Wales Rally GB
The Wales Rally GB is the largest and most high-profile motor rally in the United Kingdom. It is a round of the FIA World Rally Championship and was a round of the MSA British Rally Championship and is based in North Wales. From its first running in 1932 until the 53rd event in 1997, it was known as the RAC Rally until adopting its current name in 2003 except in 2009 when it was Rally of Great Britain; the inaugural event was the 1932 Royal Automobile Club Rally, the first major rally of the modern era in Great Britain. Of the 367 crews entered, 341 competitors in unmodified cars started from nine different towns and cities The Official Programme explained, "Different routes are followed from the nine starting points, each 1,000 miles long, but all finishing at Torquay. On every route there are four controls in addition to the starting and finishing controls, these are open for periods varying from seven to four hours. Competitors may report at these controls at any time during the hours of opening.......
At the final control they must check in as near their fixed finishing time as possible, any considerable deviation from this time results in loss of marks." As well as completing the route to a time schedule the competitors were required to perform a special test involving slow running and braking. Additionally a Concours d'Elegance was held at the finish in Torquay. There was no official winner, although Colonel A H Loughborough in a Lanchester 15/18 was recorded as having the fewest penalty points in the decisive test at the finish; the following year's RAC Rally followed a similar format, but with Hastings as the chosen finish. Over three hundred competitors entered, this time Miss Kitty Brunel, driving an AC Ace, was the driver with the fewest penalties; the rally was run annually until 1939, after which the outbreak of the Second World War forced its suspension. However, it resumed in 1951, has been contested every year since with only two exceptions, 1957 and 1967; this latter incident was on the eve of the event, so competitors staged a mock rally at the Bagshot proving ground as consolation for the press and television.
In 1960, organising secretary Jack Kemsley negotiated with the Forestry Commission to allow a two-mile section of forest road in Argyll, Scotland to be used as a competitive section. It proved enormously successful, the following year forest roads all over the country were opened up to the drivers. This, combined with the introduction of special timing clocks and seeding of entries, secured the rally's future, cemented its reputation as one of the most gruelling and unpredictable fixtures on the calendar. In 2016 an agreement was reached between the MSA and Natural Resources Wales to continue to use Welsh forest stages for three years. In 1971,'Spectator Stages' were introduced and, by 1975 had become an important part of the event at stately homes and other public venues like Sutton Park; the first day was, by devoted to these stages. Drivers did not enjoy them, referred to them disparagingly as "Mickey Mouse stages" because of the lack of challenge they offered, but nonetheless they contributed to the results.
For example, in 1998 championship leader Tommi Mäkinen crashed out of the rally on one of these stages, nearly lost that year's world championship. More they have given way to the'Super Special Stages', which are maligned by the drivers, but just as popular with spectators; the 1986 RAC Rally was the last European event for Group B vehicles. These tuned turbocharged cars were to be banned as they were deemed too powerful and dangerous, in light of the various accidents in which they were involved. In the end, the Peugeot 205 T16 Evo. 2s of Timo Salonen, Juha Kankkunen and Mikael Sundström took three of the top four places, with only Markku Alén's second position in the Lancia Delta S4 preventing a monopoly of the podium. There were 83 finishers out of 150 starters in 1986, compared to year of worst attrition in 1981 when only 54 of the 151 starters reached the end; this was in stark contrast to the early years: in 1938, there were only 6 retirements from 237 starters. For many years the rally has traditionally been the last round of the World Championship, therefore has staged many famous down-to-the-wire showdowns.
In 1991 the world championship came down-to-the-wire in the British forests, with Lancia driver Juha Kankkunen edging out Toyota’s Carlos Sainz after the Spaniard suffered engine issues and went off the road in Kielder Forest and damaged his car. One year and Sainz and Kankkunen returned to the RAC along with Frenchman Didier Auriol to fight for the 1992 title. Auriol’s challenge would end with engine failure, Kankkunen’s hopes were dashed when he went off and damaged his steering on the final day of the rally in southern Scotland. Sainz won the rally and with it claimed his second world title. In 1995, it was estimated that around 2 million fans lined the forests to witness Scotsman Colin McRae win his second consecutive RAC Rally, in the process beat teammate Carlos Sainz to take his first and only world title in front of thousands of fans at Chester Racecourse. McRae would have less fortune in future years; the Scot would come up short again in 2001 when he crashed out of an early lead, gifting the championship to his English rival Richard Burns.
