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Trucial States

The Trucial States was the name the British government gave to a group of tribal confederations in south-eastern Arabia, known as the "Pirate Coast". The name derived from the territories whose principal sheikhs had signed protective treaties with the British government from 1820 until 1892, they remained an informal British protectorate until the treaties were revoked on 1 December 1971. The following day six of the sheikhdoms formed the United Arab Emirates; the sheikhdoms included: Abu Dhabi Ajman Dubai Fujairah Kalba Ras Al Khaimah Sharjah Umm Al Quwain The sheikhdoms permanently allied themselves with the United Kingdom through a series of treaties, beginning with the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 and including the Perpetual Maritime Truce of 1853, until in 1892 they entered into "Exclusivity Agreements" with the British—following on from Bahrain in 1880—which put them under British protection. This was an unclear status which fell short of a formal protectorate, but required Britain to defend them from external aggression in exchange for exclusive British rights in the states.

Two sheikhdoms at various times looked as if they might be granted trucial status, affirming their independence from neighbouring Sharjah, Al Hamriyah and Al Heera, but neither signed treaties with the British. Kalba, granted trucial status in 1936 because it was chosen as the site of a back-up landing strip for the Imperial Airways flights into Sharjah, was re-incorporated into Sharjah in 1951 on the death of its ruler; the last sheikhdom to be granted recognition was that of Fujairah, which became a trucial state in 1952 after the British Government came under pressure from PCL to grant status in order that the company could have a free hand to explore for oil along the whole east coast. In 1952, the Trucial States Council was established to encourage co-operation between the seven Rulers; the Indian rupee remained the de facto currency of the Trucial States as well as the other Persian Gulf states such as Qatar and Oman until these countries introduced their own currencies in 1969, after the great devaluation of the rupee.

The south eastern Persian Gulf coast was called the "Pirate Coast" by the British, who argued that raiders based there - the'Qawasim' or'Joasmees' - now known as the Al Qasimi, harassed British flagged shipping. The first in a long series of maritime skirmishes between the Al Qasimi and British vessels took place in 1797, when the British-flagged snow Bassein was seized and released two days later; the cruiser Viper was subsequently attacked off Bushire. The Al Qasimi leader, Saqr bin Rashid Al Qasimi, protested innocence in both cases. A period of great instability followed along the coast, with a number of actions between British and Al Qasimi vessels alongside various changes of leadership and allegiances between the Rulers of Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah with Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr Al Qasimi claiming sovereignty over'all the Joasmee ports' in 1823, a claim recognised by the British at the time. British expeditions to protect British Indian trade and interests around Ras al-Khaimah, close to the Strait of Hormuz, led to campaigns against that headquarters and other harbours along the coast, in 1809 but again in 1819.

The next year, 1820, a peace treaty was signed to. The signatories to that treaty included Sultan bin Saqr Al Qasimi of Sharjah, on 8 January at Ras Al Khaimah, Hassan Bin Rahma Al Qasimi signed as "Sheikh of'Hatt and Falna' of Ras Al Khaimah", followed on 10 January by Qadib bin Ahmad of Jazirah Al Hamrah signed. On 11 January 1820, again at Ras Al Khaimah, Shakhbut bin Diyab Al Nahyan signed on behalf of his son, the Sheikh of the Bani Yas and Ruler of Abu Dhabi. Husain bin Ali of Rams signed on the 15th; the uncle of Muhammad bin Hazza of Dubai signed on the 28th in Sharjah. The Rulers of Ajman and Umm Al Quwain acceded to the full treaty on 15 March, signing on board the ship of the commander of the British expeditionary force, Major-General William Keir Grant; the treaty was signed, at Sharjah, by the emir of Bahrain. The Sheikh of Rams lost the support of his people soon after and both he and the Sheikh of Jazirah Al Hamrah were deposed and their communities became subject to the rule of Ras Al Khaimah.

However, the Al-Zaabi family continued to rule Jazirah Al Hamrah as vassals until 1970. As a peace treaty it was not a conspicuous success: skirmishes and conflicts, considered as raids by the British, continued intermittently until 1835, when the sheikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea and Sharjah, Dubai and Abu Dhabi signed a renewed treaty banning hostilities during the pearling season and a number of other short treaties were made, culminating with the ten-year truce of June 1843. Feeling the benefit of peaceful pearling and trade, the coastal Sheikhs signed the Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace in 1853, a process overseen by the British political agent at B

