The Parthenon is a former temple on the Athenian Acropolis, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Construction began in 447 BC, it was completed in 438 BC, although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece considered the zenith of the Doric order, its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy and Western civilization, one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. To the Athenians who built it, the Parthenon and other Periclean monuments of the Acropolis were seen fundamentally as a celebration of Hellenic victory over the Persian invaders and as a thanksgiving to the gods for that victory; as of 2007 the Greek Ministry of Culture was carrying out a programme of selective restoration and reconstruction to ensure the stability of the ruined structure. The Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC.
The temple is archaeoastronomically aligned to the Hyades. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon served a practical purpose as the city treasury. For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian League, which became the Athenian Empire. In the final decade of the sixth century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. After the Ottoman conquest, it was turned into a mosque in the early 1460s. On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment; the resulting explosion damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. From 1800 to 1803, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures with the alleged permission of the Turks of the Ottoman Empire; these sculptures, now known as the Elgin Marbles or the Parthenon Marbles, were sold in 1816 to the British Museum in London, where they are now displayed. Since 1983, the Greek government has been committed to the return of the sculptures to Greece.
The origin of the Parthenon's name is from the Greek word παρθενών, which referred to the "unmarried women's apartments" in a house and in the Parthenon's case seems to have been used at first only for a particular room of the temple. The Liddell–Scott–Jones Greek–English Lexicon states that this room was the western cella of the Parthenon, as does J. B. Bury. Jamauri D. Green holds that the parthenon was the room in which the peplos presented to Athena at the Panathenaic Festival was woven by the arrephoroi, a group of four young girls chosen to serve Athena each year. Christopher Pelling asserts that Athena Parthenos may have constituted a discrete cult of Athena, intimately connected with, but not identical to, that of Athena Polias. According to this theory, the name of the Parthenon means the "temple of the virgin goddess" and refers to the cult of Athena Parthenos, associated with the temple; the epithet parthénos meant "maiden, girl", but "virgin, unmarried woman" and was used for Artemis, the goddess of wild animals, the hunt, vegetation, for Athena, the goddess of strategy and tactics and practical reason.
It has been suggested that the name of the temple alludes to the maidens, whose supreme sacrifice guaranteed the safety of the city. Parthénos has been applied to the Virgin Mary, Parthénos Maria, the Parthenon had been converted to a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary in the final decade of the sixth century; the first instance in which Parthenon refers to the entire building is found in the writings of the 4th century BC orator Demosthenes. In 5th-century building accounts, the structure is called ho naos; the architects Iktinos and Callicrates are said to have called the building Hekatompedos in their lost treatise on Athenian architecture, and, in the 4th century and the building was referred to as the Hekatompedos or the Hekatompedon as well as the Parthenon. Because the Parthenon was dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, it has sometimes been referred to as the Temple of Minerva, the Roman name for Athena during the 19th century. Although the Parthenon is architecturally a temple and is called so, it is not one in the conventional sense of the word.
A small shrine has been excavated within the building, on the site of an older sanctuary dedicated to Athena as a way to get closer to the goddess, but the Parthenon never hosted the cult of Athena Polias, patron of Athens: the cult image, bathed in the sea and to, presented the peplos, was an olivewood xoanon, located at an older altar on the northern side of the Acropolis. The colossal statue of Athena by Phidias was not related to any cult and is not known to have inspired any religious fervour, it did not seem to have any priestess, cult name. According to Thucydides, Pericles once referred to the statue as a gold reserve, stressing that it "contained forty talents of pure gold and it was all removable"; the Athenian statesman thus implies that the metal, obtained from contemporary coinage, could be used again without any impiety. The Parthenon should be viewed as a grand setting for Phidias' votive statue rather than a cult site, it is said in many writings of the G
Alfred C. Finn
Alfred Charles Finn was an American architect. He started in the profession with no formal training in 1904 as an apprentice for Sanguinet & Staats, he worked in their offices in Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston. His credits during his tenure residential structures, but firm was a leader in steel-frame construction of skyscrapers. Finn practiced independently between 1913 and 1953, first subcontracting as a project manager for the Rice Hotel project, he collaborated on many projects in Houston with Jesse Jones as the pair changed the face of downtown Houston in the 1910s and 1920s. Meanwhile, Finn supervised or designed buildings in various parts of Texas, including Brenham, Galveston and Tyler, he continued architectural work for residential properties in the Houston area. During the 1930s because of his relationship with Jones, Finn worked for the federal government, his firm performed contract work for federal agencies, his public buildings included federal buildings, a college administation building and a complex of dormitories, he designed the San Jacinto Monument.
