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Tristan Tzara

Tristan Tzara was a Romanian and French avant-garde poet and performance artist. Active as a journalist, playwright and art critic and film director, he was known best for being one of the founders and central figures of the anti-establishment Dada movement. Under the influence of Adrian Maniu, the adolescent Tzara became interested in Symbolism and co-founded the magazine Simbolul with Ion Vinea and painter Marcel Janco. During World War I, after collaborating on Vinea's Chemarea, he joined Janco in Switzerland. There, Tzara's shows at the Cabaret Voltaire and Zunfthaus zur Waag, as well as his poetry and art manifestos, became a main feature of early Dadaism, his work represented Dada's nihilistic side, in contrast with the more moderate approach favored by Hugo Ball. After moving to Paris in 1919, Tzara, by one of the "presidents of Dada", joined the staff of Littérature magazine, which marked the first step in the movement's evolution toward Surrealism, he was involved in the major polemics which led to Dada's split, defending his principles against André Breton and Francis Picabia, and, in Romania, against the eclectic modernism of Vinea and Janco.

This personal vision on art defined his Dadaist plays Handkerchief of Clouds. A forerunner of automatist techniques, Tzara aligned himself with Breton's Surrealism, under its influence wrote his celebrated utopian poem The Approximate Man. During the final part of his career, Tzara combined his humanist and anti-fascist perspective with a communist vision, joining the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War and the French Resistance during World War II, serving a term in the National Assembly. Having spoken in favor of liberalization in the People's Republic of Hungary just before the Revolution of 1956, he distanced himself from the French Communist Party, of which he was by a member. In 1960, he was among the intellectuals. Tristan Tzara was an influential author and performer, whose contribution is credited with having created a connection from Cubism and Futurism to the Beat Generation and various currents in rock music; the friend and collaborator of many modernist figures, he was the lover of dancer Maja Kruscek in his early youth and was married to Swedish artist and poet Greta Knutson.

S. Samyro, a partial anagram of Samy Rosenstock, was used by Tzara from his debut and throughout the early 1910s. A number of undated writings, which he authored as early as 1913, bear the signature Tristan Ruia, and, in summer of 1915, he was signing his pieces with the name Tristan. In the 1960s, Rosenstock's collaborator and rival Ion Vinea claimed that he was responsible for coining the Tzara part of his pseudonym in 1915. Vinea stated that Tzara wanted to keep Tristan as his adopted first name, that this choice had attracted him the "infamous pun" Triste Âne Tzara; this version of events is uncertain, as manuscripts show that the writer may have been using the full name, as well as the variations Tristan Țara and Tr. Tzara, in 1913-1914. In 1972, art historian Serge Fauchereau, based on information received from Colomba, the wife of avant-garde poet Ilarie Voronca, recounted that Tzara himself had explained his chosen name was a pun in Romanian, trist în țară, meaning "sad in the country".

Samy Rosenstock adopted his new name in 1925, after filing a request with Romania's Ministry of the Interior. The French pronunciation of his name has become commonplace in Romania, where it replaces its more natural reading as țara. Tzara was born in Bacău County, in the historical region of Western Moldavia, his parents were Jewish Romanians who spoke Yiddish as their first language. Tzara's mother was née Zibalis. Owing to the Romanian Kingdom's discrimination laws, the Rosenstocks were not emancipated, thus Tzara was not a full citizen of the country until after 1918, he moved to Bucharest at the age of eleven, attended the Schemitz-Tierin boarding school. It is believed that the young Tzara completed his secondary education at a state-run high school, identified as the Saint Sava National College or as the Sfântul Gheorghe High School. In October 1912, when Tzara was aged sixteen, he joined his friends Vinea and Marcel Janco in editing Simbolul. Reputedly and Vinea provided the funds. Like Vinea, Tzara was close to their young colleague Jacques G. Costin, his self-declared promoter and admirer.

Despite their young age, the three editors were able to attract collaborations from established Symbolist authors, active within Romania's own Symbolist movement. Alongside their close friend and mentor Adrian Maniu, they included N. Davidescu, Alfred Hefter-Hidalgo, Emil Isac, Claudia Millian, Ion Minulescu, I. M. Rașcu, Eugeniu Sperantia, Al. T. Stamatiad, Eugeniu Ștefănescu-Est, Constantin T. Stoika, as well as the journalist and lawyer Poldi Chapier. In its inaugural issue, the journal printed a poem by one of the leading figures in Romanian Symbolism, Alexandru Macedonski. Simbolul featured i

Dysaphis crataegi

The hawthorn-carrot aphid known as Dysaphis crataegi, is an aphid in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the order Hemiptera. It sucks sap from plants; the hawthorn-carrot aphid was first described by the German entomologist Johann Heinrich Kaltenbach in 1843. It has three subspecies in Europe. All overwinter on their primary host, hawthorn trees spp. but each migrates to a different secondary host in the family Apiaceae during the summer. Two further subspecies are found to Asia. On the primary host, these aphids are about 2 mm long, with short antennae and short siphunculi, greenish-grey and dusted with wax particles. On the secondary host, wingless viviparous females are greenish-grey or yellowish-grey, again dusted with fine wax particles. Winged viviparous females are greyish-red with black markings. Egg-laying females are reddish-brown and winged males are reddish with black markings; the hawthorn-carrot aphid migrates to its primary host in late summer and forms red, curling galls on its leaves.