One of the most dramatic showdowns was 1998, when championship
Overdrive is the operation of an automobile cruising at sustained speed with reduced engine revolutions per minute, leading to better fuel consumption, lower noise, lower wear. Use of the term is confused, as it is applied to several related, meanings; the most fundamental meaning is that of an overall gear ratio between engine and wheels, such that the car is over-geared, cannot reach its potential top speed, i.e. the car could travel faster if it were in a lower gear, with the engine turning at higher RPM. The purpose of such a gear may not be obvious; the power produced by an engine increases with the engine's RPM to a maximum falls away. The point of maximum power is somewhat lower than the absolute maximum RPM to which the engine is limited, the "redline" RPM. A car's speed is limited by the power required to drive it against air resistance, which increases with speed. At the maximum possible speed, the engine is running at its point of maximum power, or power peak, the car is traveling at the speed where air resistance equals that maximum power.
There is therefore one specific gear ratio at which the car can achieve its maximum speed: the one that matches that engine speed with that travel speed. At travel speeds below this maximum, there is a range of gear ratios that can match engine power to air resistance, the most fuel efficient is the one that results in the lowest engine speed. Therefore, a car needs one gearing to reach maximum speed but another to reach maximum fuel efficiency at a lower speed. With the early development of cars and the universal rear-wheel drive layout, the final drive ratio for fast cars was chosen to give the ratio for maximum speed; the gearbox was designed so that, for efficiency, the fastest ratio would be a "direct-drive" or "straight-through" 1:1 ratio, avoiding frictional losses in the gears. Achieving an overdriven ratio for cruising thus required a gearbox ratio higher than this, i.e. the gearbox output shaft rotating faster than the engine. The propeller shaft linking gearbox and rear axle is thus overdriven, a transmission capable of doing this became termed an "overdrive" transmission.
The device for achieving an overdrive transmission was a small separate gearbox, attached to the rear of the main gearbox and controlled by its own shift lever. These were optional on some models of the same car; as popular cars became faster relative to legal limits and fuel costs became more important after the 1973 oil crisis, the use of 5-speed gearboxes became more common in mass-market cars. These had a direct fourth gear with an overdrive 5th gear, replacing the need for the separate overdrive gearbox. With the popularity of front wheel drive cars, the separate gearbox and final drive have merged into a single transaxle. There is no longer a propeller shaft and so one meaning of "overdrive" can no longer be applied; however the fundamental meaning, that of an overall ratio higher than the ratio for maximum speed, still applies. Although the deliberate labelling of an overdrive is now rare, the underlying feature is now found across all cars; the power needed to propel a car at any given set of conditions and speed is straightforward to calculate, based on the total weight and the vehicle's speed.
These produce two primary forces slowing the car: air drag. The former varies with the speed of the vehicle, while the latter varies with the square of the speed. Calculating these from first principles is difficult due to a variety of real-world factors, so this is measured directly in wind tunnels and similar systems; the power produced by an engine increases with the engine's RPM to a maximum falls away. This is known as the point of maximum power. Given a curve describing the overall drag on the vehicle, it is simple to find the speed at which the total drag forces are the same as the maximum power of the engine; this defines the maximum speed. The rotational speed of the wheels for that given forward speed is simple to calculate, it is the tire circumference multiplied by the RPM; as the tire RPM at maximum speed is not the same as the engine RPM at that power, a transmission is used with a gear ratio to convert one to the other. At slightly lower speeds than maximum, the total drag on the vehicle is less, the engine needs to deliver this reduced amount of power.
In this case the RPM of the engine has changed while the RPM of the wheels has changed little. This condition calls for a different gear ratio. If one is not supplied, the engine is forced to run at a higher RPM than optimal; as the engine requires more power to overcome internal friction at higher RPM, this means more fuel is used to keep the engine running at this speed. Every cycle of the engine leads to wear, so keeping the engine at higher RPM is unfavorable for engine life. Additionally, the sound of an engine is related to the RPM, so running at lower RPM is quieter. If one runs the same RPM transmission exercise outlined above for maximum speed, but instead sets the "maximum speed" to that of highway cruising, the output is a higher gear ratio that provides ideal fuel mileage. In an era when cars were not able to travel fast, the maximum power point might be near enough to the desired speed that additional gears were not needed, but as more powerful cars appeared during the 1960s, this disparity between the maximum power point and desired speed grew considerably.
