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Tripartite Pact

The Tripartite Pact known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu. It was a defensive military alliance, joined by Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia, as well as by the German client state of Slovakia. Yugoslavia's accession provoked a coup d'état in Belgrade two days and Germany and Hungary responded by invading Yugoslavia and partitioning the country; the resulting Italo-German client state known as the Independent State of Croatia joined the pact on 15 June 1941. The Tripartite Pact was directed at the United States, its practical effects were limited, since the Italo-German and Japanese operational theatres were on opposite sides of the world and the high contracting powers had disparate strategic interests. Some technical cooperation was carried out, the Japanese declaration of war on the United States propelled, although it did not require, a similar declaration of war from all the other signatories of the Tripartite Pact.

The Governments of Japan and Italy consider it as the condition precedent of any lasting peace that all nations in the world be given each its own proper place, have decided to stand by and co-operate with one another in their efforts in Greater East Asia and the regions of Europe wherein it is their prime purpose to establish and maintain a new order of things, calculated to promote the mutual prosperity and welfare of the peoples concerned. It is, the desire of the three Governments to extend cooperation to nations in other spheres of the world that are inclined to direct their efforts along lines similar to their own for the purpose of realizing their ultimate object, world peace. Accordingly, the Governments of Japan and Italy have agreed as follows:ARTICLE 1. Japan recognizes and respects the leadership of Germany and Italy in the establishment of a new order in Europe. ARTICLE 2. Germany and Italy recognize and respect the leadership of Japan in the establishment of a new order in Greater East Asia.

ARTICLE 3. Japan and Italy agree to cooperate in their efforts on aforesaid lines, they further undertake to assist one another with all political and military means if one of the Contracting Powers is attacked by a Power at present not involved in the European War or in the Japanese-Chinese conflict. ARTICLE 4. With a view to implementing the present pact, joint technical commissions, to be appointed by the respective Governments of Japan and Italy, will meet without delay. ARTICLE 5. Japan and Italy affirm that the above agreement affects in no way the political status existing at present between each of the three Contracting Powers and Soviet Russia. ARTICLE 6; the present pact shall become valid upon signature and shall remain in force ten years from the date on which it becomes effective. In due time, before the expiration of said term, the High Contracting Parties shall, at the request of any one of them, enter into negotiations for its renewal. In faith whereof, the undersigned duly authorized by their respective governments have signed this pact and have affixed hereto their signatures.

Done in triplicate at Berlin, the 27th day of September, 1940, in the 19th year of the fascist era, corresponding to the 27th day of the ninth month of the 15th year of Showa. Although Germany and Japan technically became allies with the signing of Anti-Comintern Pact of 1936, the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union came as a surprise to Japan. In November 1939, Germany and Japan signed the "Agreement for Cultural Cooperation between Japan and Germany", which restored the "reluctant alliance" between them. In a ceremonial speech following the signing of the pact on 27 September, Ribbentrop may have suggested that the signatories were open to accepting new signatories in the future; the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung reported his words as follows: The purpose of the Pact is, above all things, to help restore peace to the world as as possible. Therefore any other State which wishes to accede to this bloc, with the intention of contributing to the restoration of peaceful conditions, will be sincerely and gratefully made welcome and will participate in the economic and political reorganisation.

The official Deutsches Nachrichtenbüro, however, as well as most of the press, reported a different version, in which the words "having good will towards the pact" instead of "accede to" were used. It is that it was not envisaged that other nations would join the treaty, that Ribbentrop misspoke; the official record in the DNB therefore corrected his words to remove any reference to "accession" by other states, but produced an awkward wording in the process. The Italian foreign minister, was resolutely opposed to the idea of adding smaller states to the pact as late as 20 November 1940, arguing in his diary that they weakened the pact and were useless bits of diplomacy; the Kingdom of Hungary was the fourth state to sign the pact and the first to join it after 27 September 1940. The Hungarian ambassador in Berlin, Döme Sztójay, telegraphed his foreign minister, István Csáky after news of the signing and of Ribbentrop's speech had reached him, he urged Csáky to join the pact claiming that it was the expectation of Germany and Italy that he would do so.

He considered it important that Hungary sign the pact before Romania did. In response, Csák

Agim Ajdarević

Agim Ajdarević is a Kosovo Albanian retired footballer. He started playing in Serbian ower-league sides FK Radnički Pirot, he played with Serbian side FK Radnički Niš in the 1988–89 Yugoslav First League with Serbian/Kosovar side KF Liria in the 1989–90 Yugoslav Second League with Serbian side FK Sloboda Užice in the 1990–91 Yugoslav Second League, with Serbian side FK Spartak Subotica in the 1991–92 Yugoslav First League. In 1992, while on hollydays in Sweden, Yugoslav War started and Ajdarević family decided to stay. Several Swedish clubs were interested in signing him, since he had professional contract with Spartak Subotica, any club would need to pay a transfer-fee. Falkenbergs FF went ahead and Agim Ajdarević in the following years scoored 105 goals in 175 gams for FFF. According to Albanian press, the family real surname was Hajdari but Agim switched it to "Ajdarević", his sons, Astrit Ajdarević born in 1990, Arben Ajdarević born in 1995, Alfred Ajdarević born in 1998 became footballers

