click links in text for more info

Triumph of the Will

Triumph of the Will is a 1935 Nazi propaganda film directed, edited, co-written by Leni Riefenstahl. It chronicles the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg, attended by more than 700,000 Nazi supporters; the film contains excerpts from speeches given by Nazi leaders at the Congress, including Adolf Hitler, Rudolf Hess and Julius Streicher, interspersed with footage of massed Sturmabteilung and Schutzstaffel troops and public reaction. Hitler served as an unofficial executive producer; the film's overriding theme is the return of Germany as a great power, with Hitler as the leader who will bring glory to the nation. Because the film was made after the 1934 Night of the Long Knives, many prominent Sturmabteilung members are absent—they were murdered in that Party purge and orchestrated by Hitler to replace the SA with the Schutzstaffel as his main paramilitary force. Triumph of the Will became a major example of film used as propaganda. Riefenstahl's techniques—such as moving cameras, aerial photography, the use of long-focus lenses to create a distorted perspective, the revolutionary approach to the use of music and cinematography—have earned Triumph of the Will recognition as one of the greatest propaganda films in history.

Riefenstahl helped to stage the scenes and rehearsing some of them at least fifty times. Riefenstahl won several awards, not only in Germany but in the United States, France and other countries; the film was popular in the Third Reich, has continued to influence films and commercials to this day. In Germany, the film is not censored but the courts classify it as Nazi propaganda which requires an educational context to public screenings. An earlier film by Riefenstahl—The Victory of Faith —showed Hitler and SA leader Ernst Röhm together at the 1933 Nazi Party Congress. After Röhm's murder, the party attempted the destruction of all copies, leaving only one known to have survived in Britain; the direction and sequencing of images is the same as that Riefenstahl used in Triumph of the Will a year later. Frank Capra's seven-film series Why We Fight is said to have been directly inspired by, the United States' response to, Triumph of the Will; the film begins with the only commentary in the film. It consists of the following text, shown sequentially, against a grey background: Day 1: The film opens with shots of the clouds above the city, moves through the clouds to float above the assembling masses below, with the intention of portraying beauty and majesty of the scene.

The cruciform shadow of Hitler's plane is visible as it passes over the tiny figures marching below, accompanied by an orchestral arrangement of the Horst-Wessel-Lied. Upon arriving at the Nuremberg airport and other Nazi leaders emerge from his plane to thunderous applause and a cheering crowd, he is driven into Nuremberg, through enthusiastic people, to his hotel where a night rally is held. Day 2: The second day begins with images of Nuremberg at dawn, accompanied by an extract from the Act III Prelude of Richard Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. Following this is a montage of the attendees preparing for the opening of the Reich Party Congress, footage of the top Nazi officials arriving at the Luitpold Arena; the film cuts to the opening ceremony, where Rudolf Hess announces the start of the Congress. The camera introduces much of the Nazi hierarchy and covers their opening speeches, including Joseph Goebbels, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, Fritz Todt, Robert Ley and Julius Streicher.

The film cuts to an outdoor rally for the Reichsarbeitsdienst, a series of quasi-military drills by men carrying spades. This is where Hitler gives his first speech on the merits of the Labour Service and praising them for their work in rebuilding Germany; the day ends with a torchlight SA parade in which Viktor Lutze speaks to the crowds. Day 3: The third day starts with a Hitler Youth rally on the parade ground. Again the camera covers the Nazi dignitaries arriving and the introduction of Hitler by Baldur von Schirach. Hitler addresses the Youth, describing in militaristic terms how they must harden themselves and prepare for sacrifice. Everyone present, including General Werner von Blomberg assemble for a military pass and review, featuring Wehrmacht cavalry and various armored vehicles; that night Hitler delivers another speech to low-ranking party officials by torchlight, commemorating the first year since the Nazis took power and declaring that the party and state are one entity. Day 4: The fourth day is the climax of the film, where the most memorable of the imagery is presented.

Hitler, flanked by Heinrich Himmler and Viktor Lutze, walks through a long wide expanse with over 150,000 SA and SS troops standing at attention, to lay a wreath at a First World War memorial. Hitler reviews the parading SA and SS men, following which Hitler and Lutze deliver a speech where they discuss the Night of the Long Knives purge of the SA several months prior. Lutze reaffirms the SA's loyalty to the regime, Hitler absolves the SA of any crimes committed by Ernst Röhm. New party flags are consecrated by letting them touch the Blutfahne and, following a final parade in front of the Nuremberg Frauenkirche, Hitler delivers his closing speech. In it he reaffirms the primacy of the Nazi Party in Germany, declaring, "All loyal Germans will become National Socialists. Only the best National Socialists are party comrades!" He

