White Salmon River
The White Salmon River is a 44-mile tributary of the Columbia River in the U. S. state of Washington. Originating on the slopes of Mount Adams, it flows into the Columbia Gorge near the community of Underwood. Parts of the river have been designated Scenic; the principal tributaries of the White Salmon River include Trout Lake and Buck, Dry and Rattlesnake Creeks. In 1986, the lower White Salmon River was designated Wild and Scenic between Gilmer Creek and Buck Creek. In 2005, the upper river between the headwaters and the boundary of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest was added to the designation; the two reaches, which are not contiguous, total 27.7 miles, of which 6.7 miles are "wild" and 22.3 miles are "scenic." The White Salmon River is used for whitewater boating nearly year-round. A popular spot to launch a raft or kayak is the public put-in at the unincorporated community of BZ Corner; the day-use area at the put-in includes parking and toilets. Guided whitewater trips can be arranged with commercial outfitters with special-use permits for the White Salmon.
On October 26, 2011, the Condit Dam on the White Salmon River was intentionally breached as part of the dam's decommissioning by PacifiCorp. The breach allowed the river to flow unimpeded for the first time in nearly a century. List of Washington rivers List of National Wild and Scenic Rivers Condit Hydroelectric Project Tributaries of the Columbia River Rafting White Salmon River Dam-breaching video - YouTube Friends of the White Salmon Photo of the river below the dam USGS map of the area The White Salmon River Runs Free: Breaching the Condit Dam Documentary produced by Oregon Field Guide
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
White Salmon, Washington
White Salmon is a city in Klickitat County, United States. It is located in the Columbia River Gorge; the population was 2,193 at the 2000 census and increased 1.4% to 2,224 at the 2010 census. White Salmon was first settled in 1852 by his wife. White Salmon was incorporated on June 3, 1907. White Salmon was part of the home of the Klickitat Tribe, now a part of the Yakama Confederated Nations; the Klickitat Tribe sold some land to the Joslyns. They were Native advocates for the time; the area was thrown open on October 31, 1858 for white settlement after the Klickitat and Yakama lost the fight for their homelands in the Yakama War. Within the same year, the region was rapidly and settled by white immigrants making land claims; the Klickitat were forced to relocate to the Yakama Reservation. White Salmon was named after the White Salmon, a now-extinct species of salmon that lived in the Columbia and surrounding area. White Salmon's current city government includes Mayor David Poucher, re-elected to a new, four-year term in November 2011.
City council member Mark Peppel, who ran unsuccessfully for mayor against Poucher, remains on the council for the last 2 years of his current term. New council members elected in November 2011 to four-year terms include Bill Werst, George Rau, Jason Sabourin and Allan Wolf. White Salmon is located at 45°43′44″N 121°29′1″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.22 square miles, all of it land. The city is located opposite Oregon on the Columbia River; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,224 people, 921 households, 559 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,823.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,039 housing units at an average density of 851.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.8% White, 0.3% African American, 1.4% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 14.7% from other races, 3.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 24.4% of the population. There were 921 households of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.3% were non-families.
33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age in the city was 38.1 years. 25.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.6% male and 51.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,193 people, 887 households, 590 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,759.2 people per square mile. There were 948 housing units at an average density of 760.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.08% White, 0.23% African American, 1.14% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 12.04% from other races, 2.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.83% of the population. There were 887 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.1% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.4% were non-families.
29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,787, the median income for a family was $39,653. Males had a median income of $33,021 versus $20,417 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,995. About 13.0% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.6% of those under age 18 and 12.8% of those age 65 or over. City website The Enterprise, local newspaper
Washington State Route 141
State Route 141 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Washington, running from SR 14 in Bingen to the Skamania County line west of Trout Lake, travelling along the Wild and Scenic White Salmon River to the base of Mount Adams. At the Gifford Pinchot National Forest border, it becomes Forest Road 24 known as the Carson-Guler Road, it is a major access to recreation areas on the south side of Mount Adams, including the Mount Adams Wilderness and the Mount Adams Recreation Area. Beginning in downtown Bingen at SR 14, SR 141 travels up a long grade to White Salmon. After passing through the downtown, SR 141 travels through rural White Salmon, intersecting with SR 141 Alternate and continues northward along the Wild and Scenic White Salmon River to BZ Corner, ends at rural Trout Lake at the southern base of Mount Adams, towering at 12,276 ft; the road travels through vegetation showing the convergence of the moist west side and drier east side of the Cascades, as seen by the Ponderosa Pine-dominated sunny forests.