2015 Euroformula Open Championship

The 2015 Euroformula Open Championship was a multi-event motor racing championship for single-seat open wheel formula racing cars, held across Europe. The championship featured drivers competing in two-litre Formula Three racing cars built by Italian constructor Dallara which conformed to the technical regulations, or formula, for the championship; the series changed tyre supplier from Dunlop to Michelin. It was the second Euroformula Open Championship season. RP Motorsport driver Vitor Baptista claimed the championship title by five points, winning six races during the 2015 campaign, including four consecutive victories during the second half of the season; the runner-up position in the championship went to Konstantin Tereshchenko for Campos Racing, who like Baptista, took six victories during the season. The championship top-three was completed by Yu Kanamaru, who took a single race victory at Silverstone for Emilio de Villota's team. Other drivers to win races were DAV Racing's Alessio Rovera and Leonardo Pulcini, while Baptista's teammate Damiano Fioravanti won at Monza.

These seven wins for RP Motorsport enabled them to win the teams' championship by ten points ahead of Campos Racing. In the Spanish Formula Three sub-classification and Campos Racing snared their respective titles. Over the three meetings at Jerez and Barcelona, Tereshchenko won four of the six races to best Baptista by thirty-seven points, who only won once, at Estoril. Kanamaru finished a further nine points in arrears in third place. With Tereshchenko's four wins, Campos Racing finished nine points clear of RP Motorsport in the teams' championship. All cars were powered by Toyota engines. An eight-round provisional calendar was revealed on 5 November 2014. On 2 December 2014, it was confirmed. All rounds, except for Jerez, supported the International GT Open series, with rounds denoted with a blue background being part of the Spanish Formula Three Championship. Only the fourteen best results counted towards the championship. Points were awarded as follows: Points were awarded as follows: Points were awarded as follows: Points were awarded as follows: Official website

Jacob Needleman

Jacob Needleman is an American philosopher and religious scholar. Born into a Jewish family, Needleman was educated at Harvard University, Yale University, the University of Freiburg, Germany, he is a professor of philosophy at San Francisco State University and is said to have "popularized the term'new religious movements'." Needleman was honored by the New York Open Center in New York City in 2006. Needleman narrates classical religious texts in audiobook format, including the Taoist Tao Te Ching and the Hindu Bhagavad Gita; the New Religions A Sense of the Cosmos:The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth Sacred Tradition & Present Need On the Way to Self Knowledge Speaking of My Life: The Art of Living in the Cultural Revolution Lost Christianity: A Journey of Rediscovery to the Centre of Christian Experience The Heart of Philosophy The Way of the Physician Sorcerers: A Novel Real Philosophy: An Anthology of the Universal Search for Meaning Money and the Meaning of Life Modern Esoteric Spirituality Eros A Little Book On Love Time and the Soul: Where has all the Meaningful Time Gone - And Can We Get it Back?

The American Soul: Rediscovering the Wisdom of the Founders The Wisdom of Love: Toward a Shared Inner Search Why Can't We Be Good? What is God? An Unknown World: Notes on the Meaning of the Earth Necessary Wisdom: Jacob Needleman talks about God, money and the need for philosophy, in conversations with D. Patrick Miller. I am Not I Official site Sun Magazine article SF Gate article

László Kalmár

László Kalmár was a Hungarian mathematician and Professor at the University of Szeged. Kalmár is considered the founder of mathematical logic and theoretical computer science in Hungary. Kalmár was of Jewish ancestry, his early life mixed promise and tragedy. His father died when he was young, his mother died when he was 17, the year he entered the University of Budapest, making him an orphan. Kalmár's brilliance manifested itself while in Budapest schools. At the University of Budapest, his teachers included Fejér, his fellow students included the future logician Rózsa Péter. Kalmár graduated in 1927, he discovered mathematical logic, his chosen field, while visiting Göttingen in 1929. Upon completing his doctorate at Budapest, he took up a position at the University of Szeged; that university was made up of staff from the former University of Kolozsvár, a major Hungarian university before World War I that found itself after the War in Romania. Kolozsvár was renamed Cluj; the Hungarian university moved to Szeged in 1920, where there had been no university.

The appointment of Haar and Riesz turned Szeged into a major research center for mathematics. Kalmár began his career as a research assistant to Riesz. Kalmár was appointed a full professor at Szeged in 1947, he was the inaugural holder of Szeged's chair for the Foundations of Mathematics and Computer Science. He founded Szeged's Cybernetic Laboratory and the Research Group for Mathematical Logic and Automata Theory. In mathematical logic, Kalmár proved that certain classes of formulas of the first order predicate calculus were decidable. In 1936, he proved that the predicate calculus could be formulated using a single binary predicate, if the recursive definition of a term was sufficiently rich, he discovered an alternative form of primitive recursive arithmetic, known as elementary recursive arithmetic, based on primitive functions that differ from the usual kind. He did his utmost to promote computers and computer science in Hungary, he wrote on theoretical computer science, including programming languages, automatic error correction, non-numerical applications of computers, the connection between computer science and mathematical logic.