He was one of the leaders in the development of the Art Deco style in Texas, though his work reflects a wide range of styles and syntheses. Along with Joseph Finger, Finn was one of the two leading architects in Houston during the first half of the twentieth century. A number of his works are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Alfred Charles Finn was born to Edwin E. and Bertha Finn in Bellville, the second of eight children. He grew up in Hempstead and moved to Houston in 1900 to work for Southern Pacific Railroad as a carpenter and draftsman. In 1904, he started as an apprentice for Staats in Dallas. After three years, he transferred to the firm's headquarters in Fort Worth, a position he held until 1912. Sanguinet & Staats transferred him to Houston, but he left the firm in 1913 to establish a private practice. However, before leaving the firm, Finn worked on two private residences at Courtlandt Place for A. S. Cleveland and James L. Autry, he is credited with the Link–Lee House on Montrose Boulevard.
Finn's first commission was as project manager for the Rice Hotel, under contract with the firm of Mauran, Russell & Crowell. The owner of the new hotel, Jesse H. Jones, soon after established a collaboration with Finn which would change the face of Downtown Houston. Finn designed two buildings for Jones across the way from the Rice Hotel: the Foster Building, aka the Houston Chronicle Building, in 1914, the Rusk Building in 1916; the corner of Texas and Travis was dominated by buildings built by Jones. In 1926, Finn designed a new seventeen-story wing for the Rice Hotel on behalf of Jones. Finn did architectural work for other commercial clients in the 1920s, he completed State National Bank Building at 412 Main Street in 1923. Jones contracted with Finn to build the Lamar Hotel; the Jones apartment consumed the whole top floor, though he hired John F. Staub for the interior design. Jones promised a venue for the 1928 Democratic National Convention without consulting the city of Houston, pledging $200,000 of his own capital.
He engaged Kenneth Franzheim to design and erect the Sam Houston Hall in just four months. The Sam Houston Hall, ostensibly built to be a temporary structure, was larger than Madison Square Garden, equipped with heavy-duty fans and apertures between the roof and the walls to facilitate air flow. Jones contracted with Finn on another project in downtown Houston, this time with in collaboration with Franzheim and J. E. R. Carpenter, to finish the 37-story, art deco Gulf Building in 1929 — at that time the tallest building in Texas. Finn designed theaters in Brenham, Fort Worth and Houston. Only one of these is still extant: the Simon Theatre in Brenham, designed in 1925. Finn and Jones collaborated in the fruition of two theaters in Downtown Houston, the Metropolitan in 1926 and the Loew's State in 1927. Finn established a robust practice for residential architecture in some wealthy Houston subdivisions such as Courtlandt Place and Shadyside, his first work in the Rossmoyne subdivision was the Sterling-Berry House, which he completed in 1916 and enhanced with a large portico in 1919.
He designed a new house on nearby Montrose Boulevard for Henry H. Dickson, President of the Dickson Wheel Car Company. In the Houston Heights, his early work included the Woodward House, which he completed in 1918. In 1920, he designed a home for Earl K. Wharton in the wealthy enclave of Shadyside. Known in the Courtlandt Place subdivision through his work on the A. S. Cleveland House and James L. Autry House while under the employ of Sanguinet & Staats, Finn moved and remodeled an 1890 Victorian house for Sarah Brashear Jones in 1920. Other homes in Houston designed by Finn include the Sid Westheimer house, one for oil mogul, Walter Fondren, he designed the Benjamin Apartments, a synthesis of Renaissance Revival style and Arts and Crafts principles. Finn's most ambitious residential project was the Ross Sterling House in Bay Ridge Park near Morgan's Point, completed in 1928, he and Robert Smallwood designed a two-and-one-half story house overlooking the Houston Ship Channel with a bay-side portico design based on the south facade of the White House.