A 2.16-mile alternate route connects SR 141 to SR 14 in Underwood. Between 1964 and 1967, SR 121 ran throughout the route. In 1967, what had been SR 12 was renumbered SR 14, SR 121 was renumbered to reflect that. During that time, SR 141 ran from Riffe to SR 7 in Morton, it became part of a realigned U. S. Route 12 in 1967. Prior to the 1964 renumbering, current State Route 141 was designated Secondary State Highway 8-D, it was added to the state highway system in 1937. SR 141 Alternate was added to the state highway system in 1951 as part as SSH 8-D; the entire highway is in Klickitat County. Highways of Washington State
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Wishram is a census-designated place in Klickitat County, United States. The population was 213 at the 2000 census; the site of the historic Celilo Falls is nearby. The community was named Fallbridge; the nearby Dalles Dam was completed in 1957, began filling Lake Celilo. The original fishing village near this location was inundated. Wishram is located at 45°39′40″N 120°57′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.3 square miles, all of it land. Wishram's location results from two major geological features: the location of the Celilo Falls on the Columbia River, the access to the Central Oregon Plateau via the Deschutes River just across the falls from Wishram; the falls not only provided early peoples a reliable source of food, but it provided a convenient location for an constructed railroad bridge crossing the Columbia. The Deschutes valley just to the south of the falls provided a route for rail access to the south, to California. Wishram lies toward the upper end of the Columbia River Gorge, which began forming as far back as the Miocene, depositing thick layers of Columbia River Basalt, continued to take shape through the Pleistocene.
During this period the Cascades Range was forming moving the Columbia River's course north to its current location. Although the river eroded the land over this period of time, the most drastic changes took place at the end of the last Ice Age when the Missoula Floods cut the steep, dramatic walls that exist around Wishram today. During the flood, the water level rose to 700 feet above the current level, violently eroding and exposing the layered basalt; this quick erosion left many layers of volcanic rock exposed. As of the census of 2010, there were 342 people, 146 households, 83 families residing in the CDP; the racial makeup of the CDP was 88.9% White, 1.2% African American, 6.1% Native American, 1.2% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.5% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 213 people, 122 households, 89 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 254.2 people per square mile. There were 122 housing units at an average density of 152.2/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the CDP was 84.9% White, 0% African American, 9.3% Native American, 3.1% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.1% of the population. There were 122 households out of which 21.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.1% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.4% were non-families. 36.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.74. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 19.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $26,667, the median income for a family was $23,750.
Males had a median income of $31,042 versus $23,229 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $15,414. About 27.7% of families and 26.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.3% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over. The area of Wishram was located 1/2 mile above the head of the great Celilo Falls on the Columbia, as a result has been populated for an extended period. For ~ 15,000 years, native peoples gathered to exchange goods, they built wooden platforms out over the water and caught salmon with dipnets and long spears on poles as the fish swam up through the rapids and jumped over the falls. Celilo Falls and The Dalles were strategically located at the border between Chinookan and Sahaptian speaking peoples and served as the center of an extensive trading network across the Pacific Plateau, it was noted by early historians of the area. In 1892 the U. S. government completed a set of locks to bypass Celilo Falls on the southern shore, across from Wishram.
Built at a cost of $5,000,000 these locks saw limited service as much of the freight in and out of the Pacific Northwest began to travel by rail. In 1912 the unincorporated town was known as Fallbridge, named in recognition of the southern extension of the Spokane and Seattle Railway, which crossed the Columbia on the Oregon Trunk Rail Bridge constructed on the basalt rock of Celilo Falls. Lewis and Clark mentioned the site of Wishram in their journal. In his journal for 22 October 1805, Clark recorded: "below this Island on the main Stard Shore is 16 Lodges of nativs. Side is 17 Lodges of the nativs we landed and walked down accompanied by an old man to view the falls, the best rout for to make a portage which we Soon discovered was much nearest on the Stard. Side, the distance 1200 yards one third of the way on a rock, about 200 yards over a loose Sand
Bickleton is a census-designated place in Klickitat County, United States. Bickleton was first settled by Charles N. Bickle and established in 1879; the population was 88 at the 2010 census. Bickleton was first settled by Charles N. Bickle, who established a trading post and livery stable at the site, he served as the area's first postmaster. In 1879, the town was named after Bickle; the town's economy was based on cattle ranching and wheat farming. A series of fires in 1937 and 1947 destroyed many of the town's original buildings; the oldest surviving building in Bickleton is the Bluebird Inn, a tavern which first opened in 1882. It is billed as the oldest functioning tavern in the state, although it has changed ownership numerous times and operated under different names throughout its history; the tavern includes a 1903 Brunswick pool table, still used by regulars. The town has held an annual picnic and rodeo continuously since 1910; the festival features a 1905 Herschell-Spillman carousel, which the town purchased from Oaks Amusement Park in Portland, Oregon in 1928.
Bickleton is known as the bluebird capital of the world. In the 1950s, Jess and Elva Brinkerhoff were picnicking in this small town after coming from nearby Richland and put a can in a tree for some birds, it became a local fad and now there are thousands of birdhouses purposely built to house bluebirds. Both the mountain the western bluebird nest in Bickleton. Maintaining the houses by cleaning old nests is a major task for the local residents, it is funded by profits from bluebird souvenirs sold to tourists at Whitmore's Whoop-n-Holler Ranch Museum. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 12.9 square miles, all of it land. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Bickleton has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 113 people, 49 households, 31 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 8.8 people per square mile. There were 65 housing units at an average density of 5.0/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the CDP was 92.92% White, 2.65% Native American, 2.65% Pacific Islander, 1.77% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.19% of the population. There were 49 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.87. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 3.5% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 29.2% from 45 to 64, 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $34,500, the median income for a family was $48,125. Males had a median income of $42,500 versus $0 for females.
The per capita income for the CDP was $17,580. There were 20.0% of families and 20.2% of the population living below the poverty line, including 36.1% of under eighteens and none of those over 64. Community website