This meant that cars were operating far from their most efficient point. As the desire for better fuel economy grew after the 1973 oil crisis, the need for a "cruising gear" became more pressing. Th
The Standard Eight is a small car produced by the British Standard Motor Company from 1938 to 1959. The car was launched in 1938 as the Flying Eight. After the Second World War the Flying range of Standards was dropped but an updated car called the 8 hp was re-introduced in 1945. In 1953 a new car, the Standard Eight was launched sharing nothing with its predecessor. In 1959 the car was dropped to be replaced by the Triumph Herald, as the Standard brand was being phased out; the Flying Eight was the smallest member of the Standard Flying family. It was launched by the Standard Motor Co Ltd late September 1938, prior to the 1938 Motor Show at Earls Court in October of that year. Apart from the power unit, it was a brand new design, marked Standard's first entry into the smallest 8 hp market; the frame was all new, with box section longitudinals, independent front suspension by a transverse leaf spring. It was the first British 8 hp family car to feature ifs. At the same time, an updated Flying Ten and a Flying Twelve were introduced, incorporating the same chassis features.
The engine was a development of the previous Flying Nine/Ten, but now with a counterbalanced crankshaft and an aluminium cylinder head. The bore was reduced to 57 mm in order to get into the 8 hp class, while the stroke remained at 100 mm. At 1,021 cc swept volume, maximum power was quoted to 31 bhp at 4,000 rpm. A 3-speed gearbox was used, as well as Bendix mechanical brakes operated by cables. Two versions were available from the launch of the model: A two-door all-steel saloon, a 2/4-seat open tourer; the former body was built for Standard by Fisher & Ludlow at a newly erected plant at Tile Hill, Coventry. The open tourer bodies were built by Carbodies at Holyhead Road and these cars were also assembled there; these tourers featured cut-down door tops, a fold-flat windscreen. Around the turn of the year 1938/39 a drophead coupe became available; this body was built for Standard by Mulliners of Birmingham, who were building drophead bodies for the Standard Flying Twelve. The initiative for this version came from Mulliner's and not from Standard themselves, as it appeared 4–5 months after the original saloon and tourer versions.
The prewar production ledger has not survived. The saloon and tourer prototypes were both registered on 15 February 1938. However, series production of the saloons at Standard's Canley plant seems to have commenced early September 1938, it seems probable that 23,069 home market saloons had been assembled by the end of August 1939; the number of home market open tourers seem to be 1,500. Assembly of these seem to have begun in early November 1938, continued uninterrupted until about July 1939. Number of drophead coupes were less than 1,000 – only one proper batch of 500 has been identified. 550 left hand drive knocked down sets were supplied to Denmark for assembly by their importers, Bohnstedt-Petersen AS in Copenhagen. 500 of these were saloons, 50 were open tourers. CKD sets were supplied to Australia, assembled there by Mortlocks of Perth. For open tourers they used locally built bodies by Richards; the number of Flying Eights assembled in Australia is unknown. Production at Standard's Canley plant continued into the early weeks of 1940.
The highest chassis number now known is 33433, a saloon first registered on 11.7.1940. The Glass Guide quotes 34,601 as the final pre-war chassis number. PerformanceThe saloon was road tested by The Autocar magazine in their issue of 30 September 1938, the drophead in the issue of 26 May 1939. Both recorded top speeds close to 62 mph, standing start 0–50 mph acceleration figures of 26.2 sec and 25.3 sec – the drophead being 57 lb lighter than the saloon. PricesThe tourer was priced at £125, the saloon at £129, the saloon de luxe at £139, the drophead at £159; the 8 hp model, now without the Flying name, was re-introduced after the Second World War with the first models appearing within ten days of VE day. The only major update from the pre-war model involved the fitting of a 4-speed gearbox; the cylinder bore was reduced to 56.7 mm. Maximum power was now quoted to 28 bhp at 4,000 rpm; the absence of bonnet louvres on the 8 hp model provided visual differentiation from the pre-war Flying Eight. The pre-war tourer body by Carbodies was dropped, being replaced by a new tourer body in the form of a simplified drophead coupe, with cut-down door tops, detachable sidescreens and a fixed windscreen frame.
