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Trinity House

The Corporation of Trinity House of Deptford Strond known as Trinity House, is the official authority for lighthouses in England, the Channel Islands and Gibraltar. Trinity House is responsible for the provision and maintenance of other navigational aids, such as lightvessels and maritime radio/satellite communication systems, it is an official deep sea pilotage authority, providing expert navigators for ships trading in Northern European waters. Trinity House is a maritime charity, dispersing funds for the welfare of retired seamen, the training of young cadets and the promotion of safety at sea. Funding for the work of the lighthouse service comes from "light dues" levied on commercial vessels calling at ports in the British Isles, based on the net registered tonnage of the vessel; the rate is set by the Department for Transport, annually reviewed. Funding for the maritime charity is generated separately; the corporation was founded in 1514. Its first master was Thomas Spert, sailing master of Henry VIII's flagship Mary Rose and of Henry Grace à Dieu.

The Master of the Corporation is the Princess Royal. Previous Masters of Trinity House have included Sir Thomas Spert, master of the warship Henry Grace a Dieu under Henry VIII. Other prominent individuals in Britain connected with commercial shipping or the Admiralty, have been associated with Trinity House, including Winston Churchill, he gained his status as an Elder Brother of Trinity House as a result of his position as First Lord of the Admiralty before and during World War I. On naval-related forays during the Second World War, Churchill was seen in Trinity House cap or uniform. Winston Churchill had a Trinity House vessel named after him, THV Winston Churchill. Trinity House is ruled by a court of thirty-one Elder Brethren, presided over by a Master; these are appointed from 300 Younger Brethren who act as advisors and perform other duties as needed. The Younger Brethren are appointed from lay people with maritime experience naval officers and ships' masters, but harbourmasters, pilots and anyone with useful experience.

The headquarters of the corporation is the present Trinity House, designed by architect Samuel Wyatt and built in 1796. It has a suite of five state rooms with views over Trinity Square, the Tower of London and the River Thames; the Corporation came into being in 1514 by Royal Charter granted by Henry VIII under the name "The Master and Assistants of the Guild, Fraternity, or Brotherhood of the most glorious and undivided Trinity, of St. Clement in the Parish of Deptford-Strond in the County of Kent." The charter came as a result of a petition put forward on 19 March 1513 by a guild of Deptford-based mariners. They were troubled by the poor conduct of unregulated pilots on the Thames and asked the king for licence to regulate pilotage; the first Master was Thomas Spert, sailing master of Henry's flagship Mary Rose and the Henry Grace à Dieu. The name of the guild derives from the patron saint of mariners; as John Whormby, a Clerk to the Corporation, wrote in 1746, their general business was: to improve the art and science of mariners.

In 1566, Queen Elizabeth I's Seamarks Act enabled Trinity House: at their wills and pleasures, at their costs, make and set up such, so many beacons and signs for the sea… whereby the dangers may be avoided and escaped, ships the better come into their ports without peril. With the increasing number of ships lost along the Newcastle to London coal route, Trinity House established the Lowestoft Lighthouse in 1609, a pair of wooden towers with candle illuminants; until the late 18th century, coal, or wood fires were used as lighthouse illuminants, improved in 1782 with the circular-wick oil-burning Argand lamp, the first ‘catoptric’ mirrored reflector in 1777, Fresnel’s ‘dioptric’ lens system in 1823. The Nore lightship was established as the world's first floating light in 1732. Trinity House took over the management of all public buoys in the kingdom in 1594 from the Lord High Admiral. A warrant, dated 11 June 1594, granted to the corporation the right of... making, setting up, placing or laying out, all buoys, beacons and signs, for the sea or seashore, to hold the same with all profits and emoluments thereunto belonging, as of the manor of East Greenwich, in free and common soccage.

By 1847, revenue collected from this source was £11,000 to £12,000 per year. In 1836, Trinity House accepted powers to levy out the last private lighthouse owners and began refurbishing and upgrading its lighthouse estate. In 1803, the Corporation established the Blackwall Depot as a buoy workshop, six district depots were established at Harwich, Great Yarmouth, East Cowes, Penzance and Swansea. In December 2002, Trinity House announced that the Great Yarmou

Blue and gold snapper

The blue-and-gold snapper is a species of snapper native to the eastern Pacific Ocean along the coast from Mexico to Ecuador and around offshore islands, including Malpelo, Las Tres Marías and Revillagigedo islands. Where they tend to be abundant, they can be found in large schools around both rocky and coral reefs at depths from 3 to 30 m, though between 9 and 15 m. This species can reach a length of 30 cm, they are important to local subsistence fisheries. Blue-and-gold snapper have 10 dorsal spines, 14–15 dorsal soft rays, three anal spines, eight anal soft rays; the preopercular notch and knob are strong. The scale rows on the back rise obliquely above the lateral line, they are bright yellow, with five black-edged, bluish-white stripes on the sides. The belly is whitish with narrow gray lines, the fins are yellow. Encyclopedia of Life. "Details for: Blue-and-gold Snapper". Encyclopedia of Life. Photos of Blue and gold snapper on Sealife Collection

