the sense of democratization environment in the political system of the country. The first report is never published and kept as classified documents because of its adverse effects on the military's low-institutional morale and fear of a backlash; the Government and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto himself maintained that the first report was classified to "save its honor". In 1974, the Commission reopened its enquiry offering an opportunity to the prisoners of war, freed by India and Bangladesh by then

Nu-disco

Nu-disco is a 21st-century dance music genre associated with a renewed interest in 1970s US disco, as well as synthesizer-heavy 1980s European dance music styles. The genre was popular in the mid-2000s, experienced another small resurgence in the early to mid-2010s. There are several scenes associated with nu-disco term, the first characterized as house music fused with disco, disco-influenced balearic music known as balearic beat revival or balearica. French house could be considered the precursor of the movement in the late 1990s; the DJ-production duo Faze Action, which started making music in mid 1990s, are called one of the early pioneers of early nu-disco scene. The moniker first appeared in print as early as 2002, by mid-2008, used by record shops such as the online retailers Juno and Beatport, they associated it with re-edits of classic disco records and a handful of European electronic producers who made music in that style. It is used by Beatport, alongside alternative dance, to describe the music on several American labels that were associated with the genres electroclash and French house.

In 2002, The Independent described nu-disco as the result of applying "modern technology and pin-sharp production" to ′70s disco and funk. In 2008, Beatport described nu-disco as "everything that springs from the late 1970s and early 1980s disco, cosmic and Italo disco continuum. Spin magazine placed an umlaut over the "u" in "nu", used the term interchangeably with Eurodisco, cited strong Italo dance as well as electroclash influences, while many other labels refer to it as "Nu Disco," sans the hyphen; as of 2015, remixes and disco edits of old songs sit side-by-side with original productions on websites such as Beatport and Traxsource. In the mid 2000s many covers and remixes of songs from the 1980s in the nu-disco style were popular as well as original songs in this style, with disco house songs such as "Lola's Theme" by The Shapeshifters, "Call on Me" by Eric Prydz, "The Weekend" by Michael Gray, "Out of Touch" by Uniting Nations, "Shine" by Lovefreekz, "So Much Love to Give" by the Freeloaders, "Love on my Mind" by Freemasons and two remixes of 1980s disco song "Waiting for a Star to Fall" all making the top ten of the UK Singles Chart in the second half of 2004 and first half of 2005.

The trend continued until mid 2006, when more electronic varieties of house such as electro house began to become more popular. When electro house dominated mainstream scene, musicians started producing shiny and extravagantly melodic balearic music influenced by disco, described as distinct nu-disco scene; such producers as Aeroplane, fr:Lifelike & Todd Terje are considered as pioneers of evolved nu-disco scene. Tensnake's single Coma Cat hit the European charts in 2010 and was one of the most success nu-disco tracks of that time. In 2013, several disco and funk-influences songs charted as top hits, this time more in a 1970s style and one source stated that the pop charts had more dance songs than at any other point since the late 1970s; the biggest disco-house hit of the year as of June was "Get Lucky" by Daft Punk, featuring Nile Rodgers on guitar. The song was thought to be a leading candidate to become the summer's biggest hit that year. Both were popular with a wide variety of demographic groups.

Although many credit Daft Punk with bringing back disco in 2013, it is far from their most quintessentially French Disco record, some say that disco never left in the first place. But with high-profile collaborations with disco legends such as Giorgio Moroder and the aforementioned Nile Rodgers, disco is now not only in the public's ear, but in their consciousness as well. A modified version of the original master, edited by disco and house DJs to extend and emphasize the best and most dance-friendly elements. Todd Terje's edit of the Bee Gees hit "You Should Be Dancing" does that, downplaying the dated vocal riffs in favor of driving bass, lively percussion, an overall sense of space. Many nu-disco producers are disco editors and there is a bit of overlap between the two genres as many nu-disco songs feature samples of classic disco tracks, it is not uncommon for an edit to be made of a modern track. Modern notable disco editors include Greg Wilson, Todd Terje, Dimitri from Paris, Joey Negro and the Flying Mojito Bros.

Since nu-disco is a dance genre first and foremost, the drum grooves are an essential part. They feature four-on-the-floor beats with an organic, lively feel based on the sounds of classic disco recordings by Chic, Sister Sledge, others. In some cases, producers will sample these grooves directly. Los Angeles-based producer Goldroom uses both house and disco influenced drum grooves in tracks such as "Waiting to Ignite". While modern production is abundant with synthesized sounds, many nu-disco records are, in the disco tradition, driven by guitar or bass licks. Guitarist and songwriter Nile Rodgers brought riffs to the forefront of the groove with Chic in the 1970s and again with Daft Punk in 2013. Other notable modern examples include ""Holding On" by Classixx; as with other electronic genres, nu-disco producers use both digital and analog synths to create melodic and harmonic lines, add ambiance and color to their records. Gigamesh uses a synthesized sound while still retaining old-school influences in tr