Estate cars were not on general sale. The car was pitched by Standard against the Austin 8 and Morris Eight rivals and was priced at £314. After this version of the 8 was phased out Standard-Triumph's next small car was the Triumph Mayflower and it was only after this model had failed to meet its sales targets that a new Standard Eight was launched; the 1953 Eight was a new car with unit construction and the new Standard SC overhead valve engine. It was offered only as a 4-door saloon; the new engine of 803 cc produced less power than the outgoing larger sidevalve unit with 26 bhp at 4500 rpm but this was increased to 30 bhp at 5000 rpm in 1957. The 4-speed gearbox, with synchromesh on the top three ratios, was available with optional overdrive from March 1957. Girling hydraulic drum brakes were fitted. To keep prices down, the car at launch was basic with sliding windows, single windscreen wiper and no external boot lid. Access to the boot was by folding down the rear seat, which had the backrest divided in two (an innovation copied in saloons from late
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is the distance between the steering axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles; the wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. Therefore, the wheelbase is related to the force on each pair of tires by the following formula: F f = d r L m g F r = d f L m g where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, L is the wheelbase, d r is the distance from the center of mass to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the center of gravity to the front wheels, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the gravity constant. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward and the force on the rear tires increases.
The vehicle will ride lower. The amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces, like the size of the tires, tire pressure, the spring rate of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively; the equation relating the wheelbase, height above the ground of the CM, the force on each pair of tires becomes: F f = d r L m g − h c m L m a F r = d f L m g + h c m L m a where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, d r is the distance from the CM to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the CM to the front wheels, L is the wheelbase, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the acceleration of gravity, h c m is the height of the CM above the ground, a is the acceleration. So, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension; when braking the front noses down and the rear rises.:Because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering.
For example, a car with a much greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires and therefore the grip from them. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, to distribute the caravan's weight so that down-thrust on the tow-hook is about 100 pounds force. A car may oversteer or "spin out" if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires; when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the tire distances from the CM. Thus, in a car with a short wheelbase, the short lever arm from the CM to the rear wheel will result in a greater lateral force on the rear tire which means greater acceleration and less time for the driver to adjust and prevent a spin out or worse. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems; some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle.
This practice can be found on full-size cars like the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, but ultra-luxury vehicles such as the Rolls-Royce Phantom and large family cars like the Rover 75 came with'limousine' versions. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a long-wheelbase version of the Rover 75 for official use, and some SUVs like the VW Tiguan and Jeep Wrangler come in LWB models In contrast, coupé varieties of some vehicles such as the Honda Accord are built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from. The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, that they are able to perform stoppies and wheelies. In skateboarding the word'wheelbase' is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck; this is different from the distance between the rotational centers
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
A drum brake is a brake that uses friction caused by a set of shoes or pads that press outward against a rotating cylinder-shaped part called a brake drum. The term drum brake means a brake in which shoes press on the inner surface of the drum; when shoes press on the outside of the drum, it is called a clasp brake. Where the drum is pinched between two shoes, similar to a conventional disc brake, it is sometimes called a pinch drum brake, though such brakes are rare. A related type called a band brake uses a flexible belt or "band" wrapping around the outside of a drum; the modern automobile drum brake was first used in a car made by Maybach in 1900, although the principle was only patented in 1902 by Louis Renault. He used woven asbestos lining for the drum brake lining, as no alternative dissipated heat like the asbestos lining, though Maybach had used a less sophisticated drum brake. In the first drum brakes and rods or cables operated the shoes mechanically. From the mid-1930s, oil pressure in a small wheel cylinder and pistons operated the brakes, though some vehicles continued with purely mechanical systems for decades.
Some designs have two wheel cylinders. As the shoes in drum brakes wear, brakes required regular manual adjustment until the introduction of self-adjusting drum brakes in the 1950s. Drums are prone to brake fading with repeated use. In 1953, Jaguar fielded three cars equipped with disc brakes at Le Mans, where they won, in large part due to their superior braking over drum-equipped rivals; this spelled the beginning of the crossover of drum brakes to disc brakes in passenger cars. From the 1960s to the 1980s, disc brakes replaced drum brakes on the front wheels of cars. Now all cars use disc brakes on the front wheels, many use disc brakes on all four wheels. In the United States, the Jeep CJ-5 was the final automobile to use front drum brakes when it was phased out in 1984. However, drum brakes are still used for handbrakes, as it has proven difficult to design a disc brake suitable for holding a parked car. Moreover, it is easy to fit a drum handbrake inside a disc brake so that one unit serves as both service brake and handbrake.