Kalmar is one of the few logicians who has raised doubts about Church's Thesis that all intuitively mechanistic, algorithmic functions are representable by recursive functions. Kalmar was elected to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1949, was awarded the Kossuth Prize in 1950 and the Hungarian State Prize in 1975. In 1933 Kalmár married Erzsébet Arvay. Kalmar defined what are known as elementary functions, number-theoretic functions built up from the notions of composition and variables, the constants 0 and 1, repeated addition + of the constants, proper subtraction ∸, bounded summation and bounded product. Elimination of the bounded product from this list yields the subelementary or lower elementary functions. By use of the abstract computational model called a register machine Schwichtenberg provides a demonstration that "all elementary functions are computable and defined". Stephen C. Kleene 1952, 1971 6th reprint with emendations, 10th printing 1999, Introduction to Metamathematics, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam NY.

ISBN 0-7204-2103-9 Helmut Schwichtenberg, see under "Computability" at http://sakharov.net/foundation.html, or http://www.mathematik.uni-muenchen.de/~schwicht/lectures/logic/ws03/comp.pdf. Exact source of this TBD. Kalmar, L. Zurückführung des Entscheidungsproblems auf den Fall von Formeln mit einer einzigen binären Funktionsvariablen, Comp. Math. Bd. 4 Quine, W. V. Reduction to a Dyadic Predicate. J. Symbolic Logic 19, no. 3, 180-182 László Kalmár at the Mathematics Genealogy Project MacTutor The source for most of this entry

Newport Township, Lake County, Illinois

Newport Township is a township in Lake County, Illinois, USA. As of the 2010 census, its population was 6,770, it includes the villages of Wadsworth and Old Mill Creek, as well as smaller portions of the villages of Antioch and Beach Park and a corner of the city of Waukegan. The unincorporated communities of Millburn and Russell are within the township. Newport Township covers an area of 32.3 square miles. Lakes in this township include Sterling Lake; the streams of Mill Creek, North Mill Creek and Pettibone Creek run through this township. Old Mill Creek Wadsworth Waukegan Benton Township Zion Township Waukegan Township Warren Township Antioch Township Lake Villa Township The township contains four cemeteries: Millburn, Mount Rest and Saint Patricks. Herbert C Maas Airport The schools in the district include: Public elementary/middle schools Spaulding Elementary School, grades PK-2 O Plaine Intermediate School, grades 3-5 Viking Middle School, grades 6-8 Woodland Elementary School, Gurnee K-3 Woodland Intermediate School, grades 4-5 Woodland Middle School, grades 6-8 Gurnee Grade School, grades K-8Public high school Warren Township High School, grades 9-12Private elementary/middle schools S Da Christian School of Lake County, grades KG-8 The schools in the district include: Public elementary schools Hillcrest Elementary School, grades PK-2 Antioch Elementary School, grades 2-5 Oakland Elementary School, grades 2-5 W C Petty Elementary School, grades 2-5 Emmons Grade School, grades K-8 Grass Lake Grade School, grades PK-8Public middle school Antioch Middle School, grades 6-8Public high school Antioch Community High School, grades 9-12Private elementary/middle schools St Peter Catholic School, grades KG-8 Faith Evangelical Lutheran School, grades PK-8 The schools in the district include: Public elementary schools: Howe Elementary School, Beach Park, grades K-5 Kenneth Murphy Elementary School, Beach Park, grades K-5 Newport Elementary School, grades K-5 Oak Crest Elementary School, grades K-5Public middle school: Beach Park Middle School, Beach Park, grades 6-8 The schools in the district include: Millburn Elementary School, grades K-5 Millburn Middle School, grades 6-8 U.

S. Board on Geographic Names United States Census Bureau cartographic boundary files Newport Township official website US-Counties.com City-Data.com US Census Illinois State Archives

1781 in France

Events from the year 1781 in France Monarch – Louis XVI 6 January – Battle of Jersey May – Invasion of Tobago 12 December – Battle of Ushant Messier 87, a supergiant elliptical galaxy, was discovered by French astronomer Charles Messier. 27 March – Charles Joseph Minard, engineer 1 May – François-Désiré Breton, naval officer 18 March – Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, statesman. 16 August – Charles-François de Broglie, marquis de Ruffec and diplomat Christophe de Beaumont, archbishop