The next year Finn's office completed a commission for William Lewis Moody III. Smallwood designed the Georgian neo-classical home in Galveston's Cedar Lawn Subdivision, this neighborhood is now NRHP-listed. Finn was an architect for th
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl
Bruno Julius Florian Taut was a prolific German architect, urban planner and author active during the Weimar period. He is known for his theoretical works as well as his buildings. Taut was born in Königsberg in 1880. After secondary school, he studied at the Baugewerkschule. In the following years, Taut worked in the offices of various architects in Wiesbaden. In 1903 he was employed by Bruno Möhring in Berlin, where he acquainted himself with Jugendstil and new building methods combining steel with masonry. From 1904 to 1908, Taut studied urban planning, he received his first commission through Fischer in 1906, which involved renovation of the village church in Unterriexingen. In 1908, he returned to Berlin to study art history and construction at the Royal Technical Higher School of Charlottenburg, now Technical University of Berlin. A year he established the architecture firm Taut & Hoffmann with Franz Hoffmann. Taut's first large projects came in 1913, he became a committed follower of the Garden City movement, evidenced by his design for the Falkenberg Estate.
Taut adopted the futuristic ideals and techniques of the avante-garde as seen in the prismatic dome of the Glass Pavilion, which he built for the association of the German glass industry for the 1914 Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne. His aim was to make a whole building out of glass instead of using glass as a surface or decorative material, he created glass-treaded metal staircases, a waterfall with underlighting, colored walls of mosaic glass. His sketches for the publication "Alpine Architecture" are the work of an unabashed utopian visionary, he is classified as a Modernist and, in particular, as an Expressionist. Much of Taut's literary work in German remains untranslated into English. In 1910 after training in Berlin, working for Theodor Fischer's firm in Stuttgart, establishing his own firm in Berlin, the experienced architect Hermann Muthesius suggested that Taut visit England to learn the garden city philosophy. Muthesius introduced him to some of the Deutscher Werkbund group of architects, including Walter Gropius.
Taut had socialist sympathies, before World War I this hindered his advancement. Taut's practical activity changed with World War I, he so avoided military service. He began to write and sketch, less to escape from the brutalities of war than to present a positive utopia in opposition to this reality. Taut designed an immense circular garden city with a radius of about 7 km for three million inhabitants; the "City Crown" was to be in the center. "Mighty and inaccessible", it would have been the culmination of a community and cultural center, a skyscraper-like, purpose-free "crystal building". "The building contains nothing but one beautiful room which can be reached by either of two staircases to the right and to the left of the theatre and the little community center. How can I begin to describe what it is only possible to construct!", said Taut of the City Crown. Taut completed two housing projects in Magdeburg from 1912 through 1915, which were influenced directly by the humane functionalism and urban design solutions of the garden city philosophy.
The reform estate, created for a housing trust, was built in 1912–15 in the southwest of Magdeburg. The estate consists of one-storey terrace houses and was the first project in which Taut used colour as a design principle; the construction of the estate was continued by Carl Krayl. Taut served as city architect in Magdeburg from 1921 to 1923. During his time a few residential developments were built, one of, the Hermann Beims estate with 2,100 apartments. Taut designed the exhibition hall City and Countryside in 1921 with concrete trusses and a central skylight. A lifelong painter, Taut was distinguished from his European modernist contemporaries by his devotion to color; as in Magdeburg, he applied lively, clashing colors to his first major commission, the 1912 Gartenstadt Falkenberg housing estate in Berlin, which became known as the "Paint Box Estates". The 1914 Glass Pavilion, an illustration of the new possibilities of glass, was brightly colored; the difference between Taut and his Modernist contemporaries was never more obvious than at the 1927 Weissenhofsiedlung housing exhibition in Stuttgart.
In contrast to the pure-white entries from Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius, Taut's house was painted in primary colors. Le Corbusier is reported to have exclaimed, "My God, Taut is colour-blind!"In 1924 Taut was made chief architect of GEHAG, a Berlin public housing cooperative, was the main designer of several successful large residential developments in Berlin, notably the 1925 Hufeisensiedlung, named for its configuration around a pond, the 1926 Onkel Toms Hütte Development in Zehlendorf, named for a local restaurant and set in a thick grove of trees. Both of these constructions became prominent examples of the use of colorful details in architecture. Taut worked for the city architect of Berlin, Martin Wagner, on some of Berlin's Modernist Housing Estates, now recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the designs featured controversial modern flat roofs. Political conservatives complained that these developments were too opulent for'simple people'; the progressive Berlin mayor, Gustav Böss, defended them: "We want to bring the lower levels of society higher."Between 1924 and 1931, Taut's team completed more than 12,000 dwellings.
