A trireme was an ancient vessel and a type of galley, used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans. The trireme derives its name from its three rows of oars, manned with one man per oar; the early trireme was a development of the penteconter, an ancient warship with a single row of 25 oars on each side, of the bireme, a warship with two banks of oars, of Phoenician origin. The word dieres does not appear until the Roman period. According to Morrison and Williams, "It must be assumed the term pentekontor covered the two-level type"; as a ship it was fast and agile, it was the dominant warship in the Mediterranean during the 7th to 4th centuries BC, after which it was superseded by the larger quadriremes and quinqueremes. Triremes played a vital role in the Persian Wars, the creation of the Athenian maritime empire, its downfall in the Peloponnesian War; the term is sometimes used to refer to medieval and early modern galleys with three files of oarsmen per side as triremes.
Depictions of two-banked ships, with or without the parexeiresia, are common in 8th century BC and vases and pottery fragments, it is at the end of that century that the first references to three-banked ships are found. Fragments from an 8th-century relief at the Assyrian capital of Nineveh depicting the fleets of Tyre and Sidon show ships with rams, fitted with oars pivoted at two levels, they have been interpreted as two-decked warships, as triremes. Modern scholarship is divided on the provenance of the trireme, Greece or Phoenicia, the exact time it developed into the foremost ancient fighting ship. Clement of Alexandria in the 2nd century, drawing on earlier works, explicitly attributes the invention of the trireme to the Sidonians. According to Thucydides, the trireme was introduced to Greece by the Corinthians in the late 8th century BC, the Corinthian Ameinocles built four such ships for the Samians; this was interpreted by writers and Diodorus, to mean that triremes were invented in Corinth, the possibility remains that the earliest three-banked warships originated in Phoenicia.
Herodotus mentions that the Egyptian pharaoh Necho II built triremes on the Nile, for service in the Mediterranean, in the Red Sea, but this reference is disputed by modern historians, attributed to a confusion, since "triērēs" was by the 5th century used in the generic sense of "warship", regardless its type. The first definite reference to the use of triremes in naval combat dates to ca. 525 BC, according to Herodotus, the tyrant Polycrates of Samos was able to contribute 40 triremes to a Persian invasion of Egypt. Thucydides meanwhile states that in the time of the Persian Wars, the majority of the Greek navies consisted of penteconters and ploia makrá. In any case, by the early 5th century, the trireme was becoming the dominant warship type of the eastern Mediterranean, with minor differences between the "Greek" and "Phoenician" types, as literary references and depictions of the ships on coins make clear; the first large-scale naval battle where triremes participated was the Battle of Lade during the Ionian Revolt, where the combined fleets of the Greek Ionian cities were defeated by the Persian fleet, composed of squadrons from their Phoenician, Carian and Egyptian subjects.
Athens was at that time embroiled in a conflict with the neighbouring island of Aegina, which possessed a formidable navy. In order to counter this, with an eye at the mounting Persian preparations, in 483/2 BC the Athenian statesman Themistocles used his political skills and influence to persuade the Athenian assembly to start the construction of 200 triremes, using the income of the newly discovered silver mines at Laurion; the first clash with the Persian navy was at the Battle of Artemisium, where both sides suffered great casualties. However, the decisive naval clash occurred at Salamis, where Xerxes' invasion fleet was decisively defeated. After Salamis and another Greek victory over the Persian fleet at Mycale, the Ionian cities were freed, the Delian League was formed under the aegis of Athens; the predominance of Athens turned the League into an Athenian Empire. The source and foundation of Athens' power was her strong fleet, composed of over 200 triremes, it not only secured control of the Aegean Sea and the loyalty of her allies, but safeguarded the trade routes and the grain shipments from the Black Sea, which fed the city's burgeoning population.
In addition, as it provided permanent employment for the city's poorer citizens, the fleet played an important role in maintaining and promoting the radical Athenian form of democracy. Athenian maritime power is the first example of thalassocracy in world history. Aside from Athens, other major naval powers of the era included Syracuse and Corinth. In the subsequent Peloponnesian War, naval battles fought by triremes were crucial in the power balance between Athens and Sparta. Despite numerous land engagements, Athens was defeated through the destruction of her fleet during the Sicilian Expedition, at the Battle of Aegospotami, at the hands of Sparta and her allies. Based on all archeological evidence, the design of the trireme most pushed the technological limits of the ancient world. After gathering the proper timbers and materials it was time to consider the fundamentals of the trireme design; these fundamentals inclu
Giada Pamela De Laurentiis is an Italian-American chef and television personality. She is the host of Food Network's Giada at Home, she appears as a contributor and guest co-host on NBC's Today. De Laurentiis is the founder of the catering business GDL Foods, she is a winner of the Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lifestyle Host and the Gracie Award for Best Television Host. Giada Pamela De Benedetti was born on August 22, 1970, in Rome, the eldest child of actress Veronica De Laurentiis and her first husband, actor-producer Alex De Benedetti. De Benedetti was a close associate of Giada's maternal grandfather, film producer Dino De Laurentiis; as a child, Giada found herself in the family's kitchen and spent a great deal of time at her grandfather's restaurant, DDL Foodshow. Her parents were married in February 1970 but were divorced. After her parents' divorce and her siblings moved to Southern California, where they took their mother's surname. After graduating from Marymount High School in Los Angeles, De Laurentiis attended the University of California, Los Angeles, earning her bachelor's degree in social anthropology in 1996.
