Emperor of China
Emperor or Huangdi was the imperial title of the Chinese sovereign from 221 BCE to the early 20th century. It was established by Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor, after the reunification of the lands of the Zhou dynasty, it replaced the Zhou's own title of wáng, appropriated by numerous warlords during the Warring States Era. The Chinese title is not grammatically gendered, but the only empress to bear it was Wu Zetian, who replaced the Tang dynasty with her own in the years 690–705 CE. Use of the title is considered to have ended with the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although there were two failed attempts to reestablish an imperial government in China in 1915 and 1917; the Chinese emperor was considered the autocrat of All under Heaven. Under the Han dynasty, Confucianism replaced Legalism as the official political theory and succession theoretically followed Salic primogeniture; the Chinese emperors who shared the same family were classified into historical periods known as dynasties.
The absolute authority of the emperor was notionally bound with various obligations. In practice and heirs sometimes avoided the strict rules of succession and dynasties' ostensible "failures" were detailed in official histories written by their successful replacements; the power of the emperor was often limited by the imperial bureaucracy staffed by scholar-officials and eunuchs and by filial obligations to surviving parents and to dynastic traditions, such as those detailed in the Ming dynasty's Ancestral Instructions. During the Zhou dynasty, Chinese feudal rulers with power over their particular fiefdoms were called gong but, as the power of the Shang and Zhou kings waned, the dukes began to usurp that title for themselves. In 221 BCE, after the then-king of Qin completed the conquest of the various kingdoms of the Warring States period, he adopted a new title to reflect his prestige as a ruler greater than the rulers before him, he called himself the First Emperor. Before this, Huang and Di were the nominal "titles" of eight rulers of Chinese mythology or prehistory: The three Huang were godly rulers credited with feats like ordering the sky and forming the first humans out of clay.
In the 3rd century BCE, the two titles had not been used together. Because of the god-like powers of the Huang, the folk worship of the Di, the latter's use in the name of the God of Heaven Shangdi, the First Emperor's title would have been understood as implying "The Holy" or "Divine Emperor". On that account, some modern scholars translate the title as "thearch". On occasion, the father of the ascended emperor was still alive; such an emperor was titled the Tai Shang Huang, the "Grand Imperial Sire". The practice was initiated by the First Emperor, who gave the title as a posthumous name to his own father. Liu Bang, who established the Han dynasty, was the first to become emperor while his father yet lived, it was said he granted the title during his father's life because he would not be bowed to by his own father, a commoner. Owing to political fragmentation, over the centuries, it has not been uncommon to have numerous claimants to the title of "Emperor of All China"; the Chinese political concept of the Mandate of Heaven legitimized those claimants who emerged victorious.
The proper list was considered those made by the official dynastic histories. As with the First Emperor, it was common to retroactively grant posthumous titles to the ancestors of the victors; the Yuan and Qing dynasties were founded by successful invaders. Thus, Kublai Khan was Khagan of the Mongols and Emperor of China. On one count, from the Qin dynasty to the Qing dynasty, there were 557 emperors including the rulers of minor states. Some, such as Li Zicheng, Huang Chao, Yuan Shu, declared themselves the Emperors, Son of Heaven and founded their own empires as a rival government to challenge the legitimacy of and overthrow the existing Emperor. Among the most famous emperors were Qin Shi Huang of the Qin dynasty, the Emperors Gaozu and Wu of the Han dynasty, Emperor Taizong of the Tang dynasty, Kublai Khan of the Yuan dynasty, the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty, the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty; the Emperor's words were considered sacred edicts and his written proclamations "directives from above".
In theory, the Emperor's orders were to be obeyed immediately. He was elevated above all commoners and members of the Imperial family. Addresses to the Emperor were always to be formal and self-deprecatory by the closest of family members. In practice, the power of the emperor varied between different emperors and different dynasties. In the Chinese dynastic cycle, emperors founding a dynasty consolidated the empire through a
Joseon dynasty was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for five centuries. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897, it was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul; the kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty. During its reign, Joseon encouraged the entrenchment of Chinese Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the new dynasty's state ideology. Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and faced persecutions by the dynasty. Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade and science and technology. However, the dynasty was weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s and the first and second Manchu invasions nearly overran the Korean Peninsula, leading to an harsh isolationist policy, for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom" in Western literature.