Charles Piers Egerton Hall

Charles Piers Egerton Hall, nicknamed Chaz Hall was a British pilot, taken prisoner during the Second World War. He was part of the'Great Escape' from Stalag Luft III in March 1944, but was captured and subsequently shot by the Gestapo. Hall was born in Kings Norton. Hall was a leading aircraftman at the time he was commissioned as pilot officer on 17 April 1941 and promoted flying officer on 17 April 1942. During World War II he served as a flight lieutenant in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, including serving for a time aboard HMS Ark Royal, he became a pilot for the 1st Photographic Reconnaissance Unit flying out of RAF Benson South Oxfordshire, England. Hall was promoted flight lieutenant on 17 April 1943. Hall was flying a 1 PRU Spitfire PR Mk. IV on 28 December 1941 when the aircraft came down over Bergen op Zoom, the Netherlands, he had been on high level reconnaissance mission to Düsseldorf when he was either shot down or suffered engine failure. It was Hall's third operational flight.

He became a prisoner of war and was sent to Stalag Luft III in Germany in the province of Lower Silesia near the town of Sagan. See Stalag Luft III murdersHe was one of the 76 men who escaped the prison camp on the night of 24–25 March 1944, in the escape now famous as "the Great Escape", he was recaptured near Sagan. He became one of the 50 executed and murdered by the Gestapo on the personal orders of Adolf Hitler on 30 March 1944 and cremated at Liegnitz, now part of the Poznan Old Garrison Cemetery. Before his execution he had written on his cell wall "We who are about to die salute you", his conspicuous bravery was recognized by a mention in Despatches as none of the other relevant decorations available could be awarded posthumously. Notes BibliographyWilliam Ash. Under the Wire: The Wartime Memoir of a Spitfire Pilot, Legendary Escape Artist and'cooler King'. Bantam. ISBN 978-0-593-05408-6. Paul Brickhill; the Great Escape. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-32579-9. Alan Burgess; the Longest Tunnel: The True Story of World War II's Great Escape.

Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-097-9. Albert P. Clark. 33 Months as a POW in Stalag Luft III: A World War II Airman Tells His Story. Fulcrum Pub. ISBN 978-1-55591-536-0. Memories of an Australian prisoner of Stalag Luft III - Sergeant Alf Miners. Stalag Luft III: The Secret Story. Patrick Stephens Limited. ISBN 978-1-85260-248-2. Project Lessons by Mark Kozak-Holland; the prisoners formally structured their work as a project. This book analyses their efforts using modern project management methods

Father's Doing Fine

Father's Doing Fine is a 1952 British comedy film directed by Henry Cass and starring Richard Attenborough, Heather Thatcher, Noel Purcell and Sid James. It was based on the 1950 play Little Lambs Eat Ivy by Noel Langley. Richard Attenborough as Dougall Heather Thatcher as Lady Buckering Noel Purcell as Shaughnessy George Thorpe as Dr Drew Diane Hart as Doreen Susan Stephen as Bicky Mary Germaine as Gerda Virginia McKenna as Catherine Jack Watling as Clifford Magill Peter Hammond as Roly Brian Worth as Wilfred Sid James as Taxi Driver Ambrosine Phillpotts as Nurse Pynegar Wensley Pithey as Police Constable Jonathan Field as Zookeeper Harry Locke as Father in Zoo Father's Doing Fine on IMDb

Pedro Barriere

Doctor Pedro Barriere was a Spanish colonial official in the province of El Salvador. After independence from Spain he became the first head of state of El Salvador. Dr. Barriere entered the service of the colonial government at the end of the eighteenth century, ascending to the rank of lieutenant, his service was distinguished by his loyalty to the royalist cause. On September 15, 1821, the Act of Independence of Central America was signed in Guatemala City. Barriere replaced General and Doctor José María Peinado as Spanish intendant of El Salvador on the latter's death. Barriere took over the government on September 21, 1821, he was the last colonial intendant of the first governor after independence. He occupied the position until November 28, 1821; when Manuel José Arce, together with a small group of Salvadoran supporters, asked Intendant Barriere for the election of an economic consultative junta on September 30, 1821, Barriere ordered the arrest of the patriot leaders — Arce, Domingo Antonio Lara, Juan Manuel Rodríguez, Manuel Castillo, Mariano Fagoaga and others.