Early brake shoes contained asbestos. When working on brake systems of older cars, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present in the brake assembly; the United States Federal Government began to regulate asbestos production, brake manufacturers had to switch to non-asbestos linings. Owners complained of poor braking with the replacements. A majority of daily-driven older vehicles have been fitted with asbestos-free linings. Many other countries limit the use of asbestos in brakes. Drum brake components include the backing plate, brake drum, wheel cylinder, various springs and pins; the backing plate provides a base for the other components. The back plate increases the rigidity of whole set-up, supports the housing, protects it from foreign materials like dust and other road debris, it absorbs the torque from the braking action, and, why back plate is called the "Torque Plate". Since all braking operations exert pressure on the backing plate, it must be strong and wear-resistant. Levers for emergency or parking brakes, automatic brake-shoe adjuster were added in recent years.
The brake drum is made of a special type of cast iron, heat-conductive and wear-resistant. It rotates with the axle; when a driver applies the brakes, the lining pushes radially against the inner surface of the drum, the ensuing friction slows or stops rotation of the wheel and axle, thus the vehicle. This friction generates substantial heat. One wheel cylinder operates the brake on each wheel. Two pistons operate one at each end of the wheel cylinder; the leading shoe is known as the primary shoe. The trailing shoe is known as the secondary shoe. Hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder acts on the piston cup, pushing the pistons toward the shoes, forcing them against the drum; when the driver releases the brakes, the brake shoe springs restore the shoes to their original position. The parts of the wheel cylinder are shown to the right. Brake shoes are made of two pieces of steel welded together; the friction material is either attached with adhesive. The crescent-shaped piece is called the Web and contains holes and slots in different shapes for return springs, hold-down hardware, parking brake linkage and self-adjusting components.
All the application force of the wheel cylinder is applied through the web to the lining table and brake lining. The edge of the lining table has three “V"-shaped notches or tabs on each side called nibs; the nibs rest against the support pads of the backing plate. Each brake assembly has a primary and secondary; the primary shoe is located toward the front of the vehicle and has the lining positioned differently from the secondary shoe. Quite the two shoes are interchangeable, so close inspection for any variation is important. Linings must be resistant to heat and wear and have a high friction coefficient unaffected by fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Materials that make up the brake shoe include, friction modifiers, powdered metal such as lead, brass and other metals that resist heat fade, curing agents and fillers such as rubber chips to reduce brake noise. In the UK two common grades of brake shoe material used to be available. DON 202 was a hig
The cubic inch is a unit of measurement for volume in the Imperial units and United States customary units systems. It is the volume of a cube with each of its three dimensions being one inch long; the cubic inch and the cubic foot are still used as units of volume in the United States, although the common SI units of volume, the liter and cubic meter, are used in manufacturing and high technology. One cubic inch is 16.387 mL. One cubic foot is equal to 1,728 cubic inches because 123 = 1,728; the following abbreviations have been used to denote the cubic inch: cubic in, cu inch, cu in, cui, CI, c.i. inch³, in³In internal combustion engines, the following abbreviations are used to denote cubic inch displacement: c.i.d. Cid, CID 1 cubic inch is equal to: 0.000578703703703 cubic feet 1 tablespoon about 0.554112552 American/English fluid ounces about 0.069264069 American/English cups about 0.000465025413 American/English bushels about 0.004329 American liquid gallons about 0.00010307 barrels of crude oil 0.016387064 liter 16.387064 milliliters or cubic centimeters 0.000016387064 cubic meters The cubic inch was established decades ago as the conventional unit in North America for measuring the volume of electrical boxes.
Because of the extensive export of electrical equipment to other countries, some usage of the non-SI unit can be found outside North America. The cubic inch was used by the automotive industry and aircraft industry in North America to express the nominal engine displacement for the engines of new automobiles, aircraft, etc; the cubic inch is still used for this purpose in classic car collecting. The auto industry now uses liters for this purpose, while reciprocating engines used in commercial aircraft have model numbers based on the cubic inch displacement; the fifth generation Ford Mustang has a Boss 302 version that reflects this heritage - with a five-liter engine similar to the original Boss. Chevrolet has revived this usage on its 427 Corvette. Dodge has a "Challenger 392". In the UK, engine displacement is now denoted in litres. However, cubic inches were sometimes used in the past to denote model numbers. An example is the AEC Reliance bus, available with five different engines: AH470, 470 cubic inches, 7.7 litres AH505, 505 cubic inches, 8.1 litres AH590, 590 cubic inches, 9.6 litres AH691, 691 cubic inches, 11.3 litres AH760, 760 cubic inches, 12.4 litresFor more information and a list of cubic-inch-to-liter displacement conversions, see engine displacement.
Conversion of units Cubic centimeter Cubic foot Orders of magnitude Square inch