After the end of invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. However, whatever power the kingdom recovered during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions at home, the Joseon dynasty declined in the late 19th century; the Joseon period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea. By the late 14th century, the nearly 500-year-old Goryeo established in 918 was tottering, its foundations collapsing from years of war and de facto occupation from the disintegrating Mongol Empire. Following the emergence of the Ming dynasty, the royal court in Goryeo split into two conflicting factions: the group led by General Yi and the camp led by General Choe. Goryeo claimed to be the successor of the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo; when a Ming messenger came to Goryeo in 1388, the 14th year of U of Goryeo, to demand that Goguryeo's former northern territory be handed over to Ming China, General Choe seized the chance to argue for an attack on the Liaodong Peninsula.
Yi was chosen to lead the attack. He killed King U and his son after a failed restoration and forcibly placed a royal named Yi on the throne. In 1392, Yi eliminated Jeong Mong-ju respected leader of a group loyal to Goryeo dynasty, dethroned King Gongyang, exiling him to Wonju, before he ascended the throne; the Goryeo Dynasty had come to an end after 500 years of rule. In the beginning of his reign, Yi Seonggye, now ruler of Korea, intended to continue use of the name Goryeo for the country he ruled and change the royal line of descent to his own, thus maintaining the façade of continuing the 500-year-old Goryeo tradition. However, after numerous threats of mutiny from the drastically weakened but still influential Gwonmun nobles, who continued to swear allegiance to the remnants of the Goryeo and now the demoted Wang clan, the consensus in the reformed court was that a new dynastic title was needed to signify the change. In naming the new dynasty, Taejo contemplated two possibilities - "Hwaryeong" and "Joseon".
After much internal deliberation, as well as endorsement by the neighboring Ming dynasty's emperor, Taejo declared the name of the kingdom to be Joseon, a tribute to the ancient Korean state of Gojoseon. He moved the capital to Hanyang from Kaesong; when the new dynasty was promulgated and brought into existence, Taejo brought up the issue of which son would be his successor. Although Yi Bangwon, Taejo's fifth son by Queen Sineui, had contributed most to assisting his father's rise to power, the prime minister Jeong Do-jeon and Nam Eun used their influence on King Taejo to name his eighth son Grand Prince Uian as crown prince in 1392; this conflict arose because Jeong Dojeon, who shaped and laid down ideological and legal foundations of the new dynasty more than anyone else, saw Joseon as a kingdom led by ministers appointed by the king while Yi Bangwon wanted to establish the absolute monarchy ruled directly by the king. With Taejo's support, Jeong Dojeon kept limiting the royal family's power by prohibiting political involvement of princes and attempting to abolish their private armies.
Both sides were getting ready to strike first. After the sudden death of Queen Sindeok, while King Taejo was still in mourning for his second wife, Yi Bangwon struck first by raiding the palace and killed Jeong Dojeon and his supporters as well as Queen Sindeok's two sons including the crown prince in 1398; this incident became known as the First Strife of Princes. Aghast at the fact that his sons were willing to kill each other for the crown, psychologically exhausted from the death of
The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn was the final imperial family of Vietnam. Their ancestral line can be traced back to the beginning of the Common Era. However, only by the mid-sixteenth century the most ambitious family branch, the Nguyễn Lords had risen to conquer and establish feudal rule over large territory. Imperial rule lasted for 143 years, when Gia Long ascended the throne in 1802, after putting an end to the rise of the Tây Sơn and uniting the country, Emperor Bảo Đại, the dynasty's last representant abdicated the throne and transferred sovereign power to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945. Nguyễn dynastic rule was obtained by the support of the French, who compromised its authority from the beginning. Sovereignty was lost to French colonialism as the nation was divided into three administrative entities of French Indochina: Cochinchina became a French colony, Annam and Tonkin became nominally-independent protectorates. First mentioned in the first century CE, the Nguyễn family clan, that originated in the Thanh Hóa Province exerted substantial political influence and military power, in particular throughout early modern Vietnamese history.