Summer Bones

Summer Bones is the fourth full-length studio album from the American pop punk band Hit the Lights, released on March 24, 2015. It was mixed by Kyle Black; this is the band's first release on Pure Noise Records, as well as their shortest full-length album to date. The album's final track features guest vocals from original vocalist Colin Ross. In January 2015, Hit the Lights announced the release date for the album. A few days they premiered the first track off the album, "Fucked Up Kids," along with the track listing. Leading up to its release, the band premiered more songs including "The Real" and "No Filter" to build anticipation; the band announced on Twitter. We wrote Summer Bones. We stand by both." Summer Bones premiered on the Glamour Kills website on March 18, 2015. The music video for "Life on the Bottom" premiered on on April 9, 2015. In July and August, the group supported State Champs on the Shot Boys of Summer Tour with Tiny Moving Parts, Let It Happen, Northbound. On March 9, 2016, a music video for "No Filter" was released on YouTube.

The single has since been streamed over 3 million times. In October 2016, the group supported Simple Plan on their tour of Canada. In October and November, the group supported Good Charlotte on their headlining US tour. Acoustic versions of "Blasphemy, Myself and I," "Fucked Up Kids," and "Summer Bones" were released on the band's 2016 EP Just to Get Through to You; the album was included at number 30 on Rock Sound's top 50 releases of 2015 list. "Fucked Up Kids" - 2:31 "The Real" - 2:37 "Life on the Bottom" - 2:27 "Revolutions and Executions" - 3:05 "No Filter" - 2:54 "Blasphemy, Myself and I" - 2:40 "Summer Bones" - 3:45 "Keep Your Head - 1:29 "Sitter" - 2:25 "Old Friend" - 2:33 Nick Thompson - vocals, bass Omar Zehery - guitar, vocals, additional engineering, programming Kevin Mahoney - guitar, vocals Nathan Vandame - drums Colin Ross - guest vocals on "Old Friend" Kevin Ashba - organ and piano on "Summer Bones" Kyle Black -producer, engineer Devin Corey - engineer Colin Shwankee - additional production Jacob Bautista - additional engineering Josh Barber - additional production on "The Real" Brad Blackwood - mastering Mark Metzger - artwork, layout Citations Sources Summer Bones at YouTube

P. A. Sangma

Purno Agitok Sangma was an Indian politician who served as the Speaker of the Lok Sabha from 1996 to 1998 and Chief Minister of Meghalaya from 1988 to 1990. In 1973, Sangma became Vice-President of the Pradesh Youth Congress in Meghalaya and became the General Secretary of the party in 1975, he served in that position from 1975 to 1980. In 1977, he was elected to the 6th Lok Sabha from Tura in Meghalaya and was re-elected from the same constituency multiple times, he represented the Tura constituency in multiple Lok Sabha sessions - from the sixth Lok Sabha session to the eight Lok Sabha session. He did not contest re-election at the time of the formation of the 9th Lok Sabha but did regain his seat in 1991 at the commencement of the 10th Lok Sabha, he remained a member of the Lok Sabha till 2008. He became Speaker of Lok Sabha in 1996, he was the Chief Minister of Meghalaya from 1988 to 1990. Sangma was expelled from the Congress on 20 May 1999, along with Sharad Pawar and Tariq Anwar, for raising the banner of revolt against Sonia Gandhi over the fact that she was a foreign-born citizen.

Sangma along with Pawar and Anwar wanted a native-born citizen to be projected as the Prime Ministerial candidate. After his departure from the Congress Party, he was one of the founders of the Nationalist Congress Party along with Sharad Pawar and Tariq Anwar in 1999. In January 2004, P. A. Sangma created a split in the NCP after Sharad Pawar became close to the NCP's former rival, Sonia Gandhi. After losing a battle for the NCP election symbol, Sangma merged his faction with Mamata Banerjee's Trinamool Congress, forming the Nationalist Trinamool Congress, he resigned from his Lok Sabha seat on 10 October 2005 as a member of AITMC/TMC, was re-elected as an NCP candidate in February 2006. In the 2004 Lok Sabha elections, Sangma was one of two NTC MPs elected, he resigned from the 14th Lok Sabha in March 2008 to take part in the 2008 Meghalaya Legislative Assembly election. On 5 January 2013, Sangma launched the National People's Party on the national level; the National People's Party managed to win two seats in the Meghalaya Legislative Assembly in the 2013 Meghalaya Legislative Assembly election.

