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Trucker's hitch

The trucker's hitch is a compound knot used for securing loads on trucks or trailers. This general arrangement, using loops and turns in the rope itself to form a crude block and tackle, has long been used to tension lines and is known by multiple names. Knot author Geoffrey Budworth claims the knot can be traced back to the days when carters and hawkers used horse-drawn conveyances to move their wares from place to place; the portion of the trucker's hitch which differs in the following variations is the method used to form the loop which the working end slides through to produce the mechanical advantage. The different methods of forming the loop affect the ease and speed of tying and releasing and the stability of the final product; the variations are presented in order of increasing stability. This version of the knot uses a sheepshank-like construction, in this kind of application known as a bell ringer's knot, to form the loop, it is less dependable. It is avoided in critical applications as it can fall apart under too little load or too much load, can capsize if not dressed properly.

However, this knot may be made secure by adding a Half Hitch by using the top bight of the Sheepshank. This form of the trucker's hitch is least to jam, coming apart once tension is released. Different sources show slight variations in the way the sheepshank portion is dressed. Versions popular in East Asia use variations of sheep shank using either a simple half hitch or a double turn self crossing half hitch or a triple turn self crossing half hitch. A sheep shank with two consecutive half hitches i.e. a clove hitch to secure the upper eye and to form the lower eye is more popular in the west. The loop formed in one version is a simple Slipped Overhand Loop; this version is good for light to moderate loads Another version uses a multiply twisted bight to pass a bight of the working end to form the eye of the loop. This version tolerates higher load; the most reliable common variation uses a fixed loop, such as an alpine butterfly loop, artillery loop, figure-eight loop, or another of many suitable loop knots.

If a fixed loop is used for tying the trucker's hitch in the same portion of rope, excessive wear or other damage may be suffered by the portion of the loop which working end slides against. If extra loops are used to form the eye it tends to ease untying. In order to prevent the closing of the loop under load, the loop must be formed by the working end of the rope. If the standing end goes through the loop, it will close under load. In tightening the trucker's hitch, tension can be increased by pulling sideways while preventing the tail end from slipping through the loop, cinching the knot tighter as the sideways force is released; this is called "sweating a line". Once tight, the trucker's hitch is secured with a half hitch slipped for easy releasing and to avoid the necessity of access to the end of the rope, though a more secure finish, such as two half-hitches, may be called for. Under large loads, the finishing half hitch can jam if it is not slipped. Finishing with a taut-line hitch or a Farrimond friction hitch to the standing part allows the finishing knot to be tied and untied with no tension.

This eliminates any jamming problems and allows the line to be re-tensioned if necessary. All common variations of the trucker's hitch use a loop in the standing part of the rope and the anchor point as makeshift pulleys in order to theoretically obtain a 3 to 1 mechanical advantage while pulling on the working end. There is sometimes confusion about how much theoretical mechanical advantage is provided by the trucker's hitch. If the trucker's hitch were to be used as in the pulley diagram at right, to lift a weight off the floor, the theoretical mechanical advantage would be only 2:1; however in the common use of the trucker's hitch, a static hook, ring, or rail, serves as the lower pulley, the rope across the top of the load is the portion being tensioned. Thus, the standing part of the rope is represented by the top anchor point in the diagram, the theoretical ratio is indeed 3:1 when the working end is tensioned; that is, in a frictionless system, every unit of force exerted on the working end would produce 3 units in the standing part of the rope over the load.

In the typical use of the trucker's hitch, where it is used to tighten a rope over a load, when the end is secured to the loop of the Truckers hitch and let go, the tension in the two segments of rope around the ring will rise 50%, unless the rope slackens when it is being tied off, in which case the tension may drop to any value or zero if enough slack is allowed. But when the trucker's hitch is used as in the diagram, after tying off, the load on the attachment point above the top pulley will drop to 400 lb and the tension in the two lines going to the lower pulley will not change. Theoretical considerations aside, in real world use the mechanical advantage of the trucker's hitch is less than the ideal case due to the effects of friction. Friction has been reported to reduce the mechanical advantage from 3 to 1, to well less than 2 to 1 in many cases. One advantage of the friction within the trucker's hitch, compared to a hypothetical pulley-based system, is that it allows the hitch to be held taut with less force while the working end is secured.