Affiliations with the ruling elite date back to the tenth century when Nguyễn Bặc was appointed the first Grand Chancellor of the short-lived Đinh dynasty under Đinh Bộ Lĩnh and its successor Emperor Lê Lợi of the Early Lê dynasty. Nguyễn Thị Anh, a queen consort of emperor Lê Thái Tông served as official regent of Annam for her son emperor Lê Nhân Tông between 1442 and 1453. In 1527 Mạc Đăng Dung, after defeating and executing the Lê vassal Nguyễn Hoang Du in a civil war emerged as the intermediate victor and established the Mạc dynasty by deposing emperor Lê Cung Hoàng of the once prosperous but declining Lê dynasty. Nguyễn Hoang Du's son Nguyễn Kim and his Trịnh lord allies remained loyal to the Lê and attempted to restore the Lê dynasty to power, thereby reigniting the civil war. Nguyễn Kim, who had served as leader of the alliance during the six-year conquest of the Southern Dynasty against Mạc Đăng Dung, was assassinated in 1545 by a captured Mạc general. Kim's son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm, took command of the alliance.
In 1558, Lê Anh Tông, emperor of the re-established Lê dynasty entrusted Nguyễn Hoàng with the lordship of the southern part of central Vietnam, conquered during the 15th century from the Champa principalities. Nguyễn Hoàng chose the city of Huế as his residence and established the dominion of the Nguyễn Chúa in the southern part of the country. Although the Nguyễn and Trịnh lords ruled as de facto kings in their respective lands, they paid official tribute to the Lê emperors in a ceremonial gesture, as imperial power was confined to representation. Nguyễn Hoàng and his successors continued their rivalry with the Trịnh lords, expanded their territory by making parts of Cambodia a protectorate, invaded Laos, captured the last vestiges of Champa in 1693 and ruled in an unbroken line until 1776; the 17th century war between the Trịnh and the Nguyễn ended in an uneasy peace, as neither side was capable to unite the country under its rule. After 100 years of domestic peace the Nguyễn lords were confronted with the Tây Sơn rebellion in 1774.
Its military had had considerable losses in man power after a series of campaigns in Cambodia and proved unable to contain the revolt. By the end of the year the Trịnh lords had formed an alliance with the Tây Sơn rebels and captured Huế in 1775. Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Thuần fled south to the Quảng Nam province, where he left a garrison under co-ruler Nguyễn Phúc Dương, he fled further south to the Gia Định Province by sea before the arrival of Tây Sơn leader Nguyễn Nhạc, whose forces defeated the Nguyễn garrison and seized Quảng Nam. In early 1777 a large Tây Sơn force under Nguyễn Huệ and Nguyễn Lữ attacked and captured Gia Định from the sea and defeated the Nguyễn Lord forces; the Tây Sơn received widespread popular support as they presented themselves as champions of the Vietnamese people, who rejected any foreign influence and fought for the full reinstitution of the Lê dynasty. Hence, the elimination of the Nguyễn and Trinh lordships was considered a priority and all but one member of the Nguyễn family captured at Saigon were executed.
The 13-year-old Nguyễn Ánh escaped and with the help of the Vietnamese Catholic priest Paul Hồ Văn Nghị soon arrived at the Paris Foreign Missions Society in Hà Tiên. With Tây Son search parties closing in, he kept on moving and met the French missionary Pigneau de Behaine. By retreating to the Thổ Chu Islands in the Gulf of Thailand, both escaped Tây Sơn capture. Pigneau de Behaine resolved to support Ánh. A month the Tây Sơn army under Nguyễn Huệ had returned to Quy Nhơn. Ánh seized the opportunity and deployed an army at his new base in Long Xuyên, marched to Gia Định in December 1777, raided the palace of Long Hồ and occupied the city. The Tây Sơn recaptured the province; when Ánh approached with his army, the Tây Sơn retreated. By the summer of 1781, Ánh's forces had grown to 30,000 soldiers, 80 battleships, three large ships and two Portuguese ships procured with the help of de Behaine. Ánh organized an unsuccessful ambush of the Tây Sơn base camps in the Phú Yên province. In March 1782 Tây Sơn emperor Thái Đức and his brother Nguyễn Huệ sent a naval force to attack Ánh.