Sangma's candidature was proposed by AIADMK and BJD, supported by BJP as well. Sangma resigned from the NCP on 20 June 2012 after opposition from Sharad Pawar over his presidential candidature. Former Union Minister and a Congress tribal leader Arvind Netam came out in favour of the candidature of Sangma for the presidential post. On 22 July 2012, Pranab Mukherjee was declared the victor over P. A. Sangma, crossing the half-way mark of 525,140 votes after votes in half the states had been tallied. While securing the requires quota, Mukherjee secured 558,194 votes to Sangma's 239,966. After the final results were published, Mukherjee secured 7,13,424 value of votes, while P. A. Sangma secured 3,17,032 values of votes; the Returning Officer for the Election, the Secretary General of the Rajya Sabha, Vivek Agnihotri declared Mukherjee to be elected as President of India. Sangma subsequently accused the President-elect of graft. Sangma was born on 1 September 1947 in Chapahati, a village in the erstwhile Garo Hills district of Assam, to Dipchon Ch. Marak and Chimri A. Sangma as one of their seven children.

He had to quit studies due to poverty. He was helped to return to school by a Salesian Father Giovanni Battista Busolin, he obtained a bachelor of arts degree from St. Anthony's College in Shillong before shifting to Dibrugarh in Assam, where he taught in the Don Bosco High School while pursuing master of arts in international politics from Dibrugarh University. Sangma married Soradini K. in 1973. They had two daughters together. Son Conrad was appointed as National President of Nationalist Youth Congress and daughter Agatha are politicians. Agatha was elected from Tura to the 15th Lok Sabha elections in 2009, at 29, was the youngest minister in the UPA ministry. On the morning of 4 March 2016, Sangma died from cardiac arrest in New Delhi, he was aged 68. He was awarded a posthumous Padma Vibhushan in 2017 becoming the first recipient of Padma Vibhushan from Meghalaya. 1974 - Vice President of Meghalaya Pradesh Youth Congress 1975 - The General Secretary of the Meghalaya Pradesh Congress Committee 1977 - Member of Parliament, Tura constituency 1980 - Joint Secretary of the All India Congress Committee 1980 - Deputy Minister in charge of Industry 1982 - Deputy Minister, Ministry of Commerce 1984 - Re-elected, Member of Parliament, Tura constituency 1984 - Minister of State holding charge of Commerce and Supply 1984 - Minister of State for Home Affairs 1986 - Minister of State for Labour with Independent Charge 1988 - Member, Meghalaya Legislative Assembly 1988 - Chief Minister of Meghalaya 1990 - Leader of Opposition, Meghalaya Legislative Assembly 1991 - Re-elected, Member of Parliament, Tura constituency 1991-93 - Union Minister of State, Coal 1993-95 - Union Minister of State, Labour February–September 1995 - Union Minister of State, Labour 1995-96 - Union Cabinet Minister of Information and Broadcasting 1996 - Re-elected, Member of Parliament, Tura constituency 1996-98 - Speaker of Lok Sabha -Chairman, Business Advisory Committee.

Alpine skiing at the 2018 Winter Olympics – Men's super-G

The men's super-G competition of the PyeongChang 2018 Olympics was held on 16 February 2018 at the Jeongseon Alpine Centre in PyeongChang. Set to be held on 15 February 2018, the race was rescheduled to 16 February 2018 after high winds forcing the men's downhill race on 11 February 2018 to be moved to 15 February 2018. In the victory ceremony, the medals were presented by Paul Tergat, member of the International Olympic Committee, accompanied by Peter Schroecksnadel, FIS Council member. A total of up to 320 alpine skiers qualified across all eleven events. Athletes qualified for this event by having met the A qualification standard only, which meant having 80 or less FIS Points and being ranked in the top 500 in the Olympic FIS points list; the Points list takes into average the best results of athletes per discipline during the qualification period. Countries received additional quotas by having athletes ranked in the top 30 of the 2017–18 FIS Alpine Ski World Cup. After the distribution of B standard quotas, the remaining quotas were distributed using the Olympic FIS Points list, with each athlete only counting once for qualification purposes.

A country could only enter a maximum of four athletes for the event. The race was started at 11:00


Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, the use of quantitative methods for their analysis. The term geophysics sometimes refers only to geological applications: Earth's shape. However, modern geophysics organizations and pure scientists use a broader definition that includes the water cycle including snow and ice. Although geophysics was only recognized as a separate discipline in the 19th century, its origins date back to ancient times; the first magnetic compasses were made from lodestones, while more modern magnetic compasses played an important role in the history of navigation. The first seismic instrument was built in 132 AD. Isaac Newton applied his theory of mechanics to the precession of the equinox. In the 20th century, geophysical methods were developed for remote exploration of the solid Earth and the ocean, geophysics played an essential role in the development of the theory of plate tectonics.