Because he feared popular reaction in El Salvador, they were sent as prisoners to Guatemala, with a strong escort. The governing junta in Guatemala had received the report of the incident from Barriere, was ready to punish the prisoners. However, the priest Dr. José Matías Delgado, named the new civil political chief of El Salvador by the Provisional Consultative Junta of Guatemala, secured their release in Santa Ana, El Salvador, before they reached Guatemala. Dr. Barriere, who scoffed at the protests of the people and depended on the army for his authority, could hardly believe he had been replaced by Padre Delgado. Delgado was received by the people of El Salvador as a liberator from the tyranny of Barriere. Barriere moved to Guatemala, he died in the service of the first president of the Federal Republic of Central America, General Manuel José Arce, his former enemy, in the Battle of Milingo. Short biography at the Salvadoran government web site

Celtic music in the United States

Irish and Welsh music have long been a major part of American music, at least as far back as the 18th century. Beginning in the 1960s, performers like the Clancy Brothers became stars in the Irish music scene, which dates back to at least the colonial era, when many Irish immigrants arrived; these included many Scots-Irish Presbyterians, whose music was most "closely related to a Lowland Scottish style". The most significant impact of Celtic music on American styles, however, is undoubtedly that on the evolution of country music, a style which blends Anglo-Celtic traditions with "sacred hymns and African American spirituals". Country music's roots come from "Americanized interpretations of English and Scots-Irish traditional music, shaped by African American rhythms, containing vestiges of popular song, especially". Celtic-Americans have been influential in the creation of Celtic fusion, a set of genres which combine traditional Celtic music with contemporary influences. Irish traditional music in the United States has a long and varied history, both in recording culture and by live performances.

Emigrants from Ireland have brought their instruments and repertoire to the United States since the earliest days of European colonization of the New World. The history of Irish musicians from Ireland taking up residency in New York and beyond is one side of the story. Another is the playing of Irish music by first and second generation Irish-Americans, and yet another is the widespread interest in the music by Americans from every background. Masters of the tradition have come to live in the United States. Chief O'Neill in Chicago was a major promoter of musicianship and tune collection impacting the tradition beyond his own day and place of re-settlement. In the late nineteenth century and long after that, Patsy Touhey from Loughrea was a popular touring artist. In the 1920s and 1930s, the classic recordings of Irish traditional music were made in New York by Michael Coleman, Packie Dolan, Hughie Gillespie, Jim Morrison and many others; this recording culture continues to the present day. In the wake of the Depression and World War, Irish traditional music in New York was belittled by showband culture, performers like Jack Coen, Paddy O'Brien of Tipperary, Larry Redican, Paddy Reynolds kept the tradition alive in the United States, were teachers of the music to Irish Americans.

Many great Irish American performers like Andy McGann, Brian Conway, Joannie Madden, Jerry O'Sullivan, Liz Carroll and Billy McComiskey would rise to achieve a level of accomplishment in the traditional music associated with native Irish. Irish emigration to New York and beyond by James Keane, Mick Moloney, Paddy Keenan, Paddy O'Brien of Offaly, Martin Hayes and others through the 1960s, 1970s and 80s, ensured the music performed in America stayed connected to Ireland. Recent emigration by Ivan Goff and Cillian Vallely to New York has kept the stream of native players strong, the American scene rich with native talent. While Irish American players like Patrick Mangan continue to prove Irish American culture is connected to the roots. Many Welsh songs have been adopted into American music culture, such as "Ar Hyd y Nos". Irish immigrants created a large number of emigrant ballads once in the United States; these were "sad laments, steeped in nostalgia, self-pity, singing the praises... of their native soil while bitterly condemning the land of the stranger".

These songs include famous songs like "Thousands Are Sailing to America" and "By the Hush", though "Shamrock Shore" may be the most well known in the field. Francis O'Neill was a Chicago police chief who collected the single largest collection of Irish traditional music published, he was a flautist and piper, part of a vibrant Irish community in Chicago at the time, one that included some forty thousand people, including musicians from "all thirty-two counties of Ireland", according to Nicholas Carolan, who referred to O'Neill as "the greatest individual influence on the evolution of Irish traditional dance music in the twentieth century". In the 1890s, Irish music entered a "golden age", centered on the vibrant scene in New York City; this produced legendary fiddlers like James Morrison and Michael Coleman, a number of popular dance bands that played pop standards and dances like the foxtrot and quicksteps. Though this golden age ended by the Great Depression, the 1950s saw a flowering of Irish music, aided by the foundation of the City Center Ballroom in New York City.

It was joined by a roots revival in Ireland and the foundation of Mick Moloney's Green Fields of America, a Philadelphia-based organization that promotes Irish music. During the late 20th century came the rise of Celtic inspired rock groups like Flogging Molly, who reside in Los Angeles, Black 47 from New York City, The Shillaly Brothers from Los Angeles and the Dropkick Murphys from Boston. Dynamic identities contribute to Benedict Anderson's notions of nationality; the Celtic identities constructed in America contribute to the dynamic being of American nationalism that we are founded upon. Freedom, a foundational principle of American society, was encouraged by the Celtic influence in Appalachia through their contribution to Union forces during the Civil War; the Union was a more democratizing entity and more willing to accept pluralism in American society compared to their Confederate counterparts who were more bent on mainta