Ánh's army was defeated and he fled via Ba Giồng to Svay Rieng in Cambodia. Ánh met with the Cambodian King Ang Eng, who granted him exile and offered support in his struggle with the Tây Sơn. In April 1782 a Tây Sơn army invaded Cambodia
Shangdi written "Emperor", is the Chinese term for "Supreme Deity" or "Highest Deity" in the theology of the classical texts deriving from Shang theology and finding an equivalent in the Tian of Zhou theology. Although in Chinese religion the usage of "Tian" to refer to the absolute God of the universe is predominant, "Shangdi" continues to be used in a variety of traditions, including certain philosophical schools, certain strains of Confucianism, some Chinese salvationist religions and Chinese Protestant Christianity. In addition, it is common to use such term among contemporary and secular Chinese, Hong Kong, Taiwanese societies for a singular universal deity and a non-religion translation for the God in Christianity. "Shang Di" is the pinyin romanization of two Chinese characters. The first – 上, Shàng – means "high", "highest", "first", "primordial"; the word itself is derived from Three "Huang" and Five "Di", including Yellow Emperor, the mythological originator of the Chinese civilization and the ancestor of the Chinese race.
However, 帝 refers to the High God of Shang, thus means "deity". Thus, the name Shangdi should be translated as "Highest Deity", but have the implied meaning of "Primordial Deity" or "First Deity" in Classical Chinese; the deity preceded the title and the emperors of China were named after him in their role as Tianzi, the sons of Heaven. In the classical texts the highest conception of the heavens is identified with Shang Di, described somewhat anthropomorphically, he is associated with the pole star. The conceptions of the Supreme Ruler and of the Sublime Heavens afterward coalesce or absorb each other; the earliest references to Shangdi are found in oracle bone inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty in the 2nd millennium BC, although the work Classic of History claims yearly sacrifices were made to him by Emperor Shun before the Xia Dynasty. Shangdi was regarded as the ultimate spiritual power by the ruling elite of the Huaxia during the Shang dynasty: he was believed to control victory in battle, success or failure of harvests, weather conditions such as the floods of the Yellow River, the fate of the kingdom.
Shangdi seems to have ruled a hierarchy of other gods controlling nature, as well as the spirits of the deceased. These ideas were mirrored or carried on by the Taoist Jade Emperor and his celestial bureaucracy. Shangdi was more transcendental than immanent, only working through lesser gods. Shangdi was considered too distant to be worshiped directly by ordinary mortals. Instead, the Shang kings proclaimed that Shangdi had made himself accessible through the souls of their royal ancestors, both in the legendary past and in recent generations as the departed Shang kings joined him in the afterlife; the emperors could thus entreat Shangdi directly. Many of the oracle bone inscriptions record these petitions praying for rain but seeking approval from Shangdi for state action. In the Shang and Zhou dynasties, Shangdi was conflated with Heaven; the Duke of Zhou justified his clan's usurpation through the concept of the Mandate of Heaven, which proposed that the protection of Shangdi was not connected to their clan membership but by their just governance.