The trucker's hitch knot is portrayed by comedy duo Ylvis in their 2014 song with the same name. The lyrics and the video pretend to demonstrate how to tie the

New York State Route 252

New York State Route 252 is an east–west state highway south of Rochester in Monroe County, New York, in the United States. The western terminus of the route is at an intersection with NY 33A in Chili and the eastern terminus is at a junction with NY 64 and NY 96 in the village of Pittsford. NY 252 passes through the center of the town of Henrietta's commercial district, where it intersects NY 15; the route passes through three distinct areas: a populated, rural area of Chili west of the Genesee River, the developed commercial district centered on NY 252's intersections with NY 15 and NY 15A, a residential area of the town of Pittsford. When NY 252 was assigned in the early 1930s, it extended from Scottsville Road in Chili to the village of Pittsford. NY 252 was extended northwest to Chili Center in 1949 by way of modern NY 252A, east to Bushnell's Basin in November 1955 after NY 96 was realigned onto part of the Eastern Expressway; the route was shifted southward onto its present alignment through Chili in the late 1950s and cut back to Pittsford c. 1961.

The segment of NY 252 west of NY 383 was county-maintained. NY 252 begins at an intersection with NY 33A in the Monroe County town of Chili; the route heads eastward, following Beaver Road through a sparsely populated area of Chili. About 0.5 miles from NY 33A, NY 252 intersects NY 386. The highway continues onward paralleling Black Creek eastward to an intersection with Archer Road. Here, Beaver Road comes to an end while NY 252 adopts the Archer Road name and heads southeastward, crossing over Black Creek as it approaches Ballantyne Road. At Ballantyne Road, Archer Road NY 252 changes names once more to Ballantyne Road; as Ballantyne Road, the route progresses northeastward, paralleling Black Creek as it crosses the Rochester and Southern Railroad. 0.5 miles past the railroad crossing, the road curves to the southeast, entering a residential area as it approaches the Genesee River and NY 383, which runs along the river's western bank. At NY 383, NY 252 becomes Jefferson Road, a name that follows NY 252 eastward to its terminus in the village of Pittsford.

NY 252 enters the town of Henrietta by way of the Ballantyne Bridge. On the opposite bank of the river, NY 252 intersects East River Road, Scottsville Road's counterpart on the eastern river bank. Just east of the river, the route passes north of the campus of the Rochester Institute of Technology, one of largest colleges in the Rochester area. NY 252 connects to the college by way of Lomb Memorial Drive and Lowenthal Road before proceeding eastward into an area of Henrietta dominated by commercial establishments. From Brighton–Henrietta Town Line Road east to South Winton Road, NY 252 is at least four lanes wide and is lined with plazas and shopping centers; the approximate center of Henrietta's commercial district is situated near the modified diamond interchange that links NY 252 to NY 15. The Marketplace Mall and South Town Plaza, the two largest shopping centers in the area, are both located in the vicinity of this intersection. NY 252 intersects NY 15A and meets Interstate 390 at an interchange prior to intersecting Winton Road.

East of Winton Road, NY 252 narrows to two lanes and enters a residential neighborhood. At the Henrietta–Pittsford town line, the route passes the Locust Hill Country Club. Past Locust Hill, NY 252 continues past a series of residential neighborhoods to an intersection with NY 65. East of NY 65, NY 252 becomes West Jefferson Road and enters an area of open, cultivated fields before entering the village of Pittsford; the route heads east for four blocks as a residential street, passing Pittsford Sutherland High School before ending at an intersection with South Main Street. NY 252 was assigned in the early 1930s to the portion of its modern alignment east of Scottsville Road in Chili, it was extended northwest to NY 33A and then-NY 251 in the hamlet of Chili Center via Scottsville and Paul roads on January 1, 1949, replacing NY 198. In November 1955, NY 96 was realigned onto the new Eastern Expressway from Bushnell's Basin to East Rochester, its former surface routing between the village of Pittsford and Bushnell's Basin became part of an extended NY 252.

The west end of NY 252 was altered in the late 1950s to follow Ballantyne and Beaver Roads between NY 33A and NY 383, while the east end was truncated back to Pittsford c. 1961 when the Eastern Expressway was redesignated as I-490. The former routing of NY 252 along Paul Road was redesignated as NY 252A; the portion of NY 252 west of NY 383 was maintained by Monroe County. This section was concurrent with three different county route designations, one for each of the three different road names along this stretch; the portion of NY 252 on Ballantyne Road was designated by Monroe County as County Route 125 while the Beaver Road segment was CR 127 and the Archer Road piece was CR 129. In 2007, ownership and maintenance of NY 252 west of NY 383 was transferred from Monroe County to the state of New York as part of a highway maintenance swap between the two levels of government. A bill to enact the swap was introduced in the New York State Senate on April 23 and passed by both the Senate and the New York State Assembly on June 20.