Her maternal great-grandmother was English and her grandmother was British-Italian film star Silvana Mangano. Her siblings include sister Eloisa, a makeup artist, brothers Igor and Dino Alexander II, a Hollywood film editor who died of melanoma in 2003, her stepfather is producer Ivan Kavalsky. De Laurentiis studied with aspirations of becoming a pastry chef. After returning to the United States, she became a professional chef working in several Los Angeles restaurants, notably the Wolfgang Puck-owned Spago, she worked as a food stylist and was contacted by the Food Network after styling a piece in Food & Wine magazine in 2002. Her Food Network daytime cooking show, Everyday Italian, premiered April 5, 2003. On Chefography, a Food Network biography program, she said she never wanted to be in her "family business" of show business, that she felt uncomfortable in front of the camera when she first began hosting Everyday Italian; when the program first aired, the Food Network received mail accusing the network of hiring a model or actress pretending to cook instead of a real chef.
De Laurentiis began hosting Behind the Bash in October 2006. The program examines the catering process behind big event extravaganzas such as the Grammy Awards. In January 2007, a third De Laurentiis-hosted show, Giada's Weekend Getaways, debuted on Food Network. On this show, De Laurentiis travels to a featured locale and visits her favorite local culinary destinations. On a November 2006 episode of Iron Chef America, De Laurentiis and Bobby Flay competed against, were defeated by, Rachael Ray and Mario Batali. In 2007, De Laurentiis appeared as a presenter at the inaugural Food Network Awards. In June 2007, she hosted a two-part Food Network special entitled Giada in Paradise, featuring the two locales of Santorini and Capri, Italy. De Laurentiis made several appearances as a guest judge on the third season of The Next Food Network Star, which aired in 2007; that year she was dubbed a "petite powerhouse" by Town & Country magazine, standing "just under five-foot two". In 2008, she won a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lifestyle Host.
In 2008, De Laurentiis and the Barilla Group, launched an Italian gourmet line under the Academia Barilla name—Barilla's first-ever gourmet celebrity product line. That same year, Giada at Home premiered, showing De Laurentiis in a kitchen preparing meals and parties for family and friends; the show is shot on a set, similar to her own home. She joined fellow chef Bobby Flay as a judge in season 7 of Food Network Star and took on a new role in season 8 as a team leader of five cooks competing against Bobby Flay's and Alton Brown's respective teams. In 2009, De Laurentiis became the voice of "Paulette", a character on the animated children's show Handy Manny. In early 2010, De Laurentiis came out with a line of kitchen supplies for Target; that same year, CafeMom ranked her as #6 in their yearly "Sexiest Moms Alive" list. In June 2010, De Laurentiis became a appearing mentor to the finalists on the popular Food Network competition show The Next Food Network Star. In July 2014, De Laurentiis opened her first restaurant, called GIADA, inside The Cromwell in Las Vegas, Nevada.
The restaurant offers seating in the dining room, lounge, or outdoor patio with views of the Bellagio fountains and Caesars Palace. The GIADA menu includes Italian cuisine with Californian influences, including "lemon spaghetti, chicken cacciatore, marsala herb chicken meatballs, rosemary focaccia and lemon flatbread and vegetable Bolognese rigatoni". Family-style and gluten-free options are available, as well as an antipasto station. Restaurant guests can watch chefs prepare food from the open kitchen. In 2014, De Laurentiis voiced the character of Gelata in the US version of the Tinker Bell special Pixie Hollow Bake Off. In 2018, De Laurentiis voiced herself in the movie Scooby-Doo! and the Gourmet Ghost. De Laurentiis has a range of products made for Target, her products consist of stainless steel pots and pans, a wide range of utensils, cooking tools, some food items including sauces and pastas. De Laurentiis has two restaurants on the Las Vegas Strip, she opened her first restaurant in May 2014.
The restaurant called "Giada", is located in the Cromwell. She opened a second restaurant in early 2018. "Pronto by Giada", taking up residency in Caesars Palace, is a fast casual dining restaurant. In July 2017, she announced she would be opening
KLFV is a radio station in Grand Junction, Colorado. The station broadcasts a contemporary Christian format from the K-Love radio network. 90.3 FM began broadcasting as KJOL after missing a planned Christmas 1981 launch. It was the second religious radio station in the Grand Junction area, after KCIC, which had signed on in 1979. KJOL was broadcast from its facilities. From the start, KJOL adopted a more contemporary gospel sound than the traditionally oriented KCIC; the mid-1980s saw a major ownership transition for the young religious station. In 1984, Columbus Evangelical sold it for $24,000 to Western Bible College, owners of KWBI-FM. After the sale closed in 1985, KJOL, a major conservative voice and drove protests at abortion clinics and grocery stores that sold pornographic materials, toned down its rhetoric and increased the proportion of music in its broadcast day; the changes and Western Bible College-developed format took hold in February, after the station was silent for a week. After a couple of mergers, Western Bible College became Colorado Christian University by 1989, expanded its educational offerings to the Western Slope and opened a center in Grand Junction in 1991.
The university sold its entire regional radio network to EMF in 2000. Former KJOL station manager Ken Andrews began efforts to bring a new local Christian station to Grand Junction. Query the FCC's FM station database for KLFV Radio-Locator information on KLFV Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KLFV