Shangdi was not just a tribal but instead an unambiguously good moral force, exercising its power according to exacting standards. It could thus be lost and "inherited" by a new dynasty, provided they upheld the proper rituals. Nonetheless, the connection of many rituals with the Shang clan meant that Shang nobles continued to rule several locations and to serve as court advisors and priests; the Duke of Zhou created an entire ceremonial city along strict cosmological principals to house the Shang aristocracy and the nine tripods representing Huaxia sovereignty. The Shang's lesser houses, the shi knightly class, developed directly into the learned Confucian gentry and scholars who advised the Zhou rulers on courtly etiquette and ceremony; the Confucian classics carried on and ordered the earlier traditions, including the worship of Shangdi. All of them include references: The Four Books mention Shangdi as well but, as it is a compilation, the references are much more sparse and abstract. Shangdi appears most in earlier works: this pattern may reflect increasing rationalization of Shangdi over time, the shift from a known and arbitrary tribal god to a more abstract and philosophical concept, or his conflation and absorption by other deities.
By the time of the Han dynasty, the influential Confucian scholar Zheng Xuan glossed: "Shangdi is another name for Heaven". Dong Zhongshu said: "Heaven is the ultimate authority, the king of gods who should be admired by the king". In eras, he was known by the name "Heavenly Ruling Highest Deity" and, in this usage, he is conflated with the Taoist Jade Emperor. In Shang sources, Di is described as the supreme ordainer of the events which occur in nature, such as wind and thunder, in human affairs and politics. All the gods of nature are conceived as his manifestations. Shang sources attest his cosmological Five Ministries. Di, or Tian, as texts explain, did not receive cult for being too remote for living humans to sacrifice to directl
The Ryukyu Islands known as the Nansei Islands or the Ryukyu Arc, are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Amami and Sakishima Islands, with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are high islands and the smaller coral; the largest is Okinawa Island. The climate of the islands ranges from humid subtropical climate in the north to tropical rainforest climate in the south. Precipitation is high, is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. Except the outlying Daitō Islands, the island chain has two major geologic boundaries, the Tokara Strait between the Tokara and Amami Islands, the Kerama Gap between the Okinawa and Miyako Islands; the islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs. The Ōsumi and Tokara Islands, the northernmost of the islands, fall under the cultural sphere of the Kyushu region of Japan; the Amami, Okinawa and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively called the Ryukyuan people, named for the former Ryukyu Kingdom that ruled them.
The varied Ryukyuan languages are traditionally spoken on these islands, the major islands have their own distinct languages. In modern times, the Japanese language is the primary language of the islands, with the Okinawan Japanese dialect prevalently spoken; the outlying Daitō Islands were uninhabited until the Meiji period, when their development was started by people from the Izu Islands south of Tokyo, with the people there speaking the Hachijō language. Administratively, the islands are divided into Kagoshima Prefecture in the north and Okinawa Prefecture in the south, with the divide between the Amami and Okinawa Islands, with the Daitō Islands part of Okinawa Prefecture; the northern islands are collectively called the Satsunan Islands, while the southern part of the chain are called the Ryukyu Islands in Chinese. The Ryukyus are divided into two or three primary groups: either administratively, with the Northern Ryukyus being the islands in Kagoshima Prefecture and the Southern Ryukyus being the islands in Okinawa Prefecture, or geologically, with the islands north of the Tokara Strait being the Northern Ryukyus, those between the Tokara Strait and Kerama Gap being the Central Ryukyus, those south of the Kerama Gap being the Southern Ryukyus.
Following are the grouping and names used by the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of the Japan Coast Guard. The islands are listed from north to south. Nansei Islands Satsunan Islands Ōsumi Islands with: Tanegashima, Kuchinoerabu, Mageshima in the North-Eastern Group, Takeshima, Iōjima, Kuroshima in the North-Western Group. Tokara Islands: Kuchinoshima, Gajajima, Akusekijima, Kodakarajima, Takarajima Amami Islands: Amami Ōshima, Kakeromajima, Ukeshima, Okinoerabujima, Yoronjima Ryukyu Islands Okinawa Islands: Okinawa Island, Iheya, Aguni, Ie, Iwo Tori Shima Kerama Islands: Tokashiki, Aka, Geruma Sakishima Islands Miyako Islands: Miyakojima, Ikema, Ōgami, Shimoji, Minna, Tarama Yaeyama Islands: Iriomote, Taketomi, Kuroshima, Hatoma, Hateruma, Yonaguni Senkaku Islands: Uotsurijima, Kuba Jima, Taisho Jima, Kita Kojima, Minami Kojima Daitō Islands: Kita Daitō, Minami Daitō, Oki DaitōThe Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, another government organization, responsible for standardization of place names, disagrees with the Japan Coast Guard over some names and their extent, but the two are working on standardization.