The act was signed into law by Governor Eliot Spitzer on August 28. Under the terms of the act, it took effect 90 days; the entirety of NY 252 is now maintained by the New York State Department of Transportation

Christophe Rocancourt

Christophe Thierry Daniel Rocancourt, sometimes called Christopher Rocancourt, is a French impostor and confidence man who scammed affluent people by masquerading in turn as a French nobleman, the heir to the Rockefeller family or family member of a celebrity. Rocancourt told Dateline NBC in a 2006 broadcast that his mother sometimes worked as a prostitute and his father was an alcoholic who took Christophe to an orphanage when the boy was 5, his first big con was made in Paris, where he faked the deed to a property that he did not own, which he "sold" for US$1.4 million. Making his way to the United States, Rocancourt used at least a dozen aliases, got the rich and powerful to invest in his schemes, he told Dateline, by tapping into their greed, he convinced them that he, was rich by paying for their lavish dinners in cash. He once estimated to Dateline that his various schemes/ventures netted him at least US$40 million, but this cannot be confirmed. In Los Angeles, he pretended to be a movie producer, ex-boxing champion or venture capitalist claiming to be the illegitimate son of Sophia Loren, the nephew of Oscar de la Renta and Dino De Laurentiis, he associated himself with various celebrities: he lived for a time with Mickey Rourke, convinced actor Jean-Claude Van Damme to produce his next movie.

He was in talks with Jermaine Jackson to develop a line of fragrances inspired by Michael Jackson songs. Rocancourt, using the name Christopher De Laurentiis, married Gry Park in 1992 with whom he had a child, he married Playboy model Pia Reyes in May 1996, they had a son, Zeus. Beside being married to Pia Reyes, according to the press, he lived with Playboy model Rhonda Rydell for six months, she did not know Rocancourt was married, said he had told her he was French nobility, the son of a countess. In 1997 police raided Rocancourt's hotel suite, in 1998 he was arrested for an involvement in a shootout before he jumped bail. In 1999 he was freed of charges of forging passports after he had bribed State Department employees to get a passport, he was arrested in 2000 in the Hamptons for an unpaid hotel bill jumped bail and relocated to Canada where he assumed the identity of Grand Prix driver Michael van Hoven. On April 27, 2001 he and Reyes were detained in Victoria, British Columbia and Rocancourt was charged with defrauding an elderly couple.

Rocancourt served a year in prison before being extradited to New York and pleading guilty to charges of theft, grand larceny, bribery and fraud against 19 victims. In September 2003, the plea resulted in a fine of $9 million, an order to pay $1.2 million in restitution and a term of three years and ten months in federal prison. While being held in Canada, Rocancourt wrote. In Switzerland, police have connected him with a jewel theft, barred him from the country for 14 years. Rocancourt returned to Paris in October 2005 after completing his prison sentence, he lived with former Miss France Sonia Rolland, they had a daughter together, named Tess. They announced their split in early 2008. In July 2009, French filmmaker Catherine Breillat accused Rocancourt of scamming her out of €700,000. Breillat, diagnosed with a cerebrovascular disease in 2004, accused him of taking advantage of her due to her mental incapacity. Due to this event, the film Bad Love, with Rocancourt and model Naomi Campbell, was cancelled.

Breillat told a French journalist that her first meeting with Rocancourt was the worst day of her life worse than the day when she was diagnosed with her cerebrovascular disease. In 2012, Rocancourt was convicted of "abus de faiblesse" for taking Breillat's money, sentenced to prison; the American Court TV television series Mugshots released an episode on the Christophe Rocancourt titled Chris Rocancourt - A French Con, aired in 2013. Catherine Breillat's 2014 film "Abuse of Weakness" presents a fictionalized depiction of her relationship with Rocancourt. Christophe Rocancourt on IMDb CourtTV video files about Rocancourt Counterfeit Rockefeller Faux Rockefeller'I misled people' Con artist's luck runs out in British Columbia Pure People The Rockefeller from Honfleur and other lies

Charisma (gastropod)

Charisma is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Trochidae, the top snails. A genus related without a varix to the outer lip; the species are spirally sculptured. Their umbilicus has an internal funicle; the operculum is corneous, multispiral, with a spiral frilled lamella. Charisma arenacea Charisma candida Charisma carinata Charisma compacta Hedley, C. 1915 Charisma josephi Charisma latebrosa Charisma radians Charisma simplex Cotton, B. C. 1959. South Australian Mollusca. Archaeogastropoda. Govt. Printer, Adelaide Iredale, T. & McMichael, D. F. 1962. A reference list of the marine Mollusca of New South Wales. Mem. Aust. Mus. 11:0-0 Hickman, C. S. & McLean, J. H. 1990 26 November.. Systematic revision and suprageneric classification of trochacean gastropods. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series, 35:1-169 Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gastropods. Odyssey Publishing, Kallaroo, WA To ITIS To World Register of Marine Species