Berthold Leibinger

Berthold Leibinger was a German mechanical engineer and philanthropist. He was the head of the German company Trumpf, a leader in laser technology, founder of the non-profit foundation Berthold Leibinger Stiftung, he served on the advisory board of major companies and was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Stuttgart. Born in Stuttgart, Berthold Leibinger grew up in Korntal with two siblings, he graduated with Abitur at the Ulrich-von-Hutten Gymnasium in Korntal in 1950. He started an apprenticeship as a mechanic at Trumpf and studied mechanical engineering at the Stuttgart Technology University of Applied Sciences. After graduating with a Diplom, he became a development engineer in 1958 at Cincinnati Milling Machines in Cincinnati. In 1961 he returned to Trumpf as head of the engineering division. In 1968 he developed the first contour nibbling machine tool with numerical control; the owner of the company, Christian Trumpf, having no children, named Leibinger as his successor. Leibinger successively took over shares of the company and served as technical director from 1966.

He was managing director and partner from 1978. On 18 November 2005, he retired from management and served as chairman of the supervisory board of the Trumpf Group until the end of 2012. On 16 October 2018, he died in Stuttgart at the age of 87. Under the management of Leibinger, Trumpf became one of the world's largest manufacturers of machine tools, in particular due to the consequent combination of mechanics and electronics. Trumpf is one of the largest manufacturers of industrial laser technology and machines for laser cutting. Leibinger was appointed to several important economical positions. From 1985 to 1990 he was president of the Chamber of Commerce of the Stuttgart Region and from 1989 to 1992 he served as president of the German Association of Machinery Manufacturers VDMA, he was a member of the supervisory boards of Deutsche BMW, among other companies. From 1999 to 2003 he was chairman of the supervisory board of the chemical company BASF, he was president of the Stuttgart Chamber of Commerce and Industry from 1990 to 1992.

He served in the senate of the University of Stuttgart starting in 2000. Leibinger was a philanthropist with long lasting involvement in German culture, he was involved as chairman of the board of the Schiller-Nationalmuseum and the Deutsches Literaturarchiv in Marbach am Neckar. In 1992 Leibinger founded the non-profit foundation Berthold Leibinger Stiftung, it is dedicated to cultural, scientific and social issues. Since 2000, it has awarded the internationally respected Berthold Leibinger Innovationspreis and, since 2006, the Berthold Leibinger Zukunftspreis, an innovation prize for applied laser technology. In July 1990, in a motion brought forward by the Faculty of Engineering and Manufacturing Technology, he was awarded an honorary Ph. D. degree of the University of Stuttgart. In January 1996, the Minister President of the state of Baden-Württemberg conferred upon him the honorary title of Professor; the Konrad Adenauer Foundation awarded him their Prize for Social Market Economy in November 2003.

In October 2006, the president of the Federal Republic of Germany awarded him the Knight Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. In December 2006, the Werner-von-Siemens-Ring Stiftung awarded him Germany's most important technology award, the Werner von Siemens Ring. In November 2007 the Aktionsgemeinschaft Soziale Marktwirtschaft awarded him the Alexander-Rüstow-Plakette. In June 2008 he was awarded the Deutscher Gründerpreis, in 2011 the Arthur L. Schawlow Award from the Laser Institute of America, he received the Preis für Verständigung und Toleranz of the Jewish Museum, Berlin, in 2013, the Aachener Ingenieurpreis in 2014. He was awarded the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun in 2016, his publications, including an autobiography and a dissertation, are held by the German National Library: Wer wollte eine andere Zeit als diese. Ein Lebensbericht. Murmann Verlag, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-86774-103-3. Erfahrungen, Entwicklungen – Der Weg der Werkzeugmaschinenindustrien in Deutschland, Japan und den USA.

Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2014, ISBN 978-3-8353-1660-7. Literature by and about Berthold Leibinger in the German National Library catalogue Berthold Leibinger Stiftung TRUMPF GmbH + Co KG Carter Dogherty: A Happy Family of 8,000, but for How Long? The New York Times 11 July 2009 Klaus Köster: Berthold Leibinger / Stuttgarter Trumpf-Seniorchef ist tot Stuttgarter Nachrichten 16 October 2018 Berthold Leibinger spendet zum 25-jährigen Jubiläum der Berthold Leibinger Stiftung 100.000 Euro für soziale Zwecke Bettina Wieselmann: Trumpf-Seniorchef Leibinger im Gespräch über seine späte Promotion Südwest Presse 5 December 2014 Vom Lehrling zum Welt-Unternehmer – Der einzigartige Lebensbericht des Berthold Leibinger 2010


Yuscarán is a town in Honduras, the capital of the El Paraíso department. It is located 65 kilometers from Tegucigalpa; the municipality of Yuscarán was founded in 1730. After gold and other precious metals were found in its foothills in 1746, Spanish mining companies flooded the area and Spaniards settled the town. Thus, Yuscarán was constructed in the traditional colonial style of 18th-century Spain. Years of exploitation by the Spanish and by North American mining companies followed, bringing both advantages and disadvantages. At its height, Yuscarán was a wealthy mining town and home to some of Honduras’s most influential families, it was one of the first places in Honduras to get electricity in 1898 – before Tegucigalpa. Because of its importance, it was declared the capital of the El Paraíso Department in 1869. However, after the mining stopped, most of the foreigners supporting Yuscarán abandoned the town, taking their money and possessions with them. In 1979 Yuscarán was declared a National Monument.

In its center there are more than 200 colonial homes. Natives of Yuscarán include the painter Teresita Fortín; the mountain of Montserrat towers over the town to the southeast. This biological reserve is the main source of water for the area, the same water that the villagers use to produce the Yuscaran-brand sugar cane alcohol aguardiente. With the decline of the mining industry came the rise of another industry, from which Yuscarán gets its present-day fame: the fabrication of aguardiente, or guaro; the Yuscarán factory called the Distileria del Buen Gusto, was founded in 1939

Railway stations in Togo

Railway stations in Togo include: UNHCR Map - includes yet to be built railways UN Map GH - covers 95% of Togo UNECA Map All lines 1,000 mm gauge. Overview Although the following destinations are listed as'existing', none of them has been served by trains for many years. Lomé - port and national capital Atakpamé - N Notsé - N Tsévié - N Ana - N Akaba - N Blitta - N - terminus Cinkassé - proposed extension in 2018 to Dry PortSotouboua - N - extended terminus Lomé - port and national capital - Junction to Diamond Cement in Aflao, Ghana Kpalimé - W - branch terminus Lomé - port and national capital - Junction to Diamond Cement in Aflao, Ghana - border between Togo and Ghana Aflao - Diamond Cement Ghana Limited factory at Aflao to the Lomé Port completed in March 2014. Lomé - port, junction Aného - E - branch terminus Morita TchanagaTabligbo - clinker - CIMAO cement Benin and Niger * Proposals Lomé to Cinkassé A treaty of the 1960s expected certain railway lines to be closed on completion of road improvements.

Transport in Togo Rail transport in Togo AfricaRail

1969 Sheffield City Council election

The elections were held on 8 May 1969, with one third of the council - plus a double vacancy in Park - up for election. The previous year's historic win by the Conservatives, their gaining control of the council was ended with these elections, with Labour holding or gaining back seats in wards they lost in the last year's defeat; the previous year's substantial Tory leads in vote figures and seat numbers belied how narrowly won those numerous gains were, with a tiny swing to Labour destined to return them. Labour's win and regaining control of the council was in sharp contrast to the national picture, which seen a repeat of the preceding years' heavy losses to the Conservatives with further losses of their heartlands to Tory control. Sheffield joined Stoke as the only cities left controlled by Labour, with last year's survivor Hull falling this year. Nationally Labour managed just 23 gains, with Sheffield accounting for over a fifth of them. Given this environment, the Labour response was overjoyed.

I was more excited about these results than by my own election". The Labour group's leader Ald Ron Ironmonger attributed this to their campaigning effort and the electorate voting on a local mindset " struggled so hard for this. We took this seriously - we haven't fought a campaign like this for years. I think the victory is due to the good sense of the Sheffield people, I am proud of them tonight, they have judged the election on the city's own affairs. We are wiser men after a year in opposition. There is no doubt about that." The Conservative grouping leader Ald Harrold Hebblethwaite responded "Obviously I am disappointed at this result and I find it quite surprising, though one has always understood that Sheffield is a city on its own, can never be relied on to follow a national trend. The great pity of it is that Walkley we lost due to the intervention of an Independent, Sharrow by a Liberal intervention - though we cannot say that as regards Firth Park and Handsworth". Hebblethwaite accepted that the Rent Rebate scheme had played a large part in last year's results, but qualified "nevertheless I am certain the public have been somewhat confused about the issues this year.

Twelve months is not enough time for any party to settle down in control and get its policies under way". Of such policies Labour were to reintroduce the closed-shop clause in Corporation employment which the Tories had dropped and accept the 30 places at Sheffield Girl's High School, which were now too late to reverse. Overall turnout was up narrowly on the previous year's, to 33.2% The result had the following consequences for the total number of seats on the Council after the elections