In tribute to Taut, GEHAG incorporated an abstracted graphic of the Horseshoe Estate
Tribune Tower (Oakland)
The Tribune Tower is a 305-ft. 22-story building located in downtown California. Built in 1906, tower erected in the 89,251 sq.-ft. Building was the tallest building in Oakland constructed in the 1920s, it is the 11th tallest building in Oakland. The architecture of the tower, much like The Campanile on the UC Berkeley campus, was inspired by St Mark's Campanile in Venice, Italy; the building was opened by Joseph R. Knowland on January 1, 1924, as the home of the Oakland Tribune newspaper, is a symbol of both the Tribune and the city of Oakland. In 1915, when Joseph Knowland, a former U. S. congressman, acquired the Oakland Tribune, the newspaper was located at Eighth and Franklin streets in the old Golden West Hotel. In 1918, the Breuner Furniture Company vacated its home at Franklin. Knowland envisioned the vacated showroom and an adjacent warehouse as the site of a first-class newspaper facility, he began to implement this vision with the acquisition of the Breuner's property and the move of the Tribune there.
What became the six-story base of the Tribune Tower had been designed by D. Franklin Oliver and completed in 1906; the now-familiar clock tower, designed by Edward T. Foulkes, was added in 1923 to complete the Tribune Tower as it appears today; the architect designed the tower with a mix of French and Italian classical elements, topped with a copper green mansard roof with punched eye windows. From 1924, the Tower would appear on the newspaper's masthead; the top floor of the tower housed radio station KLX from its opening until the station was sold in 1959. KLX was sold to pay off debts incurred in the ill-fated 1958 run by U. S. Senator William F. Knowland, Joseph Knowland's son, for governor of California. Joseph Knowland was a political mentor to his son, as well as to California attorney general and governor Earl Warren and many other Republicans; the Tribune Tower gained national attention in 1923 when magician Harry Houdini demonstrated his skills by escaping from a straitjacket while dangling upside down from the ninth floor of the building.
The building was declared a city landmark on May 4, 1976. At various times, the building has flown a flag with "THERE" emblazoned upon it; this is a send-up of Gertrude Stein's comment that in Oakland "there is no there there."In 1979, Gannett Company purchased the newspaper and the Tower from the Tribune Publishing Corporation. The company sold the Tribune to its editor and publisher, Robert C. Maynard and his wife, Nancy Hicks Maynard, in 1983—making them the first African-Americans to own a major metropolitan daily newspaper in the United States; the Tower was damaged in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, which forced the Tribune to relocate to new offices in Jack London Square. The Tower sat empty until 1995, when John Protopappas purchased it for $300,000, his company, Madison Park Financial Corporation, renovated the Tower in the late 1990s. The Tribune's parent company, ANG Newspapers, returned the Tribune to the building after it reopened in 1999. In early 2006, Protopappas sold the Tower to Edward B.
Kislinger for $15 million. The Tribune moved permanently out of the Tower in 2007 and is now located in a building on Oakport Street, near the Oakland International Airport; the Clock mechanisms were rebuilt in 1999 by Kevin Binkert. The clock faces were restored and repainted in the late fall of 2006. On December 22 of that year the famous TRIBUNE lettering were relit; the top of the Tribune Tower once again acts as a beacon for those approaching downtown Oakland. The building was meant for Zeppelin landing, the airship was to be tied off to the mast and the drop ladder to come down onto the 20th floor walkway; the 21st and 22nd floors contain a water tank which held reserve water for a gravity feed to the fire suppression system in case the city water main was breached. The roof of the building is coated in bronze; the roof features a civil defense siren. Although the Oakland Tribune newspaper group moved out of the Tower in 2007, the building houses offices, the Tribune Tavern restaurant and Modern Coffee cafe on the ground level.
The facade that overhangs the Tower's main entrance, still bears the newspaper's iconic logo. The largest tenant, CallSocket, was a fast-growing call center business now closed, a project owned by the San Francisco Regional Center, listed in the "EB5 Fraud Map" prepared by the Center for Immigration Studies; the building was purchased for $8 million by Tom Henderson, SFRC's CEO and an Oakland native, in December 2011 and seized by an Alameda County Superior Court judge in April 2016 along with several other company assets. In 2017 Tom Henderson was sued by the US Government and accused of running a fraudulent scheme with Chinese investors' money. Richard Ellis was the commercial realty brokerage. CallSocket occupied about 37,000 square feet on multiple floors of the 83,000-square-foot landmark at 13th and Franklin streets. Harvest Properties, Inc. a full-service commercial real estate investment firm headquartered in Oakland, purchased the building out of receivership for $20 million. Harvest began major renovations to the building in 2017.