They agreed on February 2010, to use Amami-guntō for the Amami Islands. The English and Japanese uses of the term "Ryukyu" differ. In English, the term Ryukyu may apply to the entire chain of islands, while in Japanese Ryukyu refers only to the islands that were part of the Ryūkyū Kingdom after 1624. Nansei-shotō is the official name for the whole island chain in Japanese. Japan has used the name on nautical charts since 1907. Based on the Japanese charts, the international chart series uses Nansei Shoto. Nansei means "southwest", the direction of the island chain from mainland Japan; some humanities scholars prefer the uncommon term Ryūkyū-ko for the entire island chain. In geology, the Ryukyu Arc includes subsurface structures such as the Okinawa Trough and extends to Kyushu. During the American occupation of Amami, the Japanese government objected to them being included under the name "Ryukyu" in English, because they worried that this might mean that the return of the Amami Islands to Japanese control would be delayed until the return of Okinawa.
However, the American occupational government on Amami continued to be called the "Provisional Government for th
Yining known as Ghulja or Qulja, Ningyuan is a county-level city in northwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China, the seat of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. Yining is the successor to the ruined city of Almaliq in neighbouring Huocheng County; the city of Yining is a county-level administrative unit located along Ili River. As of 2015, it has an estimated population of 542,507, with a total land area of 629 km2, it is the most populous city in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. The land area and population of the City of Yining saw an increase in 2003. From 13-15th century it was under the control of Chagatai Khanate known as Mughulistan empire with its capital Almaligh, Tashkent and Kashgar. Another Mongul empire—the Zunghar Khanate—established around Ili area. In the 19th and early 20th century, the word Kuldja or Ghulja was used in Russia and in the West as the name for the entire Chinese part of the Ili River basin as well as for its two main cities; the usage of 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica is characteristic: it defines Kulja as a "territory in north-west China" bounded by the Russian border and the mountains that surround the Ili basin, it talks about two major cities of the region: Kulja, or more Old Kulja, the commercial center of the region.
Suidun, or more New Kulja, Manchu Kulja, or Ili, the Chinese fortress and the regional capital. Until the 1860s Huiyuan to the south of Suiding was the regional capital; the fort of Ningyuan was built in 1762 to accommodate new settlers from southern Xinjiang. The forts of Huining and Xichun built in 1765 and 1780 were located within the modern Yining City; the Sino-Russian Treaty of Kulja 1851 opened the area for trade. In 1864-66, the city suffered from fighting during the Dungan Revolt; the city and the rest of the Ili River basin were seized by the Russians in 1871 during Yakub Beg's independent rule of Kashgaria. It was restored to the Chinese under the terms of the Treaty of Saint Petersburg. In 1888 the Ningyuan County was established; the Geographical Magazine in 1875 by Sir Clements Robert Markham stated: What little industry Kulja possesses is all due to the Chinese, who transplanted the taste for art and skilfulness of their pigtailed race to these western outskirts of "the celestial flowery dominion of the Middle."
Had the Taranjis and Kalmuks been left to themselves, or had they remained in a preponderating majority, Kulja would not be a bit farther advanced than either Yarkand or Aksu. The principal trades are the following:— founders, manufacturing kettles and other implements of a primitive form. There are, some confectionaries in which cakes of all shapes are baked of rice and millet, overlaid with sugar. In Eastern Turkistan there still exist many similar trades, although their products are not equal to European articles of the same kind—I mean here the fabrics of the western Chinese provinces— they are still said to be profitable. Among the tradesmen we may mention millers, vinegar manufacturers and potters; the number of factories amount to-day at Kulja to 38. To this of course other tradespeople have to be added, such as 169 boot-makers, 50 blacksmiths, 48 carpenters, 11 brass-founders, 3 silversmiths, 26 stone-cutters, 2 tailors. In 1914 the Ningyuan County was renamed Yining County to avoid confusion with other places in China named Ningyuan.