Geophysics is applied to societal needs, such as mineral resources, mitigation of natural hazards and environmental protection. In Exploration geophysics, geophysical survey data are used to analyze potential petroleum reservoirs and mineral deposits, locate groundwater, find archaeological relics, determine the thickness of glaciers and soils, assess sites for environmental remediation. Geophysics is a interdisciplinary subject, geophysicists contribute to every area of the Earth sciences. To provide a clearer idea of what constitutes geophysics, this section describes phenomena that are studied in physics and how they relate to the Earth and its surroundings. In Geophysics, principles of Physics are applied to study the "Interior" of the Earth. Depending on the problem under study, one has to decide. E.g. for ground water surveys, Electrical method is helpful. For mineral deposits, one can adopt Gravity and/or Magnetic surveys. For Oil & Natural Gas, one has to carry out Gravity, Magnetic surveys to get rough idea about structure of rock formations.

If the desired structure is existing, for detailed study of rock formations, one has to carry out Seismic and/or Magneto-telluric surveys. The gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun give rise to two high tides and two low tides every lunar day, or every 24 hours and 50 minutes. Therefore, there is a gap of 12 hours and 25 minutes between every high tide and between every low tide. Gravitational forces make rocks press down on deeper rocks, increasing their density as the depth increases. Measurements of gravitational acceleration and gravitational potential at the Earth's surface and above it can be used to look for mineral deposits; the surface gravitational field provides information on the dynamics of tectonic plates. The geopotential surface called; the geoid would be the global mean sea level if the oceans were in equilibrium and could be extended through the continents. The Earth is cooling, the resulting heat flow generates the Earth's magnetic field through the geodynamo and plate tectonics through mantle convection.

The main sources of heat are the primordial heat and radioactivity, although there are contributions from phase transitions. Heat is carried to the surface by thermal convection, although there are two thermal boundary layers – the core-mantle boundary and the lithosphere – in which heat is transported by conduction; some heat is carried up from the bottom of the mantle by mantle plumes. The heat flow at the Earth's surface is about 4.2 × 1013 W, it is a potential source of geothermal energy. Seismic waves are vibrations that travel along its surface; the entire Earth can oscillate in forms that are called normal modes or free oscillations of the Earth. Ground motions from waves or normal modes are measured using seismographs. If the waves come from a localized source such as an earthquake or explosion, measurements at more than one location can be used to locate the source; the locations of earthquakes provide information on mantle convection. Recording of seismic waves from controlled sources provide information on the region that the waves travel through.

If the density or composition of the rock changes, waves are reflected. Reflections recorded using Reflection Seismology can provide a wealth of information on the structure of the earth up to several kilometers deep and are used to increase our understanding of the geology as well as to explore for oil and gas. Changes in the travel direction, called refraction, can be used to infer the deep structure of the Earth. Earthquakes pose a risk to humans. Understanding their mechanisms, which depend on the type of earthquake, can lead to better estimates of earthquake risk and improvements in earthquake engineering. Although we notice electricity during thunderstorms, there is always a downward electric field near the surface that averages 120 volts per meter. Relative to the solid Earth, the atmosphere has a net positive charge due to bombardment by cosmic rays. A current of about 1800 amperes flows in the global

The Road to Hong Kong (soundtrack)

The Road to Hong Kong is a soundtrack album issued by Liberty Records from the film of the same name. The film starred Bing Crosby, Bob Hope, Joan Collins and Robert Morley with cameos from Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Dorothy Lamour, Peter Sellers and David Niven. Robert Farnon conducted the music for the film. All the songs were written by Jimmy Van Sammy Cahn. Robert Farnon wrote four orchestral pieces for the soundtrack and these are annotated in the listing. Bing’s love ballad – “Let’s Not Be Sensible” includes a few lines from Joan Collins and in the film there is an abrupt interruption which curtails the song as Bing is about to sing “love”; the tracks for the film would have been recorded in September 1961 and one assumes a full version would have been laid down of “Let’s Not Be Sensible” prior to its subsequent editing. However, it seems that the original track was mislaid or erased and Bing had returned to the USA by the time the LP was being prepared; the producer of the LP and the complementary single had no choice but to try to use the version employed in the film though the ending was missing.

The solution was to bring in Mike Sammes, a well known vocal arranger and backing singer, to sing the word “love”. The entire album was included in the Sepia Records CD "The Road to Hong Kong / Say One for Me" issued in 2013; the film itself was well received and so was the album. Variety said: Sammy Cahn and Jimmy Van Heusen, a couple of pic pros, have whipped up a serviceable score for the latest Bing Crosby-Bob Hope-Dorothy Lamour “Road” film, it comes over as pleasing soundtrack set that should get a good sales runoff with the pic’s playing dates. The set was done in England with Robert Farnon conducting the orch but the values are pegged for the US market. In the song spotlight are the Crosby-Hope duet on “Team Work”, Crosby’s balladearing on “Let’s Not Be Sensible” and Miss Lamour’s “Warmer than a Whisper”. In all, the package is loaded with a marquee pull and a bright spirit that’s hard to beat