Pyrus elaeagrifolia

Pyrus elaeagrifolia, the oleaster-leafed pear, is a species of wild pear plant in the genus Pyrus, the specific name referring to the similarity of its foliage to that of Elaeagnus angustifolia - the so-called'wild olive' or oleaster. It is native to Albania, Greece, Romania and Ukraine's Crimea, it prefers dry habitat and elevations up to 1,700 meters. It grows to a height of 10 meters; the flowers are hermaphrodite. The species is resistant to drought and frost, it is sympatric with Pyrus pyraster. The species was first described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1793. Known subspecies are: Pyrus elaeagrifolia subsp. Elaeagrifolia, Pyrus elaeagrifolia subsp. Kotschyana, Pyrus elaeagrifolia subsp. Bulgarica, Pyrus elaeagrifolia subsp. Yaltirikii. Media related to Pyrus elaeagrifolia at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Pyrus elaeagrifolia at Wikispecies

Noah Webster

Noah Webster Jr. was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer and prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship and Education", his "Blue-backed Speller" books taught five generations of American children how to read. Webster's name has become synonymous with "dictionary" in the United States the modern Merriam-Webster dictionary, first published in 1828 as An American Dictionary of the English Language. Born in West Hartford, Webster graduated from Yale College in 1778, he passed the bar examination after studying law under Oliver Ellsworth and others, but was unable to find work as a lawyer. He found some financial success by opening a private school and writing a series of educational books, including the "Blue-Backed Speller." A strong supporter of the American Revolution and the ratification of the United States Constitution, Webster criticized American society for being in need of an intellectual foundation.

He believed. In 1793, Alexander Hamilton recruited Webster to move to New York City and become an editor for a Federalist Party newspaper, he became a prolific author, publishing newspaper articles, political essays, textbooks. He served in the Connecticut House of Representatives. Webster founded the Connecticut Society for the Abolition of Slavery in 1791 but became somewhat disillusioned with the abolitionist movement. In 1806, Webster published A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language; the following year, he started working on an expanded and comprehensive dictionary publishing it in 1828. He was influential in popularizing certain spellings in the United States, he was influential in establishing the Copyright Act of 1831, the first major statutory revision of U. S. copyright law. While working on a second volume of his dictionary, Webster died in 1843, the rights to the dictionary were acquired by George and Charles Merriam. Webster was born in the Western Division of Hartford to an established family.

His father Noah. His father was a farmer, though he was deacon of the local Congregational church, captain of the town's militia, a founder of a local book society. After American independence, he was appointed a justice of the peace. Webster's father never attended college. Webster's mother spent long hours teaching her children spelling and music. At age six, Webster began attending a dilapidated one-room primary school built by West Hartford's Ecclesiastical Society. Years he described the teachers as the "dregs of humanity" and complained that the instruction was in religion. Webster's experiences there motivated him to improve the educational experience of future generations. At age fourteen, his church pastor began tutoring him in Latin and Greek to prepare him for entering Yale College. Webster enrolled at Yale just before his 16th birthday, studying during his senior year with Ezra Stiles, Yale's president, his four years at Yale overlapped the American Revolutionary War and, because of food shortages and threatened British invasions, many of his classes had to be held in other towns.

Webster served in the Connecticut Militia. His father had mortgaged the farm to send Webster to Yale, but he was now on his own and had nothing more to do with his family. Webster lacked career plans after graduating from Yale in 1778 writing that a liberal arts education "disqualifies a man for business", he taught school in Glastonbury, but the working conditions were harsh and the pay low. He quit to study law. While studying law under future U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth, Webster taught full-time in Hartford—which was grueling, impossible to continue, he quit his legal studies for lapsed into a depression. As the Revolutionary War was still going on, he could not find work as a lawyer, he received a master's degree from Yale by giving an oral dissertation to the Yale graduating class. That year, he opened a small private school in western Connecticut, a success, he soon closed it and left town because of a failed romance. Turning to literary work as a way to overcome his losses and channel his ambitions, he began writing a series of well-received articles for a prominent New England newspaper justifying and praising the American Revolution and arguing that the separation from Britain was permanent.

He founded a private school catering to wealthy parents in Goshen, New York and, by 1785, he had written his speller, a grammar book and a reader for elementary schools. Proceeds from continuing sales of the popular blue-backed speller enabled Webster to spend many years working on his famous dictionary. Webster was by nature a revolutionary, seeking American independence from the cultural thralldom to Britain. To replace it, he sought to create a utopian America, cleansed of luxury and ostentation and the champion of freedom. By 1781, Webster had an expansive view of the new nation. American nationalism was superior to Europe because American values were superior, he claimed. America sees the absurdities—she sees the kingdoms of Europe, disturbed