List of tallest buildings in Oakland Oaklandwiki.org: Tribune Tower
Art Institute of Chicago
The Art Institute of Chicago, founded in 1879 and located in Chicago's Grant Park, is one of the oldest and largest art museums in the United States. Recognized for its curatorial efforts and popularity among visitors, the museum hosts 1.5 million guests annually. Its collection, stewarded by 11 curatorial departments, is encyclopedic, includes iconic works such as Georges Seurat's A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, Pablo Picasso's The Old Guitarist, Edward Hopper's Nighthawks, Grant Wood's American Gothic, its permanent collection of nearly 300,000 works of art is augmented by more than 30 special exhibitions mounted yearly that illuminate aspects of the collection and present cutting-edge curatorial and scientific research. As a research institution, the Art Institute has a conservation and conservation science department, five conservation laboratories, one of the largest art history and architecture libraries in the country—the Ryerson and Burnham Libraries; the growth of the collection has warranted several additions to the museum's original 1893 building, constructed for the World's Columbian Exposition of the same year.
The most recent expansion, the Modern Wing designed by Renzo Piano, opened in 2009 and increased the museum's footprint to nearly one million square feet, making it the second-largest art museum in the United States, after the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Art Institute is associated with the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, a leading art school, making it one of the few remaining unified arts institutions in the United States. In 1866, a group of 35 artists founded the Chicago Academy of Design in a studio on Dearborn Street, with the intent to run a free school with its own art gallery; the organization was modeled after European art academies, such as the Royal Academy, with Academicians and Associate Academicians. The Academy's charter was granted in March 1867. Classes started in 1868; the Academy's success enabled it to build a new home for the school, a five-story stone building on 66 West Adams Street, which opened on November 22, 1870. When the Great Chicago Fire destroyed the building in 1871 the Academy was thrown into debt.
Attempts to continue despite the loss by using rented facilities failed. By 1878, the Academy was $10,000 in debt. Members tried to rescue the ailing institution by making deals with local businessmen, before some abandoned it in 1879 to found a new organization, named the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts; when the Chicago Academy of Design went bankrupt the same year, the new Chicago Academy of Fine Arts bought its assets at auction. In 1882, the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts changed its name to the current Art Institute of Chicago and elected as its first president the banker and philanthropist Charles L. Hutchinson, who "is arguably the single most important individual to have shaped the direction and fortunes of the Art Institute of Chicago" Hutchinson was a director of many prominent Chicago organizations, including the University of Chicago, would transform the Art Institute into a world-class museum during his presidency, which he held until his death in 1924. In 1882, the organization purchased a lot on the southwest corner of Michigan Avenue and Van Buren Street for $45,000.
The existing commercial building on that property was used for the organization's headquarters, a new addition was constructed behind it to provide gallery space and to house the school's facilities. By January 1885 the trustees recognized the need to provide additional space for the organization's growing collection, to this end purchased the vacant lot directly south on Michigan Avenue; the commercial building was demolished, the noted architect John Wellborn Root was hired by Hutchinson to design a building that would create an "impressive presence" on Michigan Avenue, these facilities opened to great fanfare in 1887. With the announcement of the World's Columbian Exposition to be held in 1892–93, the Art Institute pressed for a building on the lakefront to be constructed for the fair, but to be used by the Institute afterwards; the city agreed, the building was completed in time for the second year of the fair. Construction costs were met by selling the Michigan/Van Buren property. On October 31, 1893, the Institute moved into the new building.
For the opening reception on December 8, 1893, Theodore Thomas and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra performed. From the 1900s to the 1960s the school offered with the Logan Family the Logan Medal of the Arts, an award which became one of the most distinguished awards presented to artists in the US. Between 1959 and 1970, the Institute was a key site in the battle to gain art and documentary photography a place in galleries, under curator Hugh Edwards and his assistants; as Director of the museum starting in the early 1980s, James N. Wood conducted a major expansion of its collection and oversaw a major renovation and expansion project for its facilities; as "one of the most respected museum leaders in the country", as described by The New York Times, Wood created major exhibitions of works by Paul Gauguin, Claude Monet and Vincent van Gogh that set records for attendance at the museum. He retired from the museum in 2004. In 2006, the Art Institute began construction of "The Modern Wing", an addition situated on the southwest corner of Columbus and Monroe.