During the Ili Rebellion, the Chinese Muslim officer Liu Bin Di engaged in combat against Soviet backed Turkic Muslim rebels, was killed in action in November 1944 in Yining. Yining became a separate city from Yining County in 1952. In 1962, major Sino-Soviet clashes took place along the Ili River. In 1997, in what came to be known as the Gulja Incident or massacre, the city was rocked by two days of demonstrations or riots followed by a government crack down resulting in at least 9 deaths following the execution of 30 Uighur activists. Yining is located on the northern side of the Ili River in the Dzungarian basin, about 70 km east of the border with Kazakhstan, about 710 km west of Ürümqi; the Ili River valley has rich grazing land. The City of Yining borders on the Yining County in the east. Yining has a semi-arid climate, without the strong variation in seasonal precipitation seen across most of China. Dry and sunny weather dominates year-round. Winters are cold, with a January average of −8.8 °C.
Yet the influence of the Dzungarian Altau to the northwest and Boroboro Mountains to the northeast helps keep the city warmer than more easterly locales on a similar latitude. Summers are hot, with a July average of 23.1 °C. Diurnal temperature ranges tend to be large from April to October; the annual mean temperature is 8.98 °C. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 53% in December to 73% in August and September, sunshine is abundant and the city receives 2,834 hours of
History of China
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, recorded as the twenty-first Shang king by the written records of Shang dynasty unearthed. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia; the Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River; these Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization; the Zhou dynasty supplanted the Shang, introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule.
The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, the country splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture and philosophy first developed during those troubled times. In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty. Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history and philosophy, were selected through difficult government examinations.
China's last dynasty was the Qing, replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949, resulting in two de facto states claiming to be the legitimate government of all China. Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War. China was dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China. Traditional culture, influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world, form the basis of the modern culture of China. What is now China was inhabited by Homo erectus more than a million years ago. Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site are magnetostratigraphically dated to 1.36 million years ago. The archaeological site of Xihoudu in Shanxi Province has evidence of use of fire by Homo erectus, dated 1.27 million years ago, Homo erectus fossils in China include the Yuanmou Man, the Lantian Man and the Peking Man.
Fossilised teeth of Homo sapiens dating to 125,000–80,000 BC have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County in Hunan. Evidence of Middle Palaeolithic Levallois technology has been found in the lithic assemblage of Guanyindong Cave site in southwest China, dated to 170,000–80,000 years ago; the Neolithic age in China can be traced back to about 10,000 BC. The earliest evidence of cultivated rice, found by the Yangtze River, is carbon-dated to 8,000 years ago. Early evidence for proto-Chinese millet agriculture is radiocarbon-dated to about 7000 BC. Farming gave rise to the Jiahu culture. At Damaidi in Ningxia, 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 6000–5000 BC have been discovered, "featuring 8,453 individual characters such as the sun, stars and scenes of hunting or grazing"; these pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BC, Dadiwan from 5800 BC to 5400 BC, Damaidi around 6000 BC and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BC.
Some scholars have suggested. Excavation of a Peiligang culture site in Xinzheng county, found a community that flourished in 5,500 to 4,900 BC, with evidence of agriculture, constructed buildings and burial of the dead. With agriculture came increased population, the ability to store and redistribute crops, the potential to support specialist craftsmen and administrators. In late Neolithic times, the Yellow River valley began to establish itself as a center of Yangshao culture, the first villages were founded. Yangshao culture was superseded by the Longshan culture, centered on the Yellow River from about 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Bronze artifacts have been found at the Majiayao culture site, The Bronze Age is represented at the Lower Xiajiadian culture site in northeast China. Sanxingdui located in what is now Sichuan province is believed to be the site of a major ancient city, of a unknown Bronze Age culture; the site was first discovered in 1929 and re-dis