The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Apolima is the smallest of the four inhabited islands of Samoa and situated in the Apolima Strait, between the country's two largest islands Upolu to the east and Savai'i to the west. The island has one village settlement, Apolima Tai with a population of 75; the small settlement is situated in the interior's flat plateau on the northern side. Apolima is a rim of an extinct volcanic crater with a maximum height of 165 m, it is a little less than the only access to the island is by boat. The tiny island lies 2.4 kilometres northwest off the westernmost edge of Upolu's fringing reef and 7 km southwest of Savai'i island. The island's appearance is of an upturned bowl with surrounding steep cliffs and a broad opening to the sea on the northern side, the main entry point by boat. There are two neighbouring islands in the strait, Manono Island, which has a small population and the smaller uninhabited islet of Nu'ulopa. Apolima island is part of the political district of Aiga-i-le-Tai. Historical images of Apolima by Thomas Andrew Samoa Islands
Samoa the Independent State of Samoa and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a country consisting of two main islands, Savai'i and Upolu, four smaller islands. The capital city is Apia; the Lapita people settled the Samoan Islands around 3,500 years ago. They developed Samoan cultural identity. Samoa is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions; the country is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Western Samoa was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1976; the entire island group, which includes American Samoa, was called "Navigator Islands" by European explorers before the 20th century because of the Samoans' seafaring skills. New Zealand scientists have dated remains in Samoa to about 2900 years ago; these were found at a Lapita site at Mulifanua and the findings were published in 1974. The origins of the Samoans are studied in modern research about Polynesia in various scientific disciplines such as genetics and anthropology. Scientific research is ongoing.
Intimate sociocultural and genetic ties were maintained between Samoa and Tonga, the archaeological record supports oral tradition and native genealogies that indicate inter-island voyaging and intermarriage between pre-colonial Samoans and Tongans. Notable figures in Samoan history included Queen Salamasina. Nafanua was a famous woman warrior, deified in ancient Samoan religion. Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century. Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman, was the first known European to sight the Samoan islands in 1722; this visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768. Contact was limited before the 1830s, when English missionaries and traders began arriving. Visits by American trading and whaling vessels were important in the early economic development of Samoa; the Salem brig Roscoe, in October 1821, was the first American trading vessel known to have called, the Maro of Nantucket, in 1824, was the first recorded United States whaler at Samoa.
The whalers came for fresh drinking water and provisions, they recruited local men to serve as crewmen on their ships. Christian missionary work in Samoa began in 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived in Sapapali'i from the Cook Islands and Tahiti. According to Barbara A. West, "The Samoans were known to engage in ‘headhunting', a ritual of war in which a warrior took the head of his slain opponent to give to his leader, thus proving his bravery." However, Robert Louis Stevenson, who lived in Samoa from 1889 until his death in 1894, wrote in A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa, "… the Samoans are gentle people." The Germans, in particular, began to show great commercial interest in the Samoan Islands on the island of Upolu, where German firms monopolised copra and cocoa bean processing. The United States laid its own claim, based on commercial shipping interests in Pearl River in Hawaii and Pago Pago Bay in Eastern Samoa, forced alliances, most conspicuously on the islands of Tutuila and Manu'a which became American Samoa.
Britain sent troops to protect British business enterprise, harbour rights, consulate office. This was followed by an eight-year civil war, during which each of the three powers supplied arms, training and in some cases combat troops to the warring Samoan parties; the Samoan crisis came to a critical juncture in March 1889 when all three colonial contenders sent warships into Apia harbour, a larger-scale war seemed imminent. A massive storm on 15 March 1889 destroyed the warships, ending the military conflict; the Second Samoan Civil War reached a head in 1898 when Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States were locked in dispute over who should control the Samoa Islands. The Siege of Apia occurred in March 1899. Samoan forces loyal to Prince Tanu were besieged by a larger force of Samoan rebels loyal to Mata'afa Iosefo. Supporting Prince Tanu were landing parties from four American warships. After several days of fighting, the Samoan rebels were defeated. American and British warships shelled Apia on 15 March 1899, including the USS Philadelphia.
Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States resolved to end the hostilities and divided the island chain at the Tripartite Convention of 1899, signed at Washington on 2 December 1899 with ratifications exchanged on 16 February 1900. The eastern island-group was known as American Samoa; the western islands, by far the greater landmass, became German Samoa. The United Kingdom had vacated all claims in Samoa and in return received termination of German rights in Tonga, all of the Solomon Islands south of Bougainville, territorial alignments in West Africa; the German Empire governed the western Samoan islands from 1900 to 1914. Wilhelm Solf was appointed the colony's first governor. In 1908, when the non-violent Mau a Pule resistance movement arose, Solf did not hesitate to banish the Mau leader Lauaki Namulau'ulu Mamoe to Saipan in the German Northern Mariana Islands; the German colonial administration governed on the principle that "there was only one government in the islands." Thus, there was no Samoan Tupu
Savaiʻi is the largest and highest island in Samoa and the Samoan Islands chain. The island is the fifth largest in Polynesia, behind the two main islands of New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands of Hawaii and Maui; the island of Savai'i is referred to by Samoans as Salafai, a classical Samoan term used in oratory and prose. The island is home to 43,142 people; the only township and ferry terminal is Salelologa, the main entry point to the island, situated at the east end of Savai'i. A tar sealed road serves as the one main highway, connecting most of the villages with local buses reaching most settlements. Savai'i is made up of six itūmālō; each district is made up of villages with strong traditional ties of kinship, history and matai chief titles. There is some limited ecotourism development which operates within the villages; the Mau, Samoa's non-violent movement for political independence during colonialism in the early 1900s, had its beginnings on Savai'i with the Mau a Pule movement. The island is the largest shield volcano in the South Pacific with recent eruptions in the early 1900s.
The central region comprises the Central Savai'i Rainforest with 72,699 hectares that forms the largest continuous patch of rainforest in Polynesia. It is dotted with more than 100 volcanic craters and contains most of Samoa's native species of flora and fauna, making it globally significant in world conservation areas. Fa'a Samoa, the unique traditional culture and way of life in Samoan society, remains strong in Savai'i where there are fewer signs of modern life and less development than on the island of Upolu where the capital Apia is situated. Samoan society is communal and based on extended family relationships and socio-cultural obligations, so that kinship and genealogies are important; these fa'a Samoa values are associated with concepts of love, service to family and community and discipline. Most families are made up of a number of different households situated close to each other. Like the rest of Samoa, Savai'i is made up of villages with most of the land collectively owned by families or'aiga.'
Most people on Savai'i, 93% of the island population, live on customary land. The heads of the family are called the holders of family names and titles. An extended family can have a number of chiefs with different chief titles. Men and women in Samoa have equal rights to chief titles which are bestowed by consensus of the extended family. Traditionally and female roles are defined by labours and tasks, chiefly status and age. Women play an important role contributing to family decisions as well as village governance. Elders are respected. Social relationships are dictated by cultural etiquettes of common greetings; the Samoan language has a'polite' and formal variant used in Samoan oratory and ceremony as well as in communication with elders, people of rank and strangers. In all villages, the majority of people are sustained by plantation work and fishing with financial assistance from relatives working in Apia or overseas. Most people live in coastal villages although there are some settlements inland such as the villages of Aopo and Sili.
Behind the villages are cultivated plantations with crops of taro, cocoa koko, coconuts popo, yams palai,'ava and vegetables as well other native plants such as pandanus for weaving'ie toga fine mats and bark for tapa cloth. There is a church in every village Christian denominations. Sunday is sacred and a day of rest. White Sunday is one of the most important days of the year in Samoa when children are treated with special attention by their families and community. With the country's independence in 1962, Samoa incorporates both traditional political structures alongside a western parliamentary system; the modern national Government of Samoa, based in the capital Apia with the roles of Prime Minister, Members of Parliament and western styled political structure, is referred to as the Malo. Only Samoans with chief matai titles are eligible to become Members of Parliament. Alongside Samoa's national and modern political structure is traditional authority vested in family chiefs; the term Pule is applied to traditional authority in Savai'i.
The word Pule refers to appointments or authorities conferred on certain clans or individuals, sometime in the political history of Samoa. This traditional Pule authority was centred in certain villages around Savai'i. In the early 20th century, these Pule areas on Savai'i island were Safotulafai, Safotu, Satupa'itea and Palauli. Safotu, Satupa'itea and Vailoa gained'Pule' status at different times in the 19th Century, together with the two older Pule districts and Saleaula, became the six Pule centres on Savai'i. In 1908, the'Mau a Pule' resistance movement to colonial rule, which grew to become the national Mau movement, began on Savai'i and represented traditional authority against the German administration of Samoa; the equivalent term'Tumua' is associated with traditional authority on Upolu island. At the local level throughout Samoa, traditional authority is vested in a chiefs' council in each village; the fono o matai carry out'village law' and socio-political governance based on their traditional authority and fa'a Samoa.