The following spring, females move to its secondary host, an umbellifer in the family Apiaceae, produce live offspring, When these nymphs are sufficiently mature, they produce further live young. Most offspring are wingless, but some winged females are produced which are able to colonize new secondary hosts. In late summer winged females and males are migrate to hawthorn trees; these aphids are attended by ants on both their secondary hosts. Media related to Dysaphis crataegi at Wikimedia Commons

Jim Bowman

Sir James Bowman, 1st Baronet, was a British trade unionist. Born in Great Corby, near Carlisle, Bowman worked at Ashington colliery from the age of fifteen, he served in the Royal Marines during World War I returned to coal mining, where he became active in the Northumberland Miners' Association. He became General Secretary of the union in 1935, Vice President of the Miners' Federation of Great Britain in 1939, holding the post unopposed until 1949, during which period he took a leading role in reorganising the union into the National Union of Mineworkers. Bowman advised in reforming the German trade unions after World War II, he served on the 1947 Royal Commission on the Press, Beveridge's committee on broadcasting. He withdrew from trade unionism instead taking a National Coal Board post. Bowman was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1952 Birthday Honours, was promoted to Knight Commander in the 1957 Birthday Honours, he stood down in 1961, due to ill health. In the 1961 New Year Honours Bowman was created as a baronet


Polideini is a tribe of bristle flies in the family Tachinidae. There are at least 40 described species in Polideini. Chlorohystricia Townsend, 1927 Chromatocera Townsend, 1915 Chrysotachina Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 Dichocera Williston, 1895 Euscopolia Townsend, 1892 Exoristoides Coquillett, 1897 Homalactia Townsend, 1915 Hystricia Macquart, 1844 Lydina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 Lypha Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 Mactomyia Reinhard, 1958 Mauromyia Coquillett, 1897 Micronychia Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1889 Nigrilypha O'Hara, 2002 Ostracophyto Townsend, 1915 Spilochaetosoma Smith, 1917

Danny Dumaresque

Danny Wade Dumaresque is a Canadian politician. He represented the riding of Eagle River in the Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly from 1989 to 1996 as a member of the Liberal Party. Dumaresque has been a Director of NL Hydro and an outspoken critic of the Muskrat Falls hydro development. In the 1996 election, Dumaresque defeated Yvonne Jones for the Liberal nomination in the redistricted riding of Cartwright-L'Anse au Clair. Jones ran as an independent candidate and defeated Dumaresque in the general election, she joined the Liberal caucus. He served as John Efford's campaign manager in the party's leadership convention in 2001, he subsequently threatened to sue the victorious candidate, Roger Grimes, for libel after Grimes stated that he "would never be able to sleep any one night in comfort, knowing he had a minister in confidence who had Danny Dumaresque as an advisor to him." Premier Grimes issued and official apology stating there was no basis for his statement and Mr. Dumaresque dropped his suit.

He served as president of the provincial Liberal Party from 2006 until 2009. He was succeeded in this role by Judy Morrow. Dumaresque ran as the Liberal candidate in Torngat Mountains in the 2007 election, but narrowly lost to Patty Pottle, he was frequently rumoured as a possible candidate for the leadership of the provincial Liberal party in their 2010 leadership election. After he had stated that he would not rule it out, on July 29, 2010 he announced he would not run and would instead focus on his business career. To date he has owned and operated seafood processing plants in Quebec and Newfoundland and marketed various seafood products to the international marketplace. In March 2011, he announced that he was considering running for the Liberals in the 2011 provincial election in the district of Lake Melville, but on August 22, 2011, he was acclaimed as the party's candidate in The Isles of Notre Dame and lost in the general election, he was an unsuccessful candidate in the leadership election to replace Yvonne Jones in August 2011.

On July 2, 2013 Dumaresque announced he was running for the leadership of the provincial Liberal Party in their 2013 election. He was, again unsuccessful in his bid to lead the party. Dumaresque ran for the Liberal nomination in Cartwright-L'Anse au Clair for the 2015 provincial election but lost to Lisa Dempster, he won a Party nomination in Conception Bay East – Bell Island, but lost to the Progressive Conservative incumbent, David Brazil

Minister of Arts and Culture

The Minister of Arts and Culture is a Minister of the Cabinet of South Africa, responsible for overseeing the Department of Arts and Culture. The portfolio was created on 29 April 2004 on the appointment of the second Cabinet of President Thabo Mbeki, when the Arts, Culture and Technology portfolio was divided into two; as of 26 May 2014 the incumbent minister is Nathi Mthethwa and his deputy is Maggie Sotyu. Apart from the Department of Arts and Culture, the following institutions report to the minister: Afrikaanse Taalmuseum Artscape Freedom Park Iziko Museums of Cape Town Luthuli Museum Market Theatre Natal Museum National Arts Council National English Literary Museum National Film and Video Foundation National Heritage Council National Library of South Africa National Museum Northern Flagship Institutions Nelson Mandela Museum Performing Arts Council of the Free State Playhouse Company Robben Island Museum South African Geographical Names Council South African Heritage Resources Agency South African Library for the Blind State Theatre Windybrow Centre for the Arts Voortrekker/Ncome Museum War Museum of the Boer Republics William Humphreys Art Gallery Ministry of Arts and Culture Department of Arts and Culture