The project, designed by Pritzker Prize winning architect Renzo Piano, was completed and opened to the public on May 16, 2009. The 264,000-square-foot building makes the Art Institute the second-largest art museum in the United States; the building houses the museum's world-renowned collections of 20th and 21st century art modern European painting and sculpture, contemporary
St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna
St. Stephen's Cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna and the seat of the Archbishop of Vienna, Christoph Cardinal Schönborn, OP; the current Romanesque and Gothic form of the cathedral, seen today in the Stephansplatz, was initiated by Duke Rudolf IV and stands on the ruins of two earlier churches, the first a parish church consecrated in 1147. The most important religious building in Vienna, St. Stephen's Cathedral has borne witness to many important events in Habsburg and Austrian history and has, with its multi-coloured tile roof, become one of the city's most recognizable symbols. By the middle of the 12th century, Vienna had become an important centre of German civilization, the four existing churches, including only one parish church, no longer met the town's religious needs. In 1137, Bishop of Passau Reginmar and Margrave Leopold IV signed the Treaty of Mautern, which referred to Vienna as a civitas for the first time and transferred St. Peter's Church to the Diocese of Passau.
Under the treaty, Margrave Leopold IV received from the bishop extended stretches of land beyond the city walls, with the notable exception of the territory allocated for the new parish church, which would become St. Stephen's Cathedral. Although believed built in an open field outside the city walls, the new parish church was in actuality built on an ancient cemetery dating to Ancient Roman times; this discovery suggests that an older religious building on this site predated the St. Rupert's Church, considered the oldest church in Vienna Founded in 1137 following the Treaty of Mautern, the constructed Romanesque church was solemnly dedicated in 1147 to Saint Stephen in the presence of Conrad III of Germany, Bishop Otto of Freising, other German nobles who were about to embark on the Second Crusade. Although the first structure was completed in 1160, major reconstruction and expansion lasted until 1511, repair and restoration projects continue to the present day. From 1230 to 1245, the initial Romanesque structure was extended westward.
In 1258, however, a great fire destroyed much of the original building, a larger replacement structure Romanesque in style and reusing the two towers, was constructed over the ruins of the old church and consecrated 23 April 1263. The anniversary of this second consecration is commemorated each year by a rare ringing of the Pummerin bell for three minutes in the evening. In 1304, King Albert I ordered a Gothic three-nave choir to be constructed east of the church, wide enough to meet the tips of the old transepts. Under his son Duke Albert II, work continued on the Albertine choir, consecrated in 1340 on the 77th anniversary of the previous consecration; the middle nave is dedicated to St. Stephen and All Saints, while the north and south nave, are dedicated to St. Mary and the Apostles respectively. Duke Rudolf IV, the Founder, Albert II's son, expanded the choir again to increase the religious clout of Vienna. On 7 April 1359, Rudolf IV laid the cornerstone for a westward Gothic extension of the Albertine choir in the vicinity of the present south tower.
This expansion would encapsulate the entirety of the old church, in 1430, the edifice of the old church was removed from within as work progressed on the new cathedral. The south tower was completed in 1433, vaulting of the nave took place from 1446 to 1474; the foundation for a north tower was laid in 1450, construction began under master Lorenz Spenning, but its construction was abandoned when major work on the cathedral ceased in 1511. In 1365, just six years after beginning the Gothic extension of the Albertine choir, Rudolf IV disregarded St. Stephen's status as a mere parish church and presumptuously established a chapter of canons befitting a large cathedral; this move was only the first step in fulfilling Vienna's long-held desire to obtain its own diocese. Despite long-standing resistance by the Bishops of Passau, who did not wish to lose control of the area, the Diocese of Vienna was canonically established 18 January 1469, with St. Stephen's Cathedral as its mother church. In 1722 during the reign of Karl VI, Pope Innocent XIII elevated.
During World War II, the cathedral was saved from intentional destruction at the hands of retreating German forces when Captain Gerhard Klinkicht disregarded orders from the city commandant, Josef Dietrich, to "fire a hundred shells and leave it in just debris and ashes." On 12 April 1945, civilian looters lit fires in nearby shops. The winds carried the fire to the cathedral where it damaged the roof, causing it to collapse. Protective brick shells built around the pulpit, Frederick III's tomb, other treasures, minimized damage to the most valuable artworks. However, the Rollinger choir stalls, carved in 1487, could not be saved. Rebuilding began with a limited reopening 12 December 1948 and a full reopening 23 April 1952; the church was dedicated to St. Stephen the patron of the bishop's cathedral in Passau, so was oriented toward the sunrise on his feast day of 26 December, as the position stood in the year that construction began. Built of limestone, the cathedral is 107 metres long, 40 metres wide, 136 metres tall at its highest point.
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