The authority of the ` matai' is balanced against the Malo. Most of the matai are males, the women in each village have a voice in domestic affairs through the women's committees; the main government administration offices of the Malo on Savai'i are
German Samoa was a German protectorate from 1900 to 1914, consisting of the islands of Upolu, Savai'i, Apolima and Manono, now wholly within the independent state Samoa Western Samoa. Samoa was the last German colonial acquisition in the Pacific basin, received following the Tripartite Convention signed at Washington on 2 December 1899 with ratifications exchanged on 16 February 1900, it was the only German colony in the Pacific, aside from the Kiautschou concession in China, administered separately from German New Guinea. In 1855 J. C. Godeffroy & Sohn expanded its trading business into the Pacific following negotiations by August Unshelm, Godeffroy's agent in Valparaiso, he sailed out to the Samoan Islands, which were known as the Navigator Islands. During the second half of the 19th century German influence in Samoa expanded with large scale plantation operations being introduced for coconut and hevea rubber cultivation on the island of'Upolu where German firms monopolised copra and cocoa bean processing.
The trading operations of J. C. Godeffroy & Sohn extended to islands in the Central Pacific. In 1865 a trading captain acting on behalf of J. C. Godeffroy & Sohn obtained a 25-year lease to the eastern islet of Niuoku of Nukulaelae Atoll. J. C. Godeffroy und Sohn was taken over in 1879 by Handels-und Plantagen-Gesellschaft der Südsee-Inseln zu Hamburg. Competition in the trading operations in the Central Pacific came from Ruge, Hedemann & Co, established in 1875, succeeded by H. M. Ruge and Company until that firm failed in about 1887. Tensions caused in part by the conflicting interests of the German traders and plantation owners and British business enterprises and American business interests led to the first Samoan Civil War; the war was fought between 1886 and 1894 between Samoans though the German military intervened on several occasions. The United States and the United Kingdom opposed the German activity which led to a confrontation in Apia Harbour in 1887. In 1899 after the Second Samoan Civil War the Samoan Islands were divided by the three involved powers.
The Samoa Tripartite Convention gave control of the islands west of 171 degrees west longitude to Germany, the eastern islands to the United States and the United Kingdom was compensated with other territories in the Pacific and West Africa. During the colonial years new companies were formed to expand agricultural activities which in turn increased tax revenues for public works that further stimulated economic growth. J. C. Godeffroy, as the leading trading and plantation company on Samoa, maintained communications among its various subdivisions and branches and the home base at Hamburg with its own fleet of ships. Since the Samoan cultural envelope did not include “labor for hire,” the importation of Chinese laborers was implemented, “... by 1914 over 2,000 Chinese were in the colony, providing an effective labor force for the plantations." Major plantation enterprises on Samoa: J. C. Godeffroy & Son Deutsche Samoa Gesellschaft Safata-Samoa-Gesellschaft Samoa Kautschuk Kompagnie The German colonial period lasted for 14 years and began with the raising of the imperial flag on 1 March 1900.
Wilhelm Solf became the first governor. In its political relations with the Samoan people, Solf's government showed similar qualities of intelligence and care as in the economic arena, he skillfully grafted Samoan institutions into the new system of colonial government by the acceptance of native customs. Solf himself learned many of the customs and rituals important to the Samoan people, observing cultural etiquette including the ceremonial drinking of kava. However, when a dissident Samoan matai exceeded the limits of his considerable tolerance, Solf stepped in assertively, pronouncing that “... There was only one government in Samoa,” and it was him. “German rule brought peace and order for the first time... Authority, in the person of the governor, became paternal and absolute. Berlin was far away. Energetic efforts by colonial administrators established the first public school system. Of all colonial possessions of the European powers in the Pacific, German Samoa was by far the best-roaded.
The imperial grants from the Berlin treasury which had marked the first eight years of German rule were no longer needed after 1908. Samoa had become a self-supporting colony. Wilhelm Solf left Samoa in 1910 to be appointed Colonial Secretary at Berlin; the Germans built the Telefunken Railroad from Apia onto the Mount Vaea for transporting building materials for the 120 m high mast of their Telefunken wireless station, inaugurated as planned on 1 August 1914, just a few days after the begin of World War I. Other than native Samoan police and Schutztruppe, Germany had no armed forces stationed in the islands; the small gunboat SMS Geier and the unarmed survey ship Planet were assigned to the so-called "Australian Station", but Geier never reached Samoa. At the behest of Great Britain the colony was invaded unopposed on the morning of 29 August 1914 by troops of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. Vice Admiral Count Maximilia
Theodor von Holleben
Theodor von Holleben was a German diplomat. Holleben was educated at the universities of Berlin and Göttingen, he entered the diplomatic service in 1872. C. 1892-93. In 1897 he became ambassador plenipotentiary to the United States. At the command of Emperor William, he, together with Secretary John Hay, of the State Department, had charge of the arrangements for the official reception of the emperor's brother, Admiral Prince Henry, in February 1902. Failing health together with his inability to have President Roosevelt arbitrate the German-Venezuelan dispute caused his resignation, in 1903 he was succeeded by Baron Hermann Speck von Sternburg. While serving in the US, von Holleben received an Honorary doctorate from Harvard University in June 1901. After the successful visit to the United States of Prince Henry of Prussia in March 1902, the Emperor conferred upon von Holleben the Order of the Red Eagle, first class with Oak leaves. Gilman, D. C.. "Holleben, Theodor von". New International Encyclopedia.
New York: Dodd, Mead. Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Holleben, Theodore von". Encyclopedia Americana. Roosevelt, Theodore, An Autobiography
Apia is the capital and the largest city of Samoa. From 1900 to 1919, it was the capital of German Samoa; the city is located on the central north coast of Samoa's second largest island. Apia falls within the political district of Tuamasaga; the Apia Urban Area has a population of 36,735 and is referred to as the City of Apia. The geographic boundaries of Apia Urban Area is from Letogo village to the new industrialized region of Apia known as Vaitele. Apia was a small village, from which the country's capital took its name. Apia village still exists within the larger modern capital of Apia which has grown into a sprawling urban area with many villages. Like every other settlement in the country, Apia village has its own matai chiefly leaders and fa'alupega according to fa'a Samoa; the modern capital Apia was founded in the 1850s and has been the official capital of Samoa since 1959. The harbour was the site of an infamous 15 March 1889 naval standoff in which seven ships from Germany, the US, Britain refused to leave harbour while a typhoon was approaching, lest the first moved would lose face.
All the ships were sunk, except the British cruiser Calliope, which managed to leave port at 1 mile per hour and ride out the storm. Nearly 200 American and German lives were lost, as well damaged beyond repair. Western Samoa was ruled by Germany as German Samoa from 1900 to 1914 with Apia as capital. In August 1914, the Occupation of German Samoa by an expeditionary force from New Zealand started. New Zealand governed the islands as the Western Samoa Trust Territory from 1920 until independence in 1962 – firstly as a League of Nations Class C Mandate and after 1945 as a United Nations Trust Territory. During the country's struggle for political independence in the early 1900s, organised under the national Mau movement, the streets of Apia became the center of non-violent protests and marches where many Samoans were arrested. In what became known as "Black Saturday", on 28 December 1929, during a peaceful Mau gathering in the town, the New Zealand constabulary killed paramount chief Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III.
Apia is situated on a natural harbour at the mouth of the Vaisigano River. It is on a narrow coastal plain with Mount Vaea, the burial place of writer Robert Louis Stevenson, directly to its south. Two main ridges run south on either side of the Vaisigano River, with roads on each; the more western of these is Cross Island Road, one of the few roads cutting north to south across the middle of the island to the south coast of Upolu. Apia features a tropical rainforest climate with consistent temperatures throughout the year; the climate is not equatorial because the trade winds are the dominant aerological mechanism and besides there are a few cyclones. Apia's driest months are August when on average about 80 millimetres of rain falls, its wettest months are December through March when average monthly precipitation exceeds 300 millimetres. Apia's average temperature for the year is 26 °C. Apia averages 3,000 millimetres of rainfall annually. Apia is part of the Tuamasaga political district and of election district Vaimauga West and Faleata East.
There is no city administration for Apia. Apia consists of independent villages. Apia proper is just a small village between the mouths of the Vaisigano and Mulivai rivers, is framed by Vaisigano and Mulivai villages, together constituting "Downtown Apia"; the Planning Urban Management Authority Act 2004 was passed by parliament to better plan for the urban growth of Samoa's built-up areas, with particular reference to the future urban management of Apia. The city's historical haphazard growth from village to colonial trading post to the major financial and business centre of the country has resulted in major infrastructural problems in the city. Problems of flooding are commonplace in the wet season, given the low flood-prone valley that the city is built on. In the inner-city village of Sogi, there are major shoreline pollution and effluent issues given that the village is situated on swamplands; the disparate village administrations of Apia has resulted in a lack of a unified and codified legislative approach to sewerage disposal.
The increase of vehicle ownership has resulted in traffic congestion in the inner city streets and the need for major projects in road-widening and traffic management. The PUMA legislation sets up the Planning Urban Management Authority to manage better the unique planning issues facing Apia's urban growth. Mulinu'u, the old ceremonial capital, lies at the city's western end, is the location of the Parliament House, the historic observatory built during the German era is now the meteorology office; the historic Catholic cathedral in Apia, the Immaculate Conception of Mary Cathedral, was dedicated 31 December 1867. It was pulled down mid-2011 due to structural damage from the earthquake of September 2009. A new cathedral was built and dedicated 31 May 2014. An area of reclaimed land jutting into the harbour is the site of the Fiame Mataafa Faumuina Mulinuu II building, the multi-storey government offices named after the first Prime Minister of Samoa, the Central Bank of Samoa. A clock tower erected.
The new market is inland at Fugalei. Apia still has some of the early, colonial buildings which remain scattered around the town, most